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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27537, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501207

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, had health and economic results that profoundly affected communities worldwide. Investigating the seroprevalence of SARS-Cov-2 in blood donors is of a significant clinical and scientific value as it adds to knowledge about local herd immunity levels.To study the prevalence of SARS-Cov-2 infection among blood donors at a tertiary referral hospital in the north of Jordan.This is a prospective study that included all blood donors between September 2020 and March 2021. Donors' IgG antibodies were qualitatively immunoassayed to determine the antibody status against SARS-CoV-2. The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 technique was utilized.One thousand samples were tested by total antibody against SARS-CoV-2. The median age was 29 years, 96.7% were males. The seroprevalence was 14.5%, and 80% of the positive participants did not report previous COVID-19 infection. The seroprevalence of COVID-19 antibodies was less among smokers and those with an O blood group and higher among donors with an AB blood group.The prevalence of COVID-19 among healthy young blood donors at a tertiary teaching health facility in the north of Jordan was 14.5%. Smokers and those with an O blood group were less likely to be seropositive, as opposed to donors with an AB blood group.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Blood Group Antigens/immunology , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 69, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1389803

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Data were collected on 2,857 blood donors from April 14 to 27, 2020. This study reports crude prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, population weighted prevalence for the state, and prevalence adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity. Logistic regression models were used to establish the correlates of SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. For the analysis, we considered collection period and site, sociodemographic characteristics, and place of residence. RESULTS The proportion of positive tests for SARS-Cov-2, without any adjustment, was 4.0% (95%CI 3.3-4.7%), and the weighted prevalence was 3.8% (95%CI 3.1-4.5%). We found lower estimates after adjusting for test sensitivity and specificity: 3.6% (95%CI 2.7-4.4%) for the non-weighted prevalence, and 3.3% (95%CI 2.6-4.1%) for the weighted prevalence. Collection period was the variable most significantly associated with crude prevalence: the later the period, the higher the prevalence. Regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the younger the blood donor, the higher the prevalence, and the lower the education level, the higher the odds of testing positive for SARS-Cov-2 antibody. We found similar results for weighted prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Our findings comply with some basic premises: the increasing trend over time, as the epidemic curve in the state is still on the rise; and the higher prevalence among both the youngest, for moving around more than older age groups, and the less educated, for encountering more difficulties in following social distancing recommendations. Despite the study limitations, we may infer that Rio de Janeiro is far from reaching the required levels of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e173, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347909

ABSTRACT

New Zealand has a strategy of eliminating SARS-CoV-2 that has resulted in a low incidence of reported coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in New Zealand via a nationwide serosurvey of blood donors. Samples (n = 9806) were collected over a month-long period (3 December 2020-6 January 2021) from donors aged 16-88 years. The sample population was geographically spread, covering 16 of 20 district health board regions. A series of Spike-based immunoassays were utilised, and the serological testing algorithm was optimised for specificity given New Zealand is a low prevalence setting. Eighteen samples were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, six of which were retrospectively matched to previously confirmed COVID-19 cases. A further four were from donors that travelled to settings with a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, suggesting likely infection outside New Zealand. The remaining eight seropositive samples were from seven different district health regions for a true seroprevalence estimate, adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity, of 0.103% (95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.12%). The very low seroprevalence is consistent with limited undetected community transmission and provides robust, serological evidence to support New Zealand's successful elimination strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
6.
Vox Sang ; 116(6): 637-644, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319365

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus, has already affected over 99 062 people in 53 African countries and killed 3082. The pandemic threatens blood supply but we do not yet know its impact on blood donations or on the perceptions and expectations of donors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in four hospital-based blood services in Cameroon, using a survey design and focusing on the subjective and cultural aspects of donors. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we collected the participants' responses as to their understanding of COVID-19 and of current protection measures, and their expectations. Data on trends of blood donations were collected retrospectively for the period from 1st January to 30th April 2019 and the same period in 2020. RESULTS: Of 494 donors included, 432 (87·4%) were enrolled from fixed blood collection sites and 62 (12·6%) were contacted by phone. A total of 464 (93·9%) participants believed that the COVID-19 is a lung disease, but some declared it to be imaginary (7·7%), a foreign disease (8·3%) or a blood-borne disease (3·2%). The participants reported that the distribution of face masks and hydroalcoholic solutions (92·5%), social distancing and hygiene (6·3%) are the most important measures that need to be in place for safe donation. The number of blood donations dropped by 21·5% between 2019 and 2020. CONCLUSION: Most of the donors know COVID-19, its transmission routes and manifestations. In the absence of barrier measures, they perceive blood donation as a threat to their health. Distribution of masks and hydroalcoholic solution might motivate more donors and improve the blood supply.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/psychology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Cameroon/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254667, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309966

