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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1014, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma(CP) was utilized as potential therapy during COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. The study aimed at appraisal of CP transfusion safety and usefulness in COVID pneumonia. METHODS: Single arm, MEURI study design of non-randomized open label trial was conducted in five centers. Patients werecategorized as moderately severe, severe, and critical. The primary endpoint was a) improvement in clinical status and change in category of disease severity; secondary endpoint was b) CP ability to halt disease progression to invasive ventilation. CP transfused to hospitalized patients. Statistical tests including median (interquartile ranges), Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test using SPSS ver. 23, ANOVA and Chi-square test were applied for the analysis of results parameters before and after CP treatment. SOFA score was applied for multiorgan failure in severe and critical cases. RESULTS: A total of 50 adult patients; median age 58.5 years (range: 29-92 years) received CP with infusion titers; median 1:320 U/mL (Interquartile range 1:80-1:320) between April 4 to May 5, 2020. The median time from onset of symptoms to enrollment in trial was 3 to 7 days with shortness of breath and lung infiltration as severity criterion. In 35 (70%) recipients, oxygen saturation improved from 80 to 95% within 72h, with resolution of lung infiltrates. Primary endpoint was achieved in 44 (88%) recipients whereas secondary endpoint was achieved in 42 (84%). No patient experienced severe adverse events. A high SOFA score (> 7) correlated with deaths in severe and critical patients. Eight (16%) patients expired due to comorbidities; cardiac arrest in 2 (4%), multiorgan failure secondary to cytokine storm in 5 (10%) and ventilator associated complications in 1 (2%). CONCLUSION: CP transfusion can be used as a safe and useful treatment in moderately severe and severe patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial registration number is NCT04352751  ( https://www.irct.ir/search/result?query=IRCT20200414047072N1 ). Trial Registration date is 28th April 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged , Pakistan , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Infect Dis ; 224(6): 967-975, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early convalescent plasma transfusion may reduce mortality in patients with nonsevere coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This study emulates a (hypothetical) target trial using observational data from a cohort of US veterans admitted to a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facility between 1 May and 17 November 2020 with nonsevere COVID-19. The intervention was convalescent plasma initiated within 2 days of eligibility. Thirty-day mortality was compared using cumulative incidence curves, risk differences, and hazard ratios estimated from pooled logistic models with inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: Of 11 269 eligible person-trials contributed by 4755 patients, 402 trials were assigned to the convalescent plasma group. Forty and 671 deaths occurred within the plasma and nonplasma groups, respectively. The estimated 30-day mortality risk was 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0%-9.7%) in the plasma group and 6.2% (95% CI, 5.6%-7.0%) in the nonplasma group. The associated risk difference was 0.30% (95% CI, -2.30% to 3.60%) and the hazard ratio was 1.04 (95% CI, .64-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: Our target trial emulation estimated no meaningful differences in 30-day mortality between nonsevere COVID-19 patients treated and untreated with convalescent plasma. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT04545047.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Veterans , Young Adult
3.
Blood ; 136(6): 652-654, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388712
5.
J Int Med Res ; 49(8): 3000605211032814, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367644

ABSTRACT

We present a case of transfusion-related acute lung injury as a complication of convalescent plasma transfusion in a patient who presented with COVID-19-related severe acute respiratory syndrome. Despite treatment with tocilizumab, remdesivir, and intravenous steroids, worsening dyspnea prompted adjunctive treatment with convalescent plasma. Two hours after completion of the plasma transfusion, the patient developed hypoxia-induced cardiac arrest secondary to transfusion-related acute lung injury. This case sheds light on life-threatening transfusion reactions and emphasizes the need to investigate post-transfusion monitoring protocols as well as the possible role of surveillance equipment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury , Blood Component Transfusion/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 2: S36-S43, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358634

