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1.
Am Surg ; 88(8): 1970-1975, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limitations in available donors have dramatically reduced plasma availability over the past several decades, concurrent with increasing demand for some types of plasma. Plasma from female donors who are pregnant or taking oral contraceptives often has a green appearance, which frequently results in these units being discarded. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the hemostatic potential of green compared to standard-color plasma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma from twelve blood group-matched female and twelve male donors was obtained from the local blood center. Six of the female and all of the male units of plasma had a normal appearance (STANDARD), while six of the female units were grossly green (GREEN). The hemostatic potential was evaluated by thrombelastography (TEG), calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT), and coagulation factor level measurements. Univariate analysis was performed using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum. RESULTS: GREEN plasma was more procoagulant for all TEG values (r-value, k-time, angle, mA) when compared to STANDARD plasma. Differences were also observed in coagulation factor levels, with GREEN plasma having higher than STANDARD (factors II; VII, IX; X, XI, Protein S, and plasminogen); conversely, GREEN plasma had a longer lag time in CAT. DISCUSSION: This pilot study demonstrates that female donors with green plasma have a superior hemostatic profile than standard plasma. GREEN plasma should be further investigated for its safety profile and hemostatic potential, so if it is found to be a safe and functionally non-inferior product, it should be actively re-introduced for transfusion in bleeding patients.


Subject(s)
Hemostatics , Blood Coagulation Factors , Female , Hemostasis , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Pregnancy , Thrombelastography/methods
2.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 309, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919755

ABSTRACT

Blood clot formation induced by dysfunctional coagulation is a frequent complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a high-risk factor for severe illness and death. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in COVID-19-induced immunothrombosis. Furthermore, human cathelicidin, a NET component, can perturb the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its ACE2 receptor, which mediates viral entry into cells. At present, however, the levels of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides after SARS-CoV-2 infection and their role in COVID-19 thrombosis formation remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed coagulation function and found a decrease in thrombin time but an increase in fibrinogen level, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time in COVID-19 patients. In addition, the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 was upregulated by the spike protein and significantly elevated in the plasma of patients. Furthermore, LL-37 levels were negatively correlated with thrombin time but positively correlated with fibrinogen level. In addition to platelet activation, cathelicidin peptides enhanced the activity of coagulation factors, such as factor Xa (FXa) and thrombin, which may induce hypercoagulation in diseases with high cathelicidin peptide levels. Injection of cathelicidin peptides promoted the formation of thrombosis, whereas deletion of cathelicidin inhibited thrombosis in vivo. These results suggest that cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is elevated during SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may induce hypercoagulation in COVID-19 patients by activating coagulation factors.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation Factors , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinogen , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Thrombosis/virology
3.
Elife ; 112022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786253

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy is a significant aspect of morbidity in COVID-19 patients. The clotting cascade is propagated by a series of proteases, including factor Xa and thrombin. While certain host proteases, including TMPRSS2 and furin, are known to be important for cleavage activation of SARS-CoV-2 spike to promote viral entry in the respiratory tract, other proteases may also contribute. Using biochemical and cell-based assays, we demonstrate that factor Xa and thrombin can also directly cleave SARS-CoV-2 spike, enhancing infection at the stage of viral entry. Coagulation factors increased SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung organoids. A drug-repurposing screen identified a subset of protease inhibitors that promiscuously inhibited spike cleavage by both transmembrane serine proteases and coagulation factors. The mechanism of the protease inhibitors nafamostat and camostat may extend beyond inhibition of TMPRSS2 to coagulation-induced spike cleavage. Anticoagulation is critical in the management of COVID-19, and early intervention could provide collateral benefit by suppressing SARS-CoV-2 viral entry. We propose a model of positive feedback whereby infection-induced hypercoagulation exacerbates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation Factors , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization
4.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(16): 1323-1329, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740798

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To manage factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor-associated bleeding, andexanet alfa or 4-factor prothrombin concentrate (4F-PCC) has been used to restore hemostasis. However, literature on the outcomes for patients who received both andexanet alfa and 4F-PCC is limited. SUMMARY: We report a case series of 5 patients who received andexanet alfa plus 4F-PCC for reversal of FXa inhibitor-associated bleeding. Patients were included in this case series if they received both andexanet alfa and 4F-PCC for reversal of FXa inhibitor-associated bleeding. They were followed to either discharge or death, and in-hospital complications related to concurrent use of andexanet alfa and 4F-PCC were documented. We report an incidence of thromboembolism of 40% (2 of 5 cases) and an in-hospital mortality rate of 60% (3 of 5 cases). Taking these cases together with those in the existing literature, we found a total of 23 reported cases of safety outcomes with andexanet alfa plus 4F-PCC. The overall incidence of thromboembolism was 35% (8 of 23 cases). CONCLUSION: This case series adds to the limited literature describing the outcomes for patients receiving andexanet alfa plus 4F-PCC. We encourage other institutions to report safety data on administering both agents.