ABSTRACT

The world is currently in a pandemic of COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease-2019) caused by a novel positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ß-coronavirus referred to as SARS-CoV-2. Here we investigated rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the greater Cincinnati, Ohio, USA metropolitan area from August 13 to December 8, 2020, just prior to initiation of the national vaccination program. Examination of 9,550 adult blood donor volunteers for serum IgG antibody positivity against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein showed an overall prevalence of 8.40%, measured as 7.56% in the first 58 days and 9.24% in the last 58 days, and 12.86% in December 2020, which we extrapolated to ~20% as of March, 2021. Males and females showed similar rates of past infection, and rates among Hispanic or Latinos, African Americans and Whites were also investigated. Donors under 30 years of age had the highest rates of past infection, while those over 60 had the lowest. Geographic analysis showed higher rates of infectivity on the West side of Cincinnati compared with the East side (split by I-75) and the lowest rates in the adjoining region of Kentucky (across the Ohio river). These results in regional seroprevalence will help inform efforts to best achieve herd immunity in conjunction with the national vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio/ethnology , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
8.
Can J Public Health ; 112(4): 576-586, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A substantial proportion of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 do not experience noticeable symptoms typical of COVID-19. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of the first wave of the pandemic in Québec by measuring SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in a convenience sample of healthy blood donors and to study the association between seropositivity and the occurrence of COVID-19 symptoms. METHODS: The study design was a cross-sectional serological survey with a nested case-control study. Residual blood samples from donations collected between May 25 and July 9, 2020 (well before vaccination rollout) in the province of Québec were tested for anti-Spike RBD antibodies by ELISA. Seropositive donors and a control group of seronegative donors were questioned about prior COVID-19 symptoms. All qualified blood donors were eligible for participation. RESULTS: A total of 7691 blood donors were included in the study. After adjustments, the seroprevalence rate was 2.2% (95% CI 1.9-2.6). Seropositive donors reported one or more symptoms in a proportion of 52.2% (95% CI 44.2-60.1); this proportion was 19.1% (95% CI 13.4-26.1) among seronegative donors, suggesting that approximately 50-66% of all infections were asymptomatic. Univariate analysis of associations between symptoms and seropositivity revealed that except for rhinorrhea, all symptoms were significantly associated with seropositivity. CONCLUSION: Assuming that blood donors are fairly representative of the general adult population, this study shows that less than 3% of 18-69-year-olds have been infected during the first wave of the pandemic in the province of Québec. Our data also confirm that many infections escaped detection, including a substantial proportion that were asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quebec/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
9.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289019

ABSTRACT

The progression and distribution of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are continuously changing over time and can be traced by blood donors' serological survey. Here, we investigated the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in blood donors in Nuevo Leon, Mexico during 2020 as a strategy for the rapid evaluation of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and asymptomatic case detection. We collected residual plasma samples from blood donors who attended two regional donation centers from January to December of 2020 to identify changes in anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG prevalence. Plasma samples were analyzed on the Abbott Architect instrument using the commercial Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG chemiluminescent assay. We found a total of 99 reactive samples from 2068 analyzed plasma samples, resulting in a raw prevalence of 4.87%. Donors aged 18-49 years were more likely to be seropositive compared to those aged >50 years (p < 0.001). Weekly seroprevalence increased from 1.8% during the early pandemic stage to 27.59% by the end of the year. Prevalence was 1.46-fold higher in females compared to males. Case geographical mapping showed that Monterrey city recorded the majority of SARS-CoV-2 cases. These results show that there is a growing trend of seroprevalence over time associated with asymptomatic infection that is unnoticed under the current epidemiological surveillance protocols.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Factors , Young Adult
10.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(10): 1221-1227, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261421

