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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(2): e36-e45, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722659

ABSTRACT

Although there are many hypotheses for the age-related difference in the severity of COVID-19, differences in innate, adaptive and heterologous immunity, together with differences in endothelial and clotting function, are the most likely mechanisms underlying the marked age gradient. Children have a faster and stronger innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2, especially in the nasal mucosa, which rapidly controls the virus. In contrast, adults can have an overactive, dysregulated and less effective innate response that leads to uncontrolled pro-inflammatory cytokine production and tissue injury. More recent exposure to other viruses and routine vaccines in children might be associated with protective cross-reactive antibodies and T cells against SARS-CoV-2. There is less evidence to support other mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the age-related difference in outcome following SARS-CoV-2 infection, including pre-existing immunity from exposure to common circulating coronaviruses, differences in the distribution and expression of the entry receptors ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and difference in viral load.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Coagulation/immunology , Child , Cross Protection , Cross Reactions , Endothelium/immunology , Humans , Patient Acuity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Load/immunology
2.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 181-188, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the effect of corticosteroids and heparin, respectively, on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' CD8+ T cells and D-dimer. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study involving 866 participants diagnosed with COVID-19, patients were grouped by severity. Generalized additive models were established to explore the time-course association of representative parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity. Segmented regression was performed to examine the influence of corticosteroids and heparin upon CD8+ T cell and D-dimer, respectively. RESULTS: There were 541 moderate, 169 severe and 156 critically ill patients involved in the study. Synchronous changes of levels of NLR, D-dimer and CD8+ T cell in critically ill patients were observed. Administration of methylprednisolone before 14 DFS compared with those after 14 DFS (ß = 0.154%, 95% CI=(0, 0.302), p=.048) or a dose lower than 40 mg per day compared with those equals to 40 mg per day (ß = 0.163%, 95% CI=(0.027, 0.295), p=.020) significantly increased the rising rate of CD8+ T cell in 14-56 DFS. CONCLUSIONS: The parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity were longitudinally correlated, and an early low-dose corticosteroid treatment accelerated the regaining of CD8+ T cell to help battle against SARS-Cov-2 in critical cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/immunology , Heparin/administration & dosage , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Linear Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
3.
Cell Immunol ; 371: 104451, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499702

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has once again brought to the forefront the existence of a tight link between the coagulation/fibrinolytic system and the immunologic processes. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease with a key role in fibrinolysis by converting plasminogen into plasmin that can finally degrade fibrin clots. tPA is released in the blood by endothelial cells and hepatocytes but is also produced by various types of immune cells including T cells and monocytes. Beyond its role on hemostasis, tPA is also a potent modulator of inflammation and is involved in the regulation of several inflammatory diseases. Here, after a brief description of tPA structure, we review its new functions in adaptive immunity focusing on T cells and antigen presenting cells. We intend to synthesize the recent knowledge on proteolysis- and receptor-mediated effects of tPA on immune response in physiological and pathological context.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fibrinolysis/immunology , Immunity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/immunology , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Models, Immunological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/metabolism
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930853, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 has become a worldwide epidemic disease and is a public health crisis. We aim to provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and assessment of severity by analyzing patients' clinical data and early laboratory results and exploring the correlation between laboratory results and clinical classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 283 cases of suspected and diagnosed COVID-19 from 16 hospitals in Jiangsu Province from January to April 2020. The routine laboratory blood examinations, T lymphocyte subsets, and biochemical and coagulation function among different populations were contrasted by t test and chi-square (χ²) test. RESULTS Cough, fever, and dyspnea could be helpful to diagnose COVID-19 infection (P<0.05). Patients who were older or had comorbidities tended to become severe and critical cases. Among all the patients, the most obvious abnormal laboratory results were higher neutrophil count, CRP, total bilirubin, BUN, CRE, APTT, PT, and D-dimer, and lower blood platelet and lymphocyte count. CD3⁺ T cell, CD4⁺ T cell, and CD8⁺ T cell counts gradually decreased with exacerbation of the disease (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Cough and fever were the most common symptom. Patients with comorbidities were in more serious condition. The detection of inflammatory indexes, coagulation function, lymphocyte subsets, and renal function can help diagnose and assess the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/blood , Cough/immunology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/immunology , Fever/virology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Young Adult
6.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(5): 319-329, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171402