Subject(s)
Factor Xa , Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation Factors/therapeutic use , Factor Xa/therapeutic use , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715402

ABSTRACT

Platelets, which are small anuclear cell fragments, play important roles in thrombosis and hemostasis, but also actively release factors that can both suppress and induce viral infections. Platelet-released factors include sCD40L, microvesicles (MVs), and alpha granules that have the capacity to exert either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects depending on the virus. These factors are prime targets for use in extracellular vesicle (EV)-based therapy due to their ability to reduce viral infections and exert anti-inflammatory effects. While there are some studies regarding platelet microvesicle-based (PMV-based) therapy, there is still much to learn about PMVs before such therapy can be used. This review provides the background necessary to understand the roles of platelet-released factors, how these factors might be useful in PMV-based therapy, and a critical discussion of current knowledge of platelets and their role in viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Animals , Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism , Humans , Platelet Activation/physiology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 762782, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593084

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy is a frequently reported finding in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the molecular mechanism, the involved coagulation factors, and the role of regulatory proteins in homeostasis are not fully investigated. We explored the dynamic changes of nine coagulation tests in patients and controls to propose a molecular mechanism for COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Coagulation tests including prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), fibrinogen (FIB), lupus anticoagulant (LAC), proteins C and S, antithrombin III (ATIII), D-dimer, and fibrin degradation products (FDPs) were performed on plasma collected from 105 individuals (35 critical patients, 35 severe patients, and 35 healthy controls). There was a statically significant difference when the results of the critical (CRT) and/or severe (SVR) group for the following tests were compared to the control (CRL) group: PTCRT (15.014) and PTSVR (13.846) (PTCRL = 13.383, p < 0.001), PTTCRT (42.923) and PTTSVR (37.8) (PTTCRL = 36.494, p < 0.001), LACCRT (49.414) and LACSVR (47.046) (LACCRL = 40.763, p < 0.001), FIBCRT (537.66) and FIBSVR (480.29) (FIBCRL = 283.57, p < 0.001), ProCCRT (85.57%) and ProCSVR (99.34%) (ProCCRL = 94.31%, p = 0.04), ProSCRT (62.91%) and ProSSVR (65.06%) (ProSCRL = 75.03%, p < 0.001), D-dimer (p < 0.0001, χ 2 = 34.812), and FDP (p < 0.002, χ 2 = 15.205). No significant association was found in the ATIII results in groups (ATIIICRT = 95.71% and ATIIISVR = 99.63%; ATIIICRL = 98.74%, p = 0.321). D-dimer, FIB, PT, PTT, LAC, protein S, FDP, and protein C (ordered according to p-values) have significance in the prognosis of patients. Disruptions in homeostasis in protein C (and S), VIII/VIIIa and V/Va axes, probably play a role in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , Protein C/metabolism , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468496

ABSTRACT

The incidence of dengue in Latin America has increased dramatically during the last decade. Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms in dengue is crucial for the identification of biomarkers for the triage of patients. We aimed to characterize the profile of cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-18 and IL-10), chemokines (CXCL8/IL-8, CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL10/IP-10) and coagulation mediators (Fibrinogen, D-dimer, Tissue factor-TF, Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-TFPI and Thrombomodulin) during the dengue-4 epidemic in Brazil. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases had higher levels of TNF-α (p < 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.005), IL-10 (p < 0.001), IL-18 (p = 0.001), CXCL8/IL-8 (p < 0.001), CCL2/MCP-1 (p < 0.001), CXCL10/IP-10 (p = 0.001), fibrinogen (p = 0.037), D-dimer (p = 0.01) and TFPI (p = 0.042) and lower levels of TF (p = 0.042) compared to healthy controls. A principal component analysis (PCA) distinguished between two profiles of mediators of inflammation and coagulation: protective (TNF-α, IL-1ß and CXCL8/IL-8) and pathological (IL-6, TF and TFPI). Lastly, multivariate logistic regression analysis identified high aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) as independent risk factors associated with severity (adjusted OR: 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.71; p = 0.027), the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was 0.775 (95% CI 0.681-0.869) and an optimal cutoff value was 1.4 (sensitivity: 76%; specificity: 79%), so it could be a useful marker for the triage of patients attending primary care centers.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors/immunology , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Factors/classification , Brazil , Chemokines/classification , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokines/classification , Cytokines/immunology , Dengue/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19752, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454813