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has elicited a surge in demand for serologic testing to identify previously infected individuals. In particular, antibody testing is crucial in identifying COVID-19 convalescent plasma, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration under the Emergency Use Authorization for use as passive immunotherapy for hospitalized patients infected with COVID-19. Currently, high-titer COVID-19 convalescent plasma can be qualified by Ortho's Vitros COVID-19 IgG antibody test. OBJECTIVE.­: To explore the use of an efficient testing method to identify high-titer COVID-19 convalescent plasma for use in treating COVID-19-infected patients and track COVID-19 positivity over time. DESIGN.­: We evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based method that detects antibodies specific to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) with individual and pooled plasma samples and compared its performance against the Vitros COVID-19 IgG antibody test. Using the pooled RBD-ELISA (P-RE) method, we also screened more than 10 000 longitudinal healthy blood donor samples to assess seroprevalence. RESULTS.­: P-RE demonstrates 100% sensitivity in detecting Food and Drug Administration-defined high-titer samples when compared with the Vitros COVID-19 IgG antibody test. Overall sensitivity of P-RE when compared with the Vitros COVID-19 IgG antibody test and our individual sample RBD-ELISA (I-RE) were 83% and 56%, respectively. When screening 10 218 healthy blood donor samples by P-RE, we found the seroprevalence correlated with the local infection rates with a correlation coefficient of 0.21 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS.­: Pooling plasma samples can be used to efficiently screen large populations for individuals with high-titer anti-RBD antibodies, important for COVID-19 convalescent plasma identification.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
Can J Public Health ; 112(4): 576-586, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A substantial proportion of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 do not experience noticeable symptoms typical of COVID-19. Our objectives were to evaluate the impact of the first wave of the pandemic in Québec by measuring SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in a convenience sample of healthy blood donors and to study the association between seropositivity and the occurrence of COVID-19 symptoms. METHODS: The study design was a cross-sectional serological survey with a nested case-control study. Residual blood samples from donations collected between May 25 and July 9, 2020 (well before vaccination rollout) in the province of Québec were tested for anti-Spike RBD antibodies by ELISA. Seropositive donors and a control group of seronegative donors were questioned about prior COVID-19 symptoms. All qualified blood donors were eligible for participation. RESULTS: A total of 7691 blood donors were included in the study. After adjustments, the seroprevalence rate was 2.2% (95% CI 1.9-2.6). Seropositive donors reported one or more symptoms in a proportion of 52.2% (95% CI 44.2-60.1); this proportion was 19.1% (95% CI 13.4-26.1) among seronegative donors, suggesting that approximately 50-66% of all infections were asymptomatic. Univariate analysis of associations between symptoms and seropositivity revealed that except for rhinorrhea, all symptoms were significantly associated with seropositivity. CONCLUSION: Assuming that blood donors are fairly representative of the general adult population, this study shows that less than 3% of 18-69-year-olds have been infected during the first wave of the pandemic in the province of Québec. Our data also confirm that many infections escaped detection, including a substantial proportion that were asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quebec/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1743-1747, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196459

ABSTRACT

Since the first case of COVID-19 reported in late December of 2019 in Wuhan, China, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused approximately 20 million infections and 732 thousand deaths around the world by 11 August 2020. Although the pathogen generally infects the respiratory system, whether it is present in the bloodstream and whether it poses a threat to the blood supply during the period of the outbreak is of serious public concern. In this study, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to screen total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in 2199 blood donors, who had donated blood at the Guangzhou Blood Center during the epidemic. The Ig-reactive samples were further characterized for IgA, IgG, and IgM subtypes by ELISA and viral nucleic acid by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Among the 2199 plasma samples, seven were reactive under total antibodies' screening. Further testing revealed that none of them had detectable viral nucleic acid or IgM antibody, but two samples contained IgA and IgG. The IgG antibody titers of both positive samples were 1:16 and 1:4, respectively. Our results indicated a low prevalence of past SARS-CoV-2 infection in our blood donors, as none of the tests were positive for viral nucleic acid and only 2 out of 2199 (0.09%) of samples were positive for IgG and IgA. There would be a limited necessity for the implementation of such testing in blood screening in a COVID-19 low-risk area.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , China , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , Young Adult
13.
Transfus Med ; 31(3): 149-154, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142976