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a clinical syndrome caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with severe disease show hyperactivation of the immune system, which can affect multiple organs besides the lungs. Here, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a process known as immunothrombosis, in which activated neutrophils and monocytes interact with platelets and the coagulation cascade, leading to intravascular clot formation in small and larger vessels. Microthrombotic complications may contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other organ dysfunctions. Therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing immunothrombosis may therefore be useful. Several antithrombotic and immunomodulating drugs have been proposed as candidates to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis and how it contributes to critical illness and its complications may help to improve risk stratification and develop targeted therapies to reduce the acute and long-term consequences of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/immunology , Venous Thrombosis/pathology , Blood Coagulation/immunology , Blood Platelets/immunology , Critical Illness/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Monocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
8.
Nature ; 590(7844): 29-31, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038200
9.
Shock ; 55(6): 700-716, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998566

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to a significant coagulopathy, a phenomenon termed "COVID-19 associated coagulopathy." COVID-19 has been associated with increased rates of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events, a source of significant morbidity and mortality in this disease. Further evidence suggests a link between the inflammatory response and coagulopathy associated with COVID-19. This presents a unique set of challenges for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of thrombotic complications. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current literature on laboratory coagulation disruptions associated with COVID-19 and the clinical effects of thromboembolic events including pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, peripheral arterial thrombosis, and acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19. Endothelial injury and augmented innate immune response are implicated in the development of diffuse macro- and microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19. The pathophysiology of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy is an important determinant of appropriate treatment and monitoring of these complications. We highlight the importance of diagnosis and management of dysregulated coagulation in COVID-19 to improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients with thromboembolic complications.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/therapy
10.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 35(2): 215-229, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871502

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emerging evidence points to an association between severe clinical presentation of COVID-19 and increased risk of thromboembolism. One-third of patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19 develops macrovascular thrombotic complications, including venous thromboembolism, myocardial injury/infarction and stroke. Concurrently, the autopsy series indicate multiorgan damage pattern consistent with microvascular injury. PROPHYLAXIS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: COVID-19 associated coagulopathy has distinct features, including markedly elevated D-dimers concentration with nearly normal activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and platelet count. The diagnosis may be challenging due to overlapping features between pulmonary embolism and severe COVID-19 disease, such as dyspnoea, high concentration of D-dimers, right ventricle with dysfunction or enlargement, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Both macro- and microvascular complications are associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Therefore, early recognition of coagulation abnormalities among hospitalized COVID-19 patients are critical measures to identify patients with poor prognosis, guide antithrombotic prophylaxis or treatment, and improve patients' clinical outcomes. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CLINICIANS: Most of the guidelines and consensus documents published on behalf of professional societies focused on thrombosis and hemostasis advocate the use of anticoagulants in all patients hospitalized with COVID-19, as well as 2-6 weeks post hospital discharge in the absence of contraindications. However, since there is no guidance for deciding the intensity and duration of anticoagulation, the decision-making process should be made in individual-case basis. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we review the mechanistic relationships between inflammation and thrombosis, discuss the macrovascular and microvascular complications and summarize the prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of thromboembolism in patients affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 , Patient Care Management/methods , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/therapy
11.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(12): 1668-1679, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729018