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted healthcare services worldwide. However, little has been reported regarding the impact on blood utilization. We quantified the impact of COVID-19 on blood utilization and discards among facilities reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network Hemovigilance Module. METHODS: Facilities continuously reporting data, during January 2016-June 2020, on transfused and discarded blood components, stratified by component type (red blood cells [RBC], platelets, and plasma), were included. Interrupted time-series analysis with generalized estimating equations, adjusting for facility surgical volume and seasonality, was used to quantify changes in blood utilization and discards relative to a Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services notification delaying nonessential medical procedures (March 2020). RESULTS: Seventy-two facilities included in the analyses, on average, transfused 44,548 and discarded 2,202 blood components monthly. Following the March 2020 notification and after multivariable adjustment, RBC and platelet utilization declined, -9.9% (p < .001) and -13.6% (p = .014), respectively. Discards increased for RBCs (30.2%, p = .047) and platelets (60.4%, p = .002). No statistically significant change in plasma was found. Following these abrupt changes, blood utilization and discards rebounded toward baseline with RBC utilization increasing by 5.7% (p < .001), and platelet and RBC discards decreasing -16.4% (<0.001) and -12.7 (p = .001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Following notification delaying elective surgical procedures, blood utilization declined substantially while blood discards increased, resulting in substantial wastage of blood products. Ongoing and future pandemic response efforts should consider the impact of interventions on blood supply and demand to ensure blood availability.


Subject(s)
Blood Safety , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Blood Component Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Data Collection , Delivery of Health Care , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
8.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(3): 988-992, 2021 Jun.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262719

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has started to erupt in Wuhan since December 2019, and then the cases of COVID-19 increased rapidly, the epidemic situation spreaded to most area of China. Owing to the lack of specific drugs at present, convalescent plasma therapy becomes an alternative treatment. However, the choice of the donor, suitable patients, timing of treatment, administrate dose, the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment are not clear. This article reviews the clinical studies and case reports of convalescent plasma therapy in several previous viral infectious diseases in order to provide clues for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , China , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 342, 2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232436