ABSTRACT

Although metabolic syndrome (MetS) is linked to an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the cardiac-specific risk mechanism is unknown. Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes (all MetS components) are the most common form of CVD and represent risk factors for worse COVID-19 outcomes compared to their non MetS peers. Here, we use obese Yorkshire pigs as a highly relevant animal model of human MetS, where pigs develop the hallmarks of human MetS and reproducibly mimics the myocardial pathophysiology in patients. Myocardium-specific mass spectroscopy-derived metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics enabled the identity and quality of proteins and metabolites to be investigated in the myocardium to greater depth. Myocardium-specific deregulation of pro-inflammatory markers, propensity for arterial thrombosis, and platelet aggregation was revealed by computational analysis of differentially enriched pathways between MetS and control animals. While key components of the complement pathway and the immune response to viruses are under expressed, key N6-methyladenosin RNA methylation enzymes are largely overexpressed in MetS. Blood tests do not capture the entirety of metabolic changes that the myocardium undergoes, making this analysis of greater value than blood component analysis alone. Our findings create data associations to further characterize the MetS myocardium and disease vulnerability, emphasize the need for a multimodal therapeutic approach, and suggests a mechanism for observed worse outcomes in MetS patients with COVID-19 comorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Disease Susceptibility , Metabolic Syndrome/pathology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Factors/genetics , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/veterinary , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Methyltransferases/genetics , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Platelet Aggregation , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1/genetics , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Swine , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator/genetics , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator/metabolism
9.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 172, 2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by acute clinical pathologies, including various coagulopathies that may be accompanied by hypercoagulation and platelet hyperactivation. Recently, a new COVID-19 phenotype has been noted in patients after they have ostensibly recovered from acute COVID-19 symptoms. This new syndrome is commonly termed Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). Here we refer to it as Long COVID/PASC. Lingering symptoms persist for as much as 6 months (or longer) after acute infection, where COVID-19 survivors complain of recurring fatigue or muscle weakness, being out of breath, sleep difficulties, and anxiety or depression. Given that blood clots can block microcapillaries and thereby inhibit oxygen exchange, we here investigate if the lingering symptoms that individuals with Long COVID/PASC manifest might be due to the presence of persistent circulating plasma microclots that are resistant to fibrinolysis. METHODS: We use techniques including proteomics and fluorescence microscopy to study plasma samples from healthy individuals, individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), with acute COVID-19, and those with Long COVID/PASC symptoms. RESULTS: We show that plasma samples from Long COVID/PASC still contain large anomalous (amyloid) deposits (microclots). We also show that these microclots in both acute COVID-19 and Long COVID/PASC plasma samples are resistant to fibrinolysis (compared to plasma from controls and T2DM), even after trypsinisation. After a second trypsinization, the persistent pellet deposits (microclots) were solubilized. We detected various inflammatory molecules that are substantially increased in both the supernatant and trapped in the solubilized pellet deposits of acute COVID-19 and Long COVID/PASC, versus the equivalent volume of fully digested fluid of the control samples and T2DM. Of particular interest was a substantial increase in α(2)-antiplasmin (α2AP), various fibrinogen chains, as well as Serum Amyloid A (SAA) that were trapped in the solubilized fibrinolytic-resistant pellet deposits. CONCLUSIONS: Clotting pathologies in both acute COVID-19 infection and in Long COVID/PASC might benefit from following a regime of continued anticlotting therapy to support the fibrinolytic system function.