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is the clinical manifestation of the respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While primarily recognized as a respiratory disease, it is clear that COVID-19 is systemic illness impacting multiple organ systems. One defining clinical feature of COVID-19 has been the high incidence of thrombotic events. The underlying processes and risk factors for the occurrence of thrombotic events in COVID-19 remain inadequately understood. While severe bacterial, viral, or fungal infections are well recognized to activate the coagulation system, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is likely to have unique mechanistic features. Inflammatory-driven processes are likely primary drivers of coagulopathy in COVID-19, but the exact mechanisms linking inflammation to dysregulated hemostasis and thrombosis are yet to be delineated. Cumulative findings of microvascular thrombosis has raised question if the endothelium and microvasculature should be a point of investigative focus. von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its protease, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS-13), play important role in the maintenance of microvascular hemostasis. In inflammatory conditions, imbalanced VWF-ADAMTS-13 characterized by elevated VWF levels and inhibited and/or reduced activity of ADAMTS-13 has been reported. Also, an imbalance between ADAMTS-13 activity and VWF antigen is associated with organ dysfunction and death in patients with systemic inflammation. A thorough understanding of VWF-ADAMTS-13 interactions during early and advanced phases of COVID-19 could help better define the pathophysiology, guide thromboprophylaxis and treatment, and improve clinical prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Microvessels/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/etiology , ADAMTS13 Protein/metabolism , Animals , Blood Coagulation/immunology , Humans , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
12.
Drugs ; 80(14): 1383-1396, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669901

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 is responsible for the current pandemic that has led to more than 10 million confirmed cases of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) and over 500,000 deaths worldwide (4 July 2020). Virus-mediated injury to multiple organs, mainly the respiratory tract, activation of immune response with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and overactivation of the coagulation cascade and platelet aggregation leading to micro- and macrovascular thrombosis are the main pathological features of COVID-19. Empirical multidrug therapeutic approaches to treat COVID-19 are currently used with extremely uncertain outcomes, and many others are being tested in clinical trials. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has both anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects. In addition, a significant ASA-mediated antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses, including different human coronaviruses, has been documented. The use of ASA in patients with different types of infections has been associated with reduced thrombo-inflammation and lower rates of clinical complications and in-hospital mortality. However, safety issues related both to the risk of bleeding and to that of developing rare but serious liver and brain damage mostly among children (i.e., Reye's syndrome) should be considered. Hence, whether ASA might be a safe and reasonable therapeutic candidate to be tested in clinical trials involving adults with COVID-19 deserves further attention. In this review we provide a critical appraisal of current evidence on the anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antiviral effects of ASA, from both a pre-clinical and a clinical perspective. In addition, the potential benefits and risks of use of ASA have been put in the context of the adult-restricted COVID-19 population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections , Inflammation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(1): 226-231, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648995

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been linked to a higher risk of mortality compared to influenza, which is mainly due to severe secondary diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In turn, ARDS is characterized by an acute inflammation and an excessive activity of the coagulation cascade, rising the vulnerability for venous thromboembolic events. In order to investigate the relation of inflammation and the influence of coagulation factors on their release, human peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) were treated with autologous serum, heparinized plasma and different doses of fibrin. Thereafter, the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the secretome of PBMCs was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our analyses revealed autologous serum to significantly increase the secretion of cytokines and chemokines after 24 h of incubation time. Furthermore, the addition of fibrin markedly increased the secretion of cytokines and chemokines by PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Consequently, in accordance with previous studies, our study outlines that anti-coagulation may constitute a promising tool for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, reducing both, the cytokine storm, as well as the risk for thrombotic complications.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Fibrin , Inflammation , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fibrin/immunology , Fibrin/pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/therapy , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Vasc Surg ; 72(3): 799-804, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260605

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 first appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. Thought to be of zoonotic origin, it has been named SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and has spread rapidly. As of April 20, 2020, there have been >2.4 million cases recorded worldwide. The inflammatory process, cytokine storm, and lung injury that are associated with COVID-19 can put patients at an increased risk of thrombosis. The total incidence of thrombotic events in COVID-19 patients is currently uncertain. Those with more severe disease and with other risk factors, including increasing age, male sex, obesity, cancer, comorbidities, and intensive care unit admission, are at higher risk of these events. However, there is little international guidance on managing these risks in COVID-19 patients. In this paper, we explore the current evidence and theories surrounding thrombosis in these unique patients and reflect on experience from our center.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Age Factors , Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/etiology
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