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The general objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that administration of convalescent plasma from donors with previous diagnosis of severe COVID-19 pneumonia is safe and associated with a decrease in all-cause in-hospital mortality among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at 30 days in comparison with standard treatment alone. The secondary objectives are as follows: (1) to assess the efficacy of convalescent plasma to reduce the length of hospitalization, (2) to assess the efficacy of convalescent plasma to reduce the length of ICU stay, and (3) to assess the efficacy of convalescent plasma on reducing the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation or ICU stay. TRIAL DESIGN: PERUCONPLASMA is a IIb phase open label, randomized, superiority clinical trial with 1:1 allocation taking place in real life routine clinical practice at public hospitals in Lima, Peru. Participants will be randomized to receive convalescent plasma along with local standard treatment or local standard treatment alone. After allocation, all participants will be followed for a total of 30 days or until hospital discharge, whichever occurs first. PARTICIPANTS: The population for the study are patients with severe disease with a confirmed laboratory test for SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized in 3 tertiary-care hospitals in Lima, Peru. Subjects are eligible for the trial if they meet all of the following inclusion criteria: 1. Age 18 or older 2. Hospitalization due to COVID-19 with laboratory confirmation (either with serologic, molecular, or antigen test along with a compatible clinical presentation) 3. Severe or critical COVID-19 disease Severe illness was defined by 2 or more of the following: Respiratory rate of 22 or more Hypoxemia with oxygen saturation equal or less than 93% Abnormal blood gas analysis (PaO2 < 60 mmHg, PaCO2 > 50 mmHg, or Pa/FiO2 < 300) Critical disease was defined by either: Mechanical ventilation requirement less than 72 h. Shock. 4. Capacity to provide informed consent (patient or patient's direct relative) 5. Availability of convalescent plasma units compatible with ABO blood type of the subject. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Subjects are not eligible for the trial if they meet any of the following criteria: 1. Contraindication for transfusion (e.g., prior anaphylaxis, congestive heart failure) 2. Hemodynamic instability (PA < 60 mmHg refractory to vasopressors) 3. Uncontrolled concomitant infections\ 4. Stupor or coma 5. Platelets < 50,000/µL or disseminated intravascular coagulation 6. Serum creatinine > 3.5 mg/dL or dialysis requirement 7. Total bilirubin > 6 mg/dL or jaundice of unknown etiology 8. Myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome 9. Active or recent (< 7 days) intracranial hemorrhage 10. Pregnancy Donors: The donors have to meet the following criteria: male between 30 and 60 years with a previous diagnosis of severe COVID-19-associated pneumonia within the last 3 months, with resolution of symptoms of at least 28 days. The rationale for including donors with severe disease is to maximize the probability of collecting convalescent plasma units with high titer of neutralizing antibodies, as the technology to measure this specific type of antibodies is not routinely available in Peru. Aliquots of plasma will be stored for future quantification of neutralizing antibodies. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Convalescent plasma from donors with previous severe COVID-19 is the investigational medical product. The experimental group will receive 1 to 2 units of 200 to 250 ml of convalescent plasma along with local standard treatment. The control group will receive local standard treatment alone. The participants randomized to plasma will have evaluations at 6 h and 24 h to specifically evaluate possible post transfusion events. All the participants will be evaluated at day 3, day 7, and day 30 after enrolment. MAIN OUTCOMES: Safety outcome: Incidence of serious adverse reactions related to convalescent plasma transfusion within 24 h after convalescent plasma administration. Efficacy outcomes: Mortality from any cause during hospitalization at 30 days post randomization. Length of hospitalization at 30 days post randomization or until hospital discharge. Duration of mechanical ventilation at 30 days post randomization or until hospital discharge. Length of hospitalization in an intensive care unit at 30 days post randomization or until hospital discharge. Exploratory: Oxygen requirement evolution at days 3 and 7. Score Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) evolution at days 3 and 7. Dynamics of inflammatory marker (lymphocyte, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) evolution at days 3 and 7. Proportion of patients progressing to multi-organ failure at 30 days post randomization or until hospital discharge. Proportion of transfusion related adverse reactions at 30 days post randomization or until hospital discharge. RANDOMIZATION: Randomization will be carried out within the electronic case report form (eCRF) in 1:1 ratio (receive plasma/control) in a randomization process established by blocks of size 2, 4, and 6. Allocation to the treatment arm of an individual patient will not be available to the investigators before completion of the whole randomization process. Randomization blocks will be performed with "ralloc", Stata's randomization process v.16.0. Randomization through the eCRF will be available 24 h every day. BLINDING (MASKING): Both the participants and study staff will be aware of the allocated intervention. Blinded statistical analysis will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size was calculated using the Fleiss formula with continuity correction to detect a mortality reduction from 50 to 20% between the two treatment arms with a confidence level of 95% and a power of 80%. Based on this information, a total of 45 patients per arm would be needed. After adjustment for a drop-out rate of 10% after enrolment, a total of 50 patients per arm (100 patients in total) will be enrolled. TRIAL STATUS: Current protocol version: 5.0 dated January 04, 2021. Recruitment started on September 21, 2020, and is expected to finish by the end of March 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Peruvian Register of Clinical Trials (REPEC) ID: PER-016-20, registered on June 27, 2020. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT04497324 , registered on August 4, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Peru , Plasma , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 343, 2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Currently, there are no approved treatments for early disease stages of COVID-19 and few strategies to prevent disease progression after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma (CP) or camostat mesylate administered within 72 h of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in adult individuals with pre-existing risk factors at higher risk of getting seriously ill with COVID-19. Camostat mesylate acts as an inhibitor of the host cell serine protease TMPRSS2 and prevents the virus from entering the cell. CP represents another antiviral strategy in terms of passive immunization. The working hypothesis to be tested in the RES-Q-HR study is that the early use of CP or camostat mesylate reduces the likelihood of disease progression to (modified) WHO stages 4b-8 in SARS-CoV-2-positive adult patients at high risk of moderate or severe COVID-19 progression. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is a 4-arm (parallel group), multicenter, randomized (2:2:1:1 ratio), partly double-blind, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma (CP) or camostat mesylate with control or placebo in adult patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection and high risk for progression to moderate/severe COVID-19. Superiority of the intervention arms will be tested. PARTICIPANTS: The trial is conducted at 10-15 tertiary care centers in Germany. Individuals aged 18 years or above with ability to provide written informed consent with SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by PCR within 3 days or less before enrolment and the presence of at least one SARS-CoV-2 symptom (such as fever, cough, shortness of breath, sore throat, headache, fatigue, smell/and or taste disorder, diarrhea, abdominal symptoms, exanthema) and symptom duration of not more than 3 days. Further inclusion criteria comprise: Presence of at least one of the following criteria indicating increased risk for severe COVID-19: Age > 75 years Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or pulmonary fibrosis BMI > 40 kg/m2 Age > 65 years with at least one other risk factor (BMI > 35 kg/m2, coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) with GFR < 60 ml/min but ≥ 30 ml/min, diabetes mellitus, active tumor disease) BMI > 35 kg/m2 with at least one other risk factor (CAD, CKD with GFR < 60 ml/min but ≥ 30 ml/min, diabetes mellitus, active tumor disease) Exclusion criteria: 1. Age < 18 years 2. Unable to give informed consent 3. Pregnant women or breastfeeding mothers 4. Previous transfusion reaction or other contraindication to a plasma transfusion 5. Known hypersensitivity to camostat mesylate and/or severe pancreatitis 6. Volume stress due to CP administration would be intolerable 7. Known IgA deficiency 8. Life expectancy < 6 months 9. Duration SARS-CoV-2 typical symptoms > 3 days 10. SARS-CoV-2 PCR detection older than 3 days 11. SARS-CoV-2 associated clinical condition ≥ WHO stage 3 (patients hospitalized for other reasons than COVID-19 may be included if they fulfill all inclusion and none of the exclusion criteria) 12. Previously or currently hospitalized due to SARS-CoV-2 13. Previous antiviral therapy for SARS-CoV-2 14. ALT or AST > 5 x ULN at screening 15. Liver cirrhosis > Child A (patients with Child B/C cirrhosis are excluded from the trial) 16. Chronic kidney disease with GFR < 30 ml/min 17. Concurrent or planned anticancer treatment during trial period 18. Accommodation in an institution due to legal orders (§40(4) AMG). 19. Any psycho-social condition hampering compliance with the study protocol. 20. Evidence of current drug or alcohol abuse 21. Use of other investigational treatment within 5 half-lives of enrolment is prohibited 22. Previous use of convalescent plasma for COVID-19 23. Concomitant proven influenza A infection 24. Patients with organ or bone marrow transplant in the three months prior to screening visit INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Participants will be randomized to the following 4 groups: 1) Convalescent plasma (CP), 2 units at screening/baseline visit (day 0) or day 1; CP is defined by the presence of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with titers ≥ 1:160; individuals with body weight ≥ 150 kg will receive a third unit of plasma on day 3 2) Camostat mesylate (200 mg per capsule, one capsule taken each in the morning, afternoon and evening on days 1-7) 3) Standard of care (SOC, control for CP) 4) Placebo (identical in appearance to camostat mesylate capsules, one capsule taken each morning, afternoon and evening on days 1-7; for camostat mesylate control group) Participants will be monitored after screening/baseline on day 3, day 5, day 8, and day 14. On day 28 and day 56, telephone visits and on day 90, another outpatient visit are scheduled. Adverse events and serious adverse events will be monitored and reported until the end of the study. An independent data safety monitoring committee will review trial progression and safety. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint of the study is the cumulative number of individuals who progress to or beyond category 4b on the modified WHO COVID-19 ordinal scale (defined as hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia and additional oxygen demand via nasal cannula or mask) within 28 days after randomization. RANDOMIZATION: Participants will be randomized using the Alea-Tool ( aleaclinical.com ) in a 2:2:1:1 ratio to the treatment arms (1) CP, (2) camostat mesylate, (3) standard of care (SoC), and (4) placebo matching camostat mesylate. Randomization will be stratified by study center. BLINDING (MASKING): The camostat mesylate treatment arm and the respective placebo will be blinded for participants, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes. The treatment arms convalescent plasma and standard of care will not be blinded and thus are open-labeled, unblinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): Overall, n = 994 participants will be randomized to the following groups: n = 331 to convalescent plasma (CP), n = 331 to camostat mesylate, n = 166 to standard of care (SoC), and n = 166 to placebo matching camostat mesylate. TRIAL STATUS: The RES-Q-HR protocol (V04F) was approved on the 18 December 2020 by the local ethics committee and by the regulatory institutions PEI/BfARM on the 2 December 2020. The trial was opened for recruitment on 26 December 2020; the first patient was enrolled on 7 January 2021 and randomized on 8 January 2021. Recruitment shall be completed by June 2021. The current protocol version RES-Q HR V05F is from 4 January 2021, which was approved on the 18 January 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number 2020-004695-18 . Registered on September 29, 2020. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT04681430 . Registered on December 23, 2020, prior to the start of the enrollment (which was opened on December 26, 2020). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol (V05F) is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Esters , Female , Germany , Guanidines , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mesylates , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Plasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224254

ABSTRACT

More than one year into the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, healthcare systems across the world continue to be overwhelmed with soaring daily cases. The treatment spectrum primarily includes ventilation support augmented with repurposed drugs and/or convalescent plasma transfusion (CPT) from recovered COVID-19 patients. Despite vaccine variants being recently developed and administered in several countries, challenges in global supply chain logistics limit their timely availability to the wider world population, particularly in developing countries. Given the measured success of conventional CPT in treating several infections over the past decade, recent studies have reported its effectiveness in decreasing the duration and severity of COVID-19 symptoms. In this review, we conduct a literature search of published studies investigating the use of CPT to treat COVID-19 patients from January 2020 to January 2021. The literature search identified 181 records of which 39 were included in this review. A random-effects model was used to aggregate data across studies, and mortality rates of 17 vs. 32% were estimated for the CPT and control patient groups, respectively, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.49. The findings indicate that CPT shows potential in reducing the severity and duration of COVID-19 symptoms. However, early intervention (preferably within 3 days), recruitment of donors, and plasma potency introduce major challenges for its scaled-up implementation. Given the low number of existing randomized clinical trials (RCTs, four with a total of 319 patients), unanticipated risks to CPT recipients are highlighted and discussed. Nevertheless, CPT remains a promising COVID-19 therapeutic option that merits internationally coordinated RCTs to achieve a scientific risk-benefit consensus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/trends , Pandemics , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
12.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(4): 103129, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195468

ABSTRACT

Call back as a procedure to report post donation symptoms or illness by donors has been established since 2009 in Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO). During the first phase of COVID-19 outbreak, all blood donors were requested to report any respiratory infection symptoms after donation. The study investigated the callback data of COVID-19 in Tehran Blood Center during the first 3 months of the outbreak in Iran. The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of post donation COVID-19 related call back reports and determine its implications for blood donors and patients. A telephone interview was conducted with donors who had reported COVID-19 symptoms. Some questions were asked to evaluate donor's health at the time of blood donation. The donors categorized into three groups: laboratory-confirmed, suspected, and COVID-19 irrelevant based on their answers. In cases that the blood component obtained from a laboratory-confirmed donor had been released, the hospital was notified and asked to follow up the recipient for COVID-19. The results showed 30 donors (0.08 %) had callback related to COVID-19 and 76.63 % of the obtained component was disposed. The results also showed that only one donor had a laboratory-confirmed result with the RBC unit processed from her whole blood released for transfusion. The RBC unit recipient did not show any signs or symptoms of infection during a 46-day follow-up. Concluded that callback system was effective to remove most of the components obtained from the donors who reported to be COVID-19 suspected or confirmed. Moreover, the result did not support virus transmission through blood transfusion.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Safety , Blood-Borne Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Donor Selection , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Blood Component Transfusion/adverse effects , Blood Component Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Erythrocyte Transfusion/adverse effects , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Interviews as Topic , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Valve Stenosis/surgery , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
13.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(3): 321-329, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174514

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether convalescent plasma therapy is beneficial to patients with severe acute respiratory infections and gave hints to the management of COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane library was conducted for all eligible studies range from inception to February 29, 2020. Studies with control group were included. Treatment group received convalescent plasma therapy, and control group may receive any therapy other than convalescent plasma therapy. Odds ratios (ORs), mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled for categorical and continuous outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1997 patients from 13 studies were included, and seven studies were prospectively designed. Pooled analysis indicated convalescent plasma treatment significantly reduced the mortality by 51% (OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.67). Subgroup analyses by publication time, study design, and influenza A revealed similar results. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the results were stable. In addition, convalescent plasma therapy reduced mechanical ventilation requirement (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.59), while it was not associated with less use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 0.83 to 4.83) and shorter length of hospital stay (MD: -2.20, 95% CI: -4.98 to 0.57days). Pooled estimates showed there was no difference in serious adverse effects between the convalescent plasma treatment and control groups (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.50 to 1.13). CONCLUSION: Convalescent plasma therapy significantly reduced the mortality and mechanical ventilation requirements of patients with virus-induced severe acute respiratory infections, without serious adverse effects. More studies are needed to explore whether this treatment can be extrapolated into COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
14.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(8): 2181-2191, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173991

ABSTRACT

Evaluating the effect of convalescent plasma (CP) on some cytokine storm indices in severe COVID-19 patients. Totally, 62 patients were randomly assigned into two groups for this clinical trial. Patients in the intervention group received one unit (500 mL) plasma on the admission day plus standard drugs while the controls merely received standard treatments. Eventually, primary and secondary outcomes were evaluated. In the CP group, compared with controls, the mean levels of lymphocytes and IL-10 significantly increased while the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ decreased (p < 0.05). The length of in-hospital stay, and mortality rate did not significantly reduce in the CP group compared with controls (p > 0.05) while WHO severity scores remarkably improved (p = 0.01), despite the higher frequency of underlying diseases among the CP group (66.7%) vs. controls (33.3%). Although CP has a remarkable immunomodulatory and antiviral potential to improve the cytokine storm and disease severity in COVID-19 patients, it did not considerably affect the mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
15.
Cir Cir ; 89(2): 269-274, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158505

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: En diciembre de 2019 se identificó en la ciudad de Wuhan, China, un nuevo beta coronavirus, el SARS-CoV-2, como agente causal de neumonía grave, conocida como COVID-19, lo cual ha provocado medidas estrictas de aislamiento, cierre de programas de trasplante hepático y la necesidad de modificar los protocolos de tratamiento. OBJETIVO: Documentar la información publicada sobre el impacto de la COVID-19 en la población con antecedente de trasplante hepático y establecer un protocolo de tratamiento. MÉTODO: Se buscaron en PubMed los términos MeSH "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "trasplante hepático" y "tratamiento". RESULTADOS: Hasta el momento se ha demostrado en la población con trasplante hepático una mayor facilidad para adquirir el virus, sin una diferencia en la mortalidad al compararla con la población general. La inmunosupresión debe continuar, sin suspender los inhibidores de la calcineurina. Del tratamiento específico, los esteroides son los que han demostrado el mayor beneficio clínico y una disminución de la mortalidad. CONCLUSIÓN: El trasplante hepático no se asocia de manera independiente a una mayor mortalidad. Otros factores, además del trasplante, deben tomarse en cuenta al momento de establecer la gravedad. BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a new beta coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified in the city of Wuhan, China, as a causative agent of severe pneumonia, known as COVID-19, which has led to strict isolation measures, closure of liver transplantation programs and the need to modify treatment protocols. OBJECTIVE: Document the information published so far on the impact of COVID-19 in the population with a history of liver transplantation and establish a treatment protocol. METHOD: MeSH terms were searched for "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "liver transplantation" and "treatment". RESULTS: Up to now, a greater ease in acquiring the virus has been shown in the liver transplant population, without a difference in mortality when compared to the general population. Immunosuppression should continue at the minimum tolerated levels, without suspending calcineurin inhibitors. Of the specific treatment, steroids are those that have shown the greatest clinical benefit and decreased mortality. CONCLUSION: Liver transplantation is not independently associated with higher mortality. Factors other than transplantation must be taken into account when considering the risk of severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Transplantation , Pandemics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/mortality , Waiting Lists , Withholding Treatment
16.
Transfusion ; 61(6): 1705-1709, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In late 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus emerged in China and quickly spread into a worldwide pandemic. Prior to the development of specific drug therapies or a vaccine, more immediately available treatments were sought including convalescent plasma. A potential improvement from convalescent plasma could be the preparation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune globulin (hIVIG). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Convalescent plasma was collected from an existing network of plasma donation centers. A caprylate/chromatography purification process was used to manufacture hIVIG. Initial batches of hIVIG were manufactured in a versatile, small-scale facility designed and built to rapidly address emerging infectious diseases. RESULTS: Processing convalescent plasma into hIVIG resulted in a highly purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) product with more concentrated neutralizing antibody activity. hIVIG will allow for the administration of greater antibody activity per unit of volume with decreased potential for several adverse events associated with plasma administration. IgG concentration and IgG specific to SARS-CoV-2 were increased over 10-fold from convalescent plasma to the final product. Normalized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay activity (per mg/ml IgG) was maintained throughout the process. Protein content in these final product batches was 100% IgG, consisting of 98% monomer and dimer forms. Potentially hazardous proteins (IgM, IgA, and anti-A, anti-B, and anti-D) were reduced to minimal levels. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple batches of anti-SARS-CoV-2 hIVIG that met regulatory requirements were manufactured from human convalescent plasma. The first clinical study in which the hIVIG will be evaluated will be Inpatient Treatment with Anti-Coronavirus Immunoglobulin (ITAC) [NCT04546581].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , ABO Blood-Group System/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , Blood Donors , Blood Specimen Collection/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pandemics
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(6): 1854-1857, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121487

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the health and healthcare of individuals of all ages worldwide. There have been multiple reports and reviews documenting a milder effect and decreased morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population, but there have only been a small number of reports discussing the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the setting of an inborn error of metabolism (IEM). Here, we report two patients with underlying metabolic disorders, propionic acidemia and glutaric aciduria type 1, and discuss their clinical presentation, as well as their infectious and metabolic management. Our report demonstrates that individuals with an underlying IEM are at risk of metabolic decompensation in the setting of a COVID-19 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 virus does not appear to cause a more severe metabolic deterioration than is typical.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Brain Diseases, Metabolic/complications , COVID-19/complications , Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase/deficiency , Propionic Acidemia/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acidosis/etiology , Acidosis/therapy , Acidosis, Lactic/etiology , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Combined Modality Therapy , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Energy Intake , Enteral Nutrition , Female , Fluid Therapy , Glucose/administration & dosage , Glucose/adverse effects , Humans , Hyperammonemia/etiology , Hyperammonemia/therapy , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Infant , Insulin/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pancytopenia/etiology , Pancytopenia/therapy , Renal Dialysis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
19.
Transfusion ; 61(3): 722-729, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084456

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Spikes in the demand for blood components represent a substantial challenge to transfusion services. Simple metrics for characterizing volatility in blood components within the hospital transfusion service have not been established. METHODS: We measured the volatility of demand for blood services at a large academic urban general hospital over a 6-month period from July 2019 to December 2019 prior to the SARS-CoV2 pandemic. RESULTS: Among 4416 consecutive hours assessed, there were 693 h (16%) with spikes in demand for blood components with a mean (sd) of 3.8 (2.7) spikes/day. Spikes in demand were frequently clustered. The median number of hours between spikes differed by shift (6 h for days; 3 h for evenings; 3 h for nights). The percentage of shift hours with demand spikes also differed (9% day; 19% evening; 18% night). During the study, 32,447 components were distributed to 19,431 patients. Of these, 11,819 components (36%) were distributed during hours of peak demand. Hours with a simultaneous spike in both component demand and patient demand occurred in 5% of hours or approximately once each day. CONCLUSION: Demand for transfusion services was highly volatile in an unpredictable fashion. We provide an approach that could be used to benchmark spikes in demand for blood services at hospitals. Consideration of the frequency, unpredictability, and magnitude of spikes in demand may be relevant for hemovigilance programs and for strategies to determine the laboratory staffing needed for good patient care.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/therapy , Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Blood Safety , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , Hospitals , Humans , Time Factors , Volatilization
20.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(4): 746-754, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076937

ABSTRACT

There is currently no vaccine available and no specific medication against Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19). The treatment is mainly based on support measures. In this context, several potentially useful therapies have been approved for use in clinical trials, such as convalescent plasma transfusion (CPT). PubMed was searched for studies on convalescent plasma and COVID-19, SARS or MERS. Studies on clinical efficacy in diseases caused by other coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) showed clinical improvement, increase of neutralizing antibodies, decreased mortality and absence of adverse events during and after treatment. We found 13 studies on this type of treatment used in patients with severe and critical COVID-19. Despite limitations regarding methodology, number of patients and the protocols for the analysis of donors' convalescent plasma, patients who received CPT showed clinical improvement, improvement of ventilatory patterns, resolution of lung injuries, decreased mortality, improvement of laboratory parameters, increase of neutralizing antibodies, decreased viral load and low frequency of adverse events.


Actualmente no existe vacuna disponible ni medicación específica contra la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). El tratamiento se basa fundamentalmente en medidas de soporte. En este contexto, se han aprobado múltiples terapias de potencial utilidad para su uso en ensayos clínicos, como la transfusión de plasma convaleciente (TPC). Se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed de estudios sobre plasma convaleciente y COVID-19, SARS o MERS. Los estudios sobre la eficacia clínica en enfermedades causadas por otros coronavirus (SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV) evidenciaron mejoría clínica, aumento de anticuerpos neutralizantes, disminución de la mortalidad y ausencia de eventos adversos durante y después del tratamiento. En el caso de la COVID-19, se encontraron 13 estudios en pacientes con la COVID-19 grave y crítica. Aunque existen limitaciones en la metodología, en el número de pacientes y en los protocolos para el análisis del plasma convaleciente de los donantes, los pacientes que recibieron TPC evidenciaron mejoría clínica, mejoría de patrones ventilatorios, resolución de lesiones pulmonares, disminución de mortalidad, mejoría de parámetros laboratoriales, aumento de anticuerpos neutralizantes, disminución de carga viral y baja frecuencia de eventos adversos.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Blood Component Transfusion/methods , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load/immunology
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