Subject(s)
Antifibrinolytic Agents/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355048

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is currently under investigation for both treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis. The active component of CCP mediating improved outcome is commonly reported as specific antibodies, particularly neutralizing antibodies, with clinical efficacy characterized according to the level or antibody affinity. In this review, we highlight the potential role of additional factors in CCP that can be either beneficial (e.g., AT-III, alpha-1 AT, ACE2+ extracellular vesicles) or detrimental (e.g., anti-ADAMTS13, anti-MDA5 or anti-interferon autoantibodies, pro-coagulant extracellular vesicles). Variations in these factors in CCP may contribute to varied outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and undergoing CCP therapy. We advise careful, retrospective investigation of such co-factors in randomized clinical trials that use fresh frozen plasma in control arms. Nevertheless, it might be difficult to establish a causal link between these components and outcome, given that CCP is generally safe and neutralizing antibody effects may predominate.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/blood , Blood Coagulation Factor Inhibitors/blood , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , Cross Reactions , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunologic Factors/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents/blood
11.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43 Suppl 1: 36-42, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319316

ABSTRACT

The alterations in the hemostatic balance in COVID-19 patients are strongly disturbed and contribute to a high prothrombotic status. The high rate of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients goes along with derangements in coagulation laboratory parameters. Hemostasis testing has an important role in diagnosed COVID-19 patients. Elevated D-dimer levels were found to be a crucial laboratory marker in the risk assessment of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. The diagnostic approach also includes prothrombin time and platelet count. Fibrinogen might give an indication for worsening coagulopathy. Other markers (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinolysis parameters, coagulation factors, natural anticoagulants, antiphospholipid antibodies and parameters obtained by thromboelastography or thrombin generation assays) have been described as being deranged. These may help to understand the pathophysiology of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients but have currently no place in diagnosis or management in COVID-19 patients. For monitoring the heparin anticoagulant therapy, the anti-Xa assay is suggested, because the severe acute-phase reaction (high fibrinogen and high factor VIII) shortens the aPTT.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Factor Xa/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Fibrinolysis , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Count , Prothrombin Time , Thrombelastography , Thrombin/biosynthesis , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 658304, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305636

ABSTRACT

Objective: Detailed proteomic analysis in a cohort of patients with differing severity of COVID-19 disease identified biomarkers within the complement and coagulation cascades as biomarkers for disease severity has been reported; however, it is unclear if these proteins differ sufficiently from other conditions to be considered as biomarkers. Methods: A prospective, parallel study in T2D (n = 23) and controls (n = 23). A hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed and normoglycemia induced in T2D [4.5 ± 0.07 mmol/L (81 ± 1.2 mg/dl)] for 1-h, following which blood glucose was decreased to ≤2.0 mmol/L (36 mg/dl). Proteomic analysis for the complement and coagulation cascades were measured using Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer (SOMA)-scan. Results: Thirty-four proteins were measured. At baseline, 4 of 18 were found to differ in T2D versus controls for platelet degranulation [Neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (p = 0.014), Thrombospondin-1 (p = 0.012), Platelet factor-4 (p = 0.007), and Kininogen-1 (p = 0.05)], whilst 3 of 16 proteins differed for complement and coagulation cascades [Coagulation factor IX (p < 0.05), Kininogen-1 (p = 0.05), and Heparin cofactor-2 (p = 0.007)]; STRING analysis demonstrated the close relationship of these proteins to one another. Induced euglycemia in T2D showed no protein changes versus baseline. At hypoglycemia, however, four proteins changed in controls from baseline [Thrombospondin-1 (p < 0.014), platelet factor-4 (p < 0.01), Platelet basic protein (p < 0.008), and Vitamin K-dependent protein-C (p < 0.00003)], and one protein changed in T2D [Vitamin K-dependent protein-C, (p < 0.0002)]. Conclusion: Seven of 34 proteins suggested to be biomarkers of COVID-19 severity within the platelet degranulation and complement and coagulation cascades differed in T2D versus controls, with further changes occurring at hypoglycemia, suggesting that validation of these biomarkers is critical. It is unclear if these protein changes in T2D may predict worse COVID-19 disease for these patients. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT03102801.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Hypoglycemia/metabolism , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Coagulation , Case-Control Studies , Complement Activation , Factor IX/metabolism , Female , Glucose Clamp Technique , Heparin Cofactor II/metabolism , Humans , Kininogens/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Peptides/metabolism , Platelet Activation , Platelet Factor 4/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Protein C/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombospondin 1/metabolism , beta-Thromboglobulin/metabolism
14.
Cytokine ; 143: 155523, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163610

ABSTRACT

Cytokines play pleiotropic, antagonistic, and collaborative in viral disease. The high morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) make it a significant threat to global public health. Elucidating its pathogenesis is essential to finding effective therapy. A retrospective study was conducted on 71 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Data on cytokines, T lymphocytes, and other clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected from patients with variable disease severity. The effects of cytokines on the overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of patients were analyzed. The critically severe and severe patients had higher infection indexes and significant multiple organ function abnormalities than the mild patients (P < 0.05). IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the critically severe patients than in the severe and mild patients (P < 0.05). IL-6 and IL-10 were closely associated with white blood cells, neutrophils, T lymphocyte subsets, D-D dimer, blood urea nitrogen, complement C1q, procalcitonin C-reactive protein. Moreover, the IL-6 and IL-10 levels were closely correlated to dyspnea and dizziness (P < 0.05). The patients with higher IL-10 levels had shorter OS than the group with lower levels (P < 0.05). The older patients with higher levels of single IL-6 or IL-10 tended to have shorter EFS (P < 0.05), while the patients who had more elevated IL-6 and IL-10 had shorter OS (P < 0.05). The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that IL-6 was the independent factor affecting EFS. IL-6 and IL-10 play crucial roles in COVID-19 prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aging , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , Thromboembolism/pathology , Treatment Outcome
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24537, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of coagulation dysfunction in Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is inconsistent. We aimed to explore the impact of coagulation dysfunction amongst patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases from December 1, 2019 to April 27, 2020 following Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Data about coagulation (Platelets, PT, APTT, fibrin, fibrinogen degradation products, D-dimer), prevalence of coagulation dysfunction and mortality were extracted. Meta regression was used to explore the heterogeneity. RESULTS: Sixteen observational studies were included, comprising 2, 139 patients with confirmed COVID-19. More severe COVID-19 cases tended to have higher mean D-dimer (SMD 0.78, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.03, P < .001). The similar pattern occurred with PT and fibrin, with a contrary trend for PLTs. Coagulation dysfunction was more frequent in severe cases compared to less severe (SMD 0.46, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.67, P < .001). Higher mortality was associated with COVID-19-related coagulopathy (RR 10.86, 2.86 to 41.24, P < .001). Prevalence of ARDS was increased in more severe patients than less severe cases (RR 16.52, 11.27 to 24.22, P < .001). PT, fibrin and D-dimer levels elevated significantly in non-survivors during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Presence of coagulation dysfunction might be associated with COVID-19 severity, and coagulopathy might be associated with mortality. Coagulation markers including PT, fibrin and D-dimer may imply the progression of COVID-19. This illuminates the necessity of effectively monitoring coagulation function for preventing COVID-19-related coagulopathy, especially in severe patients. For the obvious heterogeneity, the quality of the evidence is compromised. Future rigorous randomized controlled trials that assess the correlation between coagulation and COVID-19 are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42020183514).


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Blood Coagulation Factors , COVID-19/complications , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
mBio ; 11(6)2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975645

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19, an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) characterized by pulmonary edema, viral pneumonia, multiorgan dysfunction, coagulopathy, and inflammation. SARS-CoV-2 uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors to infect and damage ciliated epithelial cells in the upper respiratory tract. In alveoli, gas exchange occurs across an epithelial-endothelial barrier that ties respiration to endothelial cell (EC) regulation of edema, coagulation, and inflammation. How SARS-CoV-2 dysregulates vascular functions to cause ARDS in COVID-19 patients remains an enigma focused on dysregulated EC responses. Whether SARS-CoV-2 directly or indirectly affects functions of the endothelium remains to be resolved and is critical to understanding SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and therapeutic targets. We demonstrate that primary human ECs lack ACE2 receptors at protein and RNA levels and that SARS-CoV-2 is incapable of directly infecting ECs derived from pulmonary, cardiac, brain, umbilical vein, or kidney tissues. In contrast, pulmonary ECs transduced with recombinant ACE2 receptors are infected by SARS-CoV-2 and result in high viral titers (∼1 × 107/ml), multinucleate syncytia, and EC lysis. SARS-CoV-2 infection of ACE2-expressing ECs elicits procoagulative and inflammatory responses observed in COVID-19 patients. The inability of SARS-CoV-2 to directly infect and lyse ECs without ACE2 expression explains the lack of vascular hemorrhage in COVID-19 patients and indicates that the endothelium is not a primary target of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings are consistent with SARS-CoV-2 indirectly activating EC programs that regulate thrombosis and endotheliitis in COVID-19 patients and focus strategies on therapeutically targeting epithelial and inflammatory responses that activate the endothelium or initiate limited ACE2-independent EC infection.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 infects pulmonary epithelial cells through ACE2 receptors and causes ARDS. COVID-19 causes progressive respiratory failure resulting from diffuse alveolar damage and systemic coagulopathy, thrombosis, and capillary inflammation that tie alveolar responses to EC dysfunction. This has prompted theories that SARS-CoV-2 directly infects ECs through ACE2 receptors, yet SARS-CoV-2 antigen has not been colocalized with ECs and prior studies indicate that ACE2 colocalizes with alveolar epithelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, not ECs. Here, we demonstrate that primary human ECs derived from lung, kidney, heart, brain, and umbilical veins require expression of recombinant ACE2 receptors in order to be infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, SARS-CoV-2 lytically infects ACE2-ECs and elicits procoagulative and inflammatory responses observed in COVID-19 patients. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of COVID-19 pathogenesis resulting from indirect EC activation, or infection of a small subset of ECs by an ACE2-independent mechanism, that transforms rationales and targets for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors , Endothelial Cells/virology , Inflammation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Recombinant Proteins , Vero Cells
17.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 246(6): 688-694, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971191

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread all over the world, since its discovery in 2019, Wuhan, China. This disease is called COVID-19 and already killed over 1 million people worldwide. The clinical symptoms include fever, dry cough, dyspnea, headache, dizziness, generalized weakness, vomiting, and diarrhea. Unfortunately, so far, there is no validated vaccine, and its management consists mainly of supportive care. Venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are highly prevalent in patients suffering from severe COVID-19. In fact, a prothrombotic state seems to be present in most fatal cases of the disease. SARS-CoV-2 leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines, causing immune-mediated tissue damage, disruption of the endothelial barrier, and uncontrolled thrombogenesis. Thrombin is the key regulator of coagulation and fibrin formation. In severe COVID-19, a dysfunctional of physiological anticoagulant mechanisms leads to a progressive increase of thrombin activity, which is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome development and a poor prognosis. Protease-activated receptor type 1 (PAR1) is the main thrombin receptor and may represent an essential link between coagulation and inflammation in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the potential role of PAR1 inhibition and regulation in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Receptor, PAR-1/metabolism , Thrombin/metabolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Receptor, PAR-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
19.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(2): 148-159, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919216

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound worldwide impact on the laboratory hematology community. Nevertheless, the pace of COVID-19 hematology-related research has continued to accelerate and has established the role of laboratory hematology data for many purposes including disease prognosis and outcome. The purpose of this scoping review was to assess the current state of COVID-19 laboratory hematology research. A comprehensive search of the literature published between December 1, 2019, and July 3, 2020, was performed, and we analyzed the sources, publication dates, study types, and topics of the retrieved studies. Overall, 402 studies were included in this scoping review. Approximately half of these studies (n = 202, 50.37%) originated in China. Retrospective cohort studies comprised the largest study type (n = 176, 43.89%). Prognosis/ risk factors, epidemiology, and coagulation were the most common topics. The number of studies published per day has increased through the end of May. The studies were heavily biased in favor of papers originating in China and on retrospective clinical studies with limited use of and reporting of laboratory data. Despite the major improvements in our understanding of the role of coagulation, automated hematology, and cell morphology in COVID-19, there are gaps in the literature, including biosafety and the laboratory role in screening and prevention of COVID-19. There is a gap in the publication of papers focused on guidelines for the laboratory. Our findings suggest that, despite the large number of publications related to laboratory data and their use in COVID-19 disease, many areas remain unexplored or under-reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematology/methods , Laboratories/organization & administration , Pandemics , Bibliometrics , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Cell Count , Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hematology/instrumentation , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
20.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(5): 622-625, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919277

ABSTRACT

The pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is a severe complication of coronavirus disease 2019. Since impaired coagulation and thrombosis/endotheliitis are suspected pathomechanisms, we treated 2 patients with defibrotide, a profibrinolytic, antithrombotic, antiinflammatory oligonucleotide. Symptoms resolved during treatment. Moreover, coagulation parameters indicating hypofibrinolysis and complement activation normalized. The pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is a severe complication of coronavirus disease 2019. Since impaired coagulation and thrombosis/endotheliitis are suspected pathomechanisms, 2 patients received defibrotide, a profibrinolytic, antithrombotic, antiinflammatory oligonucleotide. Symptoms resolved and hypofibrinolysis/complement activation normalized during treatment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polydeoxyribonucleotides/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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