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recruitment of Covid-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) donors may present as a challenge due to inexperience and differences in donor profile as compared to whole blood donation. Present study highlights the deterrents to recruiting CCP donors at a hospital based blood centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Potential CCP donors were contacted individually by telephone and a group approach through camp organisers from May to July 2020. Recruitment challenges were noted and deferrals of these recruited donors during screening and medical examination was obtained and analysed. RESULTS: Total 1165 potential CCP donors were contacted. Around 47% donors were lost due to challenges related to information storage and retrieval. Fear of health, family pressure, and fear of a new procedure were major reason (27.2%) for unwillingness to donate. The main reasons for deferral among potential donors were multiparity (38%) and being overage/underage (31.6%). Finally, 468 donors were recruited including 408 by individual approach and 60 by a group approach. From these absence of detectable COVID-19 antibodies were found in 15.4%. Few donors (9.0%) were deferred as they had not completed 28 days post recovery. CONCLUSION: The process of CCP donor recruitment differs from that of whole blood donation and requires an individualised approach with involvement of clinicians in the initial phases of the pandemic. A group approach targeting specific organisations could be adopted for a successful CCP collection program. There is a need to relook into some aspects of donor selection such as consideration of multiparous female donors and overage/underage donors after reviewing scientific evidence.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Donor Selection/statistics & numerical data , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Donor Selection/methods , Fear , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Immunization, Passive/statistics & numerical data , India , Male , Middle Aged , Parity , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127785

ABSTRACT

Intra-operative autologous blood donation is a blood conservation technique with limited evidence. We evaluated the association between intra-operative autologous blood donation and decrease in peri-operative transfusion in cardiovascular surgery based on evidence from a Japanese administrative database. We extracted the data of patients who had undergone cardiovascular surgery from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in Japan (2016-2019). Based on the surgery type, we examined the association of intra-operative autologous blood donation with the transfusion rate and amount of blood used in cardiac and aortic surgeries using multilevel propensity score matching. We enrolled 32,433 and 4,267 patients who underwent cardiac and aortic surgeries and received 5.0% and 6.7% intra-operative autologous blood donation with mean volumes of 557.68 mL and 616.96 mL, respectively. The red blood cell transfusion rates of the control and intra-operative autologous blood donation groups were 60.6% and 38.4%, respectively, in the cardiac surgery cohort (p < .001) and 91.4%, and 83.8%, respectively, in the aortic surgery cohort (p = .037). The transfusion amounts for the control and intra-operative autologous blood donation groups were 5.9 and 3.5 units of red blood cells, respectively, for cardiac surgery patients (p < .001) and 11.9 and 7.9 units, respectively, for aortic surgery patients (p < .001). Intra-operative autologous blood donation could reduce the transfusion rate or amount of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma for patients undergoing index cardiovascular surgery and could be an effective blood transfusion strategy in cardiovascular surgery for Japanese patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Blood Transfusion, Autologous/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Female , Humans , Intraoperative Care , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Multilevel Analysis , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
15.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(3): 103118, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127050

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-Coronavirus-2 pandemic has adversely affected blood supply as potential blood donors were afraid of acquiring infection in hospital settings. We aimed to compare COVID-19 seroprevalence among asymptomatic blood donors from healthcare and non-healthcare setting to analyse the difference in exposure level of each group as well as the risk of acquiring infection during the process of blood donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of whole blood donors tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was carried out after categorizing them into healthcare workers (HCW) and non-healthcare workers (NHCW). NHCW were further categorized into residents of containment and non-containment zones and seroprevalence analyzed. Seroprevalence among different ABO blood groups was also analyzed. RESULTS: 1191 blood donors were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with 9.5 % seropositivity. