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1.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been considered internationally as a treatment option for COVID-19. CCP refers to plasma collected from donors who have recovered from and made antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. To date, convalescent plasma has not been collected in South Africa. As other investigational therapies and vaccination were not widely accessible, there was an urgent need to implement a CCP manufacture programme to service South Africans. METHODS: The South African National Blood Service and the Western Cape Blood Service implemented a CCP programme that included CCP collection, processing, testing and storage. CCP units were tested for SARS-CoV-2 Spike ELISA and neutralising antibodies and routine blood transfusion parameters. CCP units from previously pregnant females were tested for anti-HLA and anti-HNA antibodies. RESULTS: A total of 987 CCP units were collected from 243 donors, with a median of three donations per donor. Half of the CCP units had neutralising antibody titres of >1:160. One CCP unit was positive on the TPHA serology. All CCP units tested for anti-HLA antibodies were positive. CONCLUSION: Within three months of the first COVID-19 diagnosis in South Africa, a fully operational CCP programme was set up across South Africa. The infrastructure and skills implemented will likely benefit South Africans in this and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Component Removal/methods , Blood Donors , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , South Africa , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 708101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365543

ABSTRACT

Background: Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), induced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggering COVID-19, can rise surprisingly high. The increase of the CRP concentration as well as a certain threshold concentration of CRP are indicative of clinical deterioration to artificial ventilation. In COVID-19, virus-induced lung injury and the subsequent massive onset of inflammation often drives pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrosis of the lung usually proceeds as sequela to a severe course of COVID-19 and its consequences only show months later. CRP-mediated complement- and macrophage activation is suspected to be the main driver of pulmonary fibrosis and subsequent organ failure in COVID-19. Recently, CRP apheresis was introduced to selectively remove CRP from human blood plasma. Case Report: A 53-year-old, SARS-CoV-2 positive, male patient with the risk factor diabetes type 2 was referred with dyspnea, fever and fulminant increase of CRP. The patient's lungs already showed a pattern enhancement as an early sign of incipient pneumonia. The oxygen saturation of the blood was ≤ 89%. CRP apheresis using the selective CRP adsorber (PentraSorb® CRP) was started immediately. CRP apheresis was performed via peripheral venous access on 4 successive days. CRP concentrations before CRP apheresis ranged from 47 to 133 mg/l. The removal of CRP was very effective with up to 79% depletion within one apheresis session and 1.2 to 2.14 plasma volumes were processed in each session. No apheresis-associated side effects were observed. It was at no point necessary to transfer the patient to the Intensive Care Unit or to intubate him due to respiratory failure. 10 days after the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test, CRP levels stayed below 20 mg/l and the patient no longer exhibited fever. Fourteen days after the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test, the lungs showed no sign of pneumonia on X-ray. Conclusion: This is the first report on CRP apheresis in an early COVID-19 patient with fulminant CRP increase. Despite a poor prognosis due to his diabetes and biomarker profile, the patient was not ventilated, and the onset of pneumonia was reverted.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Removal/methods , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
3.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 59(4): 102817, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235989

ABSTRACT

Passive immunotherapy with plasma derived from patients convalescent from SARS-CoV-2 infection can be a promising approach in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. It is important that Blood Establishments are prepared to satisfy requests for immune plasma by defining the requirements applicable to plasma donors and the standards for preparation, qualification, storage, distribution and control of use of the product. This position paper is aimed to give recommendations on biological characteristics of a plasma preparation from convalescent donors and to support the evaluation of this therapeutic approach in more rigorous investigations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Immunization, Passive , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Component Removal/methods , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Donor Selection/standards , Humans , Immune Sera/adverse effects , Immune Sera/isolation & purification , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Product Labeling , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Clin Apher ; 35(5): 460-468, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064369

ABSTRACT

The wide spread availability and use of sophisticated high-speed telecommunication networks coupled with inexpensive and easily accessible computing capacity have catalyzed the creation of new tools and strategies for healthcare delivery. Such tools and strategies are of value to apheresis medicine (AM) practitioners if they improve delivery of patient care, enhance safety during a therapeutic apheresis (TA) intervention, facilitate care access, advance technical capabilities of apheresis devices, and/or elevate quality performance within TA programs. In the past several years, healthcare delivery systems' adoption of telecommunication technologies has been fostered by organizational financial and quality improvement objectives. More recently, adoption of telehealth technologies has been catalyzed by the COVID-19 pandemic as these technologies enhance both patient and provider safety in an era of social distancing. These changes will also influence the delivery of TA services which now can be generally viewed in a tripartite model format comprised of traditional hospital-based fixed site locales, mobile TA operations and lately an evolving telemedicine remote management model now reffered to as telapheresis (TLA). This communication developed by the Public Affairs and Advocacy Committee of the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) and endorsed by its Board of Directors, reviews and describes various aspects of established and evolving electronic technologies related to TLA and the practice of AM. In subsequent companion publications, additional aspects to TLA will be explored and ASFA's vision of reasonable, regulatory compliant and high-quality TLA practices will be expounded.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Removal/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Humans , Mobile Health Units , Societies, Medical
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 1-2, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670708

ABSTRACT

The overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and subsequent thromboembolism are major problems of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA), used for ulcerative colitis, is an extracorporeal therapy designed to remove activated myeloid lineage cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that GMA decreases proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil-platelet aggregates. The effect of GMA on COVID-19 in a patient with ulcerative colitis was recently reported. The modes of action of GMA together with the findings of this case report indicate that GMA could be a relevant treatment option for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Component Removal/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Granulocytes , Monocytes , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adsorption , Adult , COVID-19 , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Neutrophils , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925020, 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-652210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel viral disease, are surprisingly high. Pulmonary inflammation with subsequent fibrosis in SARS-CoV-2 infection is strongly accelerated. Recently, we have developed CRP apheresis to selectively remove CRP from human plasma. CRP may contribute to organ failure and pulmonary fibrosis in SARS-CoV-2 infection by CRP-mediated complement and macrophage activation. CASE REPORT A 72-year-old male patient at high risk was referred with dyspnea and fever. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of throat smear revealed SARS-CoV-2 infection. CRP levels were ~200 mg/L. Two days after admission, CRP apheresis using the selective CRP adsorber (PentraSorb® CRP) was started. CRP apheresis was performed via peripheral venous access on days 2, 3, 4, and 5. Following a 2-day interruption, it was done via central venous access on days 7 and 8. Three days after admission the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit and intubated due to respiratory failure. Plasma CRP levels decreased by ~50% with peripheral (processed blood plasma ≤6000 mL) and by ~75% with central venous access (processed blood plasma ≤8000 mL), respectively. No apheresis-associated side effects were observed. After the 2-day interruption in apheresis, CRP levels rapidly re-increased (>400 mg/L) and the patient developed laboratory signs of multi-organ failure. When CRP apheresis was restarted, CRP levels and creatinine kinases (CK/CK-MB) declined again. Serum creatinine remained constant. Unfortunately, the patient died of respiratory failure on day 9 after admission. CONCLUSIONS This is the first report on CRP apheresis in a SARS-CoV-2 patient. SARS-CoV-2 may cause multi-organ failure in part by inducing an excessive CRP-mediated autoimmune response of the ancient innate immune system.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Component Removal/methods , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
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