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1.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 20(5): 423-428, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188054

ABSTRACT

Background: Antibodies with the specialized ability to fight infection can be found in the blood of individuals who have recovered from or have been vaccinated against COVID-19. As a result, plasma from these individuals could be used to treat critically ill patients. This treatment is known as convalescent plasma (CCP) therapy. Methods: Plasma units from 1555 consented healthy blood bank donors were collected from February to September 2021. Blood units were tested for the quantitative determination of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus using one of the following assays based on the availability of the kits: The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay or the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay. Results: Among the tested donors, 1027 participants tested positive for neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies (66.04%). There were 484 donors whose plasma qualified to be used for CCP therapy (47.13%) and 214 CCP units were stored in the COVID-19 convalescent biobank. Conclusion: We were able to identify and store 214 fresh frozen plasma units qualified for CCP-plasma therapy for COVID-19 patients according to World Health Organization standards. Hence, we established the first COVID-19-convalescent plasma data and plasma biobank for treating COVID-19-infected cancer patients in Jordan and the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Antibodies, Viral , Jordan , Biological Specimen Banks , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Blood Donors , Immunoglobulin G , Plasma
2.
Transfusion ; 60(5): 908-911, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first coronavirus (COVID-19) case was reported in United States in the state of Washington, approximately 3 months after the outbreak in Wuhan, China. Three weeks later, the US federal government declared the pandemic a national emergency. The number of confirmed COVID-19 positive cases increased rather rapidly and changed routine daily activities of the community. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This brief report describes the response from the hospital, the regional blood center, and the hospital-based transfusion services to the events that took place in the community during the initial phases of the pandemic. RESULTS: In Washington State, the first week of March started with four confirmed cases and ended with 150; by the end of the second week of March there were more than 700 cases of confirmed COVID-19. During the first week, blood donations dropped significantly. Blood units provided from blood centers of nonaffected areas of the country helped keep inventory stable and allow for routine hospital operations. The hospital-based transfusion service began prospective triaging of blood orders to monitor and prioritize blood usage. In the second week, blood donations recovered, and the hospital postponed elective procedures to ensure staff and personal protective equipment were appropriate for the care of critical patients. CONCLUSION: As community activities are disrupted and hospital activities switch from routine operations to pandemic focused and urgent care oriented, the blood supply and usage requires a number of transformations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Transfusion , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Hospital Planning , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277650, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140658

ABSTRACT

Lithuania has a long history of remunerated donations. The first steps towards voluntary, non-remunerated blood and blood component donations started in 2004. Lithuania achieved 99.98% voluntary non-remunerated donations (VNRDs) in 2020. This study aimed to assess the risk of transfusion-transmitted infectious (TTI) disease markers for remunerated donations in comparison with VNRDs in Lithuania from 2013 to 2020. Data were obtained from the Lithuanian Blood Donor Register. The prevalence was calculated as the rate between the number of confirmed positive results for all TTI disease markers (serological anti-HCV, HBsAg, Ag/anti-HIV 1 and 2, and syphilis, and/or HCV, HBV, and HIV-1 NAT) per 100 donations. The relative risk of infectious disease markers for remunerated donations was then estimated. In total, 796310 donations were made. Altogether, 2743 donations were positive for TTI markers as follows: HCV, 1318; HBV, 768; syphilis, 583; and HIV 1 and 2, 74. The prevalence of confirmed TTI markers were 2.86, 0.97, 0.18, and 0.04 per 100 first-time remunerated donations, first-time VNRDs, repeat remunerated donations, and repeat VNRDs, respectively. Remunerated first-time and repeat donations had a statistically higher prevalence of TTI disease markers than VNRDs. First-time and repeat remunerated donations had statistically significantly higher relative risks of confirmed TTI disease markers than VNRD. In conclusion, the risks of TTI disease markers for remunerated first-time and repeat blood and its component donations are significantly higher than those for VNRDs.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Syphilis , Transfusion Reaction , Humans , Blood Donors , Syphilis/epidemiology , Lithuania/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1027924, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119762

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the duration and breadth of antibodies elicited by inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations in healthy blood donors. Methods: We performed serological tests on 1,417 samples from 658 blood donors who received two (n=357), or three (n=301) doses of COVID-19 inactivated vaccine. We also accessed the change in antibody response before and after booster vaccination in 94 participants and their neutralization breadth to the current variants after the booster. Results: Following vaccination, for either the 2- or 3-dose, the neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) peaked with about 97% seropositivity approximately within one month but subsequently decreased over time. Of plasmas collected 6-8 months after the last immunization, the nAb seropositivities were 37% and 85% in populations with 2-dose and 3-dose vaccinations, respectively. The nAbs of plasma samples (collected between 2-6 weeks after the 3rd dose) from triple-vaccinated donors (n=94) showed a geometric mean titer of 145.3 (95% CI: 117.2 to 180.1) against the ancestral B.1, slightly reduced by 1.7-fold against Delta variant, but markedly decreased by 4-6 fold in neutralizing Omicron variants, including the sub-lineages of BA.1 (5.6-fold), BA.1.1 (6.0-fold), BA.2 (4.2-fold), B.2.12.1 (6.2-fold) and BA.4/5 (6.5-fold). Conclusion: These findings suggested that the 3rd dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine prolongs the antibody duration in healthy populations, but the elicited-nAbs are less efficient in neutralizing circulating Omicron variants.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Blood Donors , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccination
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19165, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118041

ABSTRACT

Machine learning methods are a novel way to predict and rank donors' willingness to donate blood and to achieve precision recruitment, which can improve the recruitment efficiency and meet the challenge of blood shortage. We collected information about experienced blood donors via short message service (SMS) recruitment and developed 7 machine learning-based recruitment models using PyCharm-Python Environment and 13 features which were described as a method for ranking and predicting donors' intentions to donate blood with a floating number between 0 and 1. Performance of the prediction models was assessed by the Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score in the full dataset, and by the accuracy in the four sub-datasets. The developed models were applied to prospective validations of recruiting experienced blood donors during two COVID-19 pandemics, while the routine method was used as a control. Overall, a total of 95,476 recruitments via SMS and their donation results were enrolled in our modelling study. The strongest predictor features for the donation of experienced donors were blood donation interval, age, and donation frequency. Among the seven baseline models, the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and Support vector machine models (SVM) achieved the best performance: mean (95%CI) with the highest AUC: 0.809 (0.806-0.811), accuracy: 0.815 (0.812-0.818), precision: 0.840 (0.835-0.845), and F1 score of XGBoost: 0.843 (0.840-0.845) and recall of SVM: 0.991 (0.988-0.994). The hit rate of the XGBoost model alone and the combined XGBoost and SVM models were 1.25 and 1.80 times higher than that of the conventional method as a control in 2 recruitments respectively, and the hit rate of the high willingness to donate group was 1.96 times higher than that of the low willingness to donate group. Our results suggested that the machine learning models could predict and determine the experienced donors with a strong willingness to donate blood by a ranking score based on personalized donation data and demographical details, significantly improve the recruitment rate of blood donors and help blood agencies to maintain the blood supply in emergencies.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Intention , Disease Outbreaks
8.
J Infect Dis ; 226(9): 1556-1561, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To inform public health policy, it is critical to monitor coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine effectiveness (VE), including against acquiring infection. METHODS: We estimated VE using self-reported vaccination in a retrospective cohort of repeat blood donors who donated during the first half of 2021, and we demonstrated a viable approach for monitoring VE via serological surveillance. RESULTS: Using Poisson regression, we estimated an overall VE of 88.8% (95% confidence interval, 86.2-91.1), adjusted for demographic covariates and variable baseline risk. CONCLUSIONS: The time since first reporting vaccination, age, race and/or ethnicity, region, and calendar time were statistically significant predictors of incident infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , United States , Retrospective Studies , Blood Donors , Vaccine Efficacy , Cohort Studies
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e02392022, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The inflammatory response plays a significant role in the outcome of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: We investigated plasma cytokine and chemokine concentrations in non-infected (NI), asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected blood donors (AS), and patients with severe COVID-19 (SC). RESULTS: The SC group showed significantly higher levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, and CCL5 than the AS and NI groups. The SC and AS groups had considerably greater CXCL9 and CXCL10 concentrations than the NI group. Only NI and infected people showed separate clusters in the principal component analysis. CONCLUSIONS: SC, as well as AS was characterized by an inflammatory profile.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Blood Donors , Chemokines , Cytokines
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115438, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082478

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 represents a specific challenge for voluntary transfusional systems sustained by the intrinsic motivations of blood donors. In general, health emergencies can stimulate altruistic behaviors. However, in this context, the same prosocial motivations, besides the personal health risks, could foster the adherence to social distancing rules to preserve collective health and, therefore, discourage blood donation activities. In this work, we investigate the consequences of the pandemic shock on the dynamics of new donors exploiting the individual-level longitudinal information contained in administrative data on the Italian region of Tuscany. We compare the change in new donors' recruitment and retention during 2020 with respect to the 2017-2019 period (we observe 9511 individuals), considering donors' and their municipalities of residence characteristics. Our results show an increment of new donors, with higher proportional growth for older donors. Moreover, we demonstrate that the quality of new donors, as proxied by the frequency of subsequent donations, increased with respect to previous years. Finally, we show that changes in extrinsic motivations, such as the possibility of obtaining a free antibody test or overcoming movement restrictions, cannot explain the documented increase in the number of new donors and in their performance. Therefore, our analyses indicate that the Tuscan voluntary blood donation system was effective in dealing with the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Humans , Altruism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Emergencies
12.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082168

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in late 2021, Canadian public health case/contact testing was scaled back due to high infection rates with milder symptoms in a highly vaccinated population. We monitored the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (anti-N) and spike protein (anti-S) antibodies in blood donors across Canada from September 2021 to June 2022 in 202,123 randomly selected samples. Multivariable logistic regression of anti-N positivity with month, age, sex, racialization, region, material and social deprivation (based on postal code) identified as independent predictors. Piece-wise logistic regression analysed the association between anti-S concentration and month, and anti-N/anti-S positivity. Infection-related seroprevalence (anti-N positive) was 4.38% (95% CI: 3.96, 4.81) in September reaching 50.70% (50.15, 52.16) in June; nearly 100% were anti-S positive throughout. Anti-N positivity was associated with younger age, male sex, the Alberta and Prairies regions, greater material deprivation and less social deprivation (p < 0.001). Anti-S concentration was high initially (3306 U/mL, IQR 4280 U/mL), increased to (13,659 U/mL, IQR 28,224 U/mL) by June (p < 0.001), following the pattern of deployment of the third and fourth vaccine doses and was higher in those that were anti-N positive (p < 0.001). Despite already high vaccination-related seroprevalence, infection-related seroprevalence increased dramatically with the emergence of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral , Alberta
13.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 79(5): 300-309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has challenged blood banks. In Mexico, donors decreased 22% between April and May 2020 compared to the same months in 2019. This study analyzed the effect of the strategies to recover donors (altruistic and family) in a tertiary pediatric care center during the pandemic. METHODS: The Blood Bank of the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez implemented strategies to obtain blood components to ensure self-sufficiency. The effect of these strategies on donor recovery was analyzed. RESULTS: There were 7,315 eligible donors in 2019 and 5,070 in 2020. Blood component requirements decreased from 10,037 units in 2019 to 8,619 in 2020. The strategies aimed at attracting altruistic donors managed to increase the percentage of this type of donor when comparing the months in which these strategies were applied with the same months in 2019. In addition, it was observed that the greater the number of methods used simultaneously, the higher the percentage of altruistic donors (rho = 0.846, p = 0.002). In contrast, strategies aimed at attracting family donors did not increase the number of this type of donor. CONCLUSIONS: Actions to recruit altruistic donors increased the number of this type of donor to meet the hospital's needs.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 ha representado un reto en los bancos de sangre. En México, los donadores disminuyeron el 22% entre abril y mayo del 2020 en comparación con los mismos meses del 2019. Este estudio analizó el efecto de las estrategias realizadas para recuperar donantes, altruistas y familiares, en un centro de atención pediátrica de tercer nivel durante la pandemia. MÉTODOS: El Banco de Sangre del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez implementó estrategias encaminadas a la obtención de componentes sanguíneos para asegurar la autosuficiencia. Se analizó el efecto de dichas estrategias en la recuperación de donantes. RESULTADOS: Se registraron 7,315 donadores aptos en el año 2019 y 5,070 en el 2020. Los requerimientos de componentes sanguíneos disminuyeron de 10,037 unidades en 2019 a 8,619 en 2020. Las estrategias que estaban destinadas a captar donadores altruistas lograron aumentar el porcentaje de este tipo de donadores al comparar los meses en que se aplicaron dichas estrategias con los mismos meses en el 2019. Además, se observó que, a mayor número de estrategias aplicadas de manera simultánea, mayor porcentaje de donadores altruistas (rho = 0.846, p = 0.002). Por el contrario, las estrategias con la finalidad de atraer donadores familiares no lograron aumentar la cantidad de este tipo de donadores. CONCLUSIONES: Las acciones para recabar donadores altruistas aumentaron la cantidad de este tipo de donadores para satisfacer las necesidades del hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Blood Donors , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Health Expect ; 25(6): 3192-3201, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a reduction in blood donations and limited blood supply in many countries. The theory of planned behaviour has been widely used in past studies to understand the factors influencing blood donation. However, this theory limits analyses to the individual level. Furthermore, most research on the determinants of blood donation during the COVID-19 pandemic is quantitative in nature, with relevant qualitative research being rare. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the motivators and demotivators for donating blood among current blood donors during COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Forty in-depth, individual semistructured interviews were conducted with current blood donors from December 2020 to March 2021 in Hong Kong. Thematic content analysis was adopted in the data analysis. RESULTS: The majority of the participants (n = 37) were demotivated from donating blood during the COVID-19 pandemic. Factors at the perceptual, social and institutional levels interacted to cause this reluctance. Only three participants felt more motivated to donate blood. The data revealed that sociocultural forces and government pandemic prevention policies strongly affected the participants' motivations to donate blood during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: This study presents a macro understanding of blood donation behaviour by investigating the institutional, social and perceptual factors influencing current blood donors during the COVID-19 pandemic. This adds a more comprehensive understanding of blood donation where the theory of planned behaviour is widely used in past studies. PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: The participants shared their experiences in the interviews. Their experiences provide hints for explaining the decreasing blood donation during the pandemic times.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Motivation , Pandemics , Hong Kong/epidemiology
15.
Transfus Med ; 32(3): 256-260, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053063

ABSTRACT

AIM: In the United Kingdom, organ donors/recipients are screened for evidence of human T-cell leukaemia virus type-1 and type-2 (HTLV-1/2) infections. Since the United Kingdom is a low prevalence country for HTLV infections, a screening assay with high sensitivity and specificity is required. Samples with repeat reactivity on antibody testing are sent to a reference lab for confirmatory serological and molecular testing. In the case of donor screen, this leads to delays in the release of organs and can result in wastage. We aim to assess whether a signal/cut-off (S/CO) ratio higher than the manufacturer's recommendation of 1.0 in the Abbott Architect antibody assay is a reliable measure of HTLV-1/2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a 5 year retrospective analysis of 7245 patients from which 11 766 samples were tested on the Abbott Architect rHTLV I/II assay. Reactive samples (S/CO >1) were referred for confirmatory serological and molecular detection (Western Blot and proviral DNA) at UK Health Security Agency, (formerly PHE, Colindale), the national reference laboratory. Electronic, protected laboratory and hospital patient databases were employed to collate data. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients had initially reactive samples. 42.2% (n = 19/45) had an S/CO ratio > 20, with HTLV infection confirmed in n = 18/19 and indeterminate confirmatory results in n = 1/19. No samples with an S/CO ratio <4 (48.9%, n = 22/45) or 4-20 (8.9%, n = 4/45) had positive confirmatory results on subsequent confirmatory testing. CONCLUSION: Samples with an S/CO >20 likely represent a true HTLV-1/2 infection. Reactive samples with an S/CO <4 were unlikely to confirm for HTLV infections. Interpretation of these ratios can assist clinicians in the assessment of low reactive samples and reiterates the need for faster access to confirmatory testing.


Subject(s)
Deltaretrovirus Infections , HTLV-I Infections , HTLV-II Infections , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Leukemia, T-Cell , Organ Transplantation , Blood Donors , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-I Infections/epidemiology , HTLV-II Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-II Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , Human T-lymphotropic virus 2/genetics , Humans , London , Retrospective Studies
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S254-S263, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, independently and combined ("hybrid immunity"), result in partial protection from subsequent infection and strong protection from severe disease. Proportions of the US population who have been infected, vaccinated, or have hybrid immunity remain unclear, posing a challenge for assessing effective pandemic mitigation strategies. METHODS: In this serial cross-sectional study, nationwide blood donor specimens collected during January-December 2021 were tested for anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies, and donor COVID-19 vaccination history of ≥1 dose was collected. Monthly seroprevalence induced from SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 vaccination, or both, were estimated. Estimates were weighted to account for demographic differences from the general population and were compared temporally and by demographic factors. RESULTS: Overall, 1 123 855 blood samples were assayed. From January to December 2021, the weighted percentage of donations with seropositivity changed as follows: seropositivity due to vaccination without previous infection, increase from 3.5% (95% confidence interval, 3.4%-3.7%) to 64.0%, (63.5%-64.5%); seropositivity due to previous infection without vaccination, decrease from 15.6% (15.2%-16.0%) to 11.7% (11.4%-12.0%); and seropositivity due to hybrid immunity, increase from 0.7% (0.6%-0.7%) to 18.9% (18.5%-19.3%). Combined seroprevalence from infection, vaccination, or both increased from 19.8% (19.3%-20.2%) to 94.5% (93.5%-94.0%). Infection- and vaccination-induced antibody responses varied significantly by age, race-ethnicity, and region, but not by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate substantial increases in population humoral immunity from SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 vaccination, and hybrid immunity during 2021. These findings are important to consider in future COVID-19 studies and long-term pandemic mitigation efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
17.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 82(6): 481-485, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042400

ABSTRACT

Persisting inflammation has been discovered in lungs and other parenchymatous organs of some COVID-19 convalescents. Calprotectin, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), syndecan-1 and neopterin are general key inflammatory markers, and systemically enhanced levels of them may remain after the COVID-19 infection. These inflammatory markers were therefore measured in serum samples of 129 COVID-19 convalescent and 27 healthy blood donors or employees at Oslo Blood bank, Norway. Also antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were measured, and timing of sampling and severity of infection noted. Whereas neopterin and NETs values remained low and those for syndecan-1 were not raised to statistically significant level, concentrations for calprotectin, as measured by a novel mixed monoclonal assay, were significantly increased in the convalescents. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were elevated, but did not correlate with levels of inflammatory markers. Difference between the groups in only one biomarker makes evaluation of ongoing or residual inflammation in the convalescents difficult. If there is a low-grade inflammation, it would in that case involve neutrophils.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Biomarkers , Blood Donors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Neopterin , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndecan-1
18.
Elife ; 112022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040360

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 situation in Brazil is complex due to large differences in the shape and size of regional epidemics. Understanding these patterns is crucial to understand future outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 or other respiratory pathogens in the country. Methods: We tested 97,950 blood donation samples for IgG antibodies from March 2020 to March 2021 in 8 of Brazil's most populous cities. Residential postal codes were used to obtain representative samples. Weekly age- and sex-specific seroprevalence were estimated by correcting the crude seroprevalence by test sensitivity, specificity, and antibody waning. Results: The inferred attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2020, before the Gamma variant of concern (VOC) was dominant, ranged from 19.3% (95% credible interval [CrI] 17.5-21.2%) in Curitiba to 75.0% (95% CrI 70.8-80.3%) in Manaus. Seroprevalence was consistently smaller in women and donors older than 55 years. The age-specific infection fatality rate (IFR) differed between cities and consistently increased with age. The infection hospitalisation rate increased significantly during the Gamma-dominated second wave in Manaus, suggesting increased morbidity of the Gamma VOC compared to previous variants circulating in Manaus. The higher disease penetrance associated with the health system's collapse increased the overall IFR by a minimum factor of 2.91 (95% CrI 2.43-3.53). Conclusions: These results highlight the utility of blood donor serosurveillance to track epidemic maturity and demonstrate demographic and spatial heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2 spread. Funding: This work was supported by Itaú Unibanco 'Todos pela Saude' program; FAPESP (grants 18/14389-0, 2019/21585-0); Wellcome Trust and Royal Society Sir Henry Dale Fellowship 204311/Z/16/Z; the Gates Foundation (INV- 034540 and INV-034652); REDS-IV-P (grant HHSN268201100007I); the UK Medical Research Council (MR/S0195/1, MR/V038109/1); CAPES; CNPq (304714/2018-6); Fundação Faculdade de Medicina; Programa Inova Fiocruz-CE/Funcap - Edital 01/2020 Number: FIO-0167-00065.01.00/20 SPU N°06531047/2020; JBS - Fazer o bem faz bem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
J Clin Invest ; 132(17)2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009249

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses such as influenza do not typically cause viremia; however, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in the blood of COVID-19 patients with mild and severe symptoms. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in blood raises questions about its role in pathogenesis as well as transfusion safety concerns. Blood donor reports of symptoms or a diagnosis of COVID-19 after donation (post-donation information, PDI) preceded or coincided with increased general population COVID-19 mortality. Plasma samples from 2,250 blood donors who reported possible COVID-19-related PDI were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Detection of RNAemia peaked at 9%-15% of PDI donors in late 2020 to early 2021 and fell to approximately 4% after implementation of widespread vaccination in the population. RNAemic donors were 1.2- to 1.4-fold more likely to report cough or shortness of breath and 1.8-fold more likely to report change in taste or smell compared with infected donors without detectable RNAemia. No infectious virus was detected in plasma from RNAemic donors; inoculation of permissive cell lines produced less than 0.7-7 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL and in susceptible mice less than 100 PFU/mL in RNA-positive plasma based on limits of detection in these models. These findings suggest that blood transfusions are highly unlikely to transmit SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Blood Donors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Mice , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viremia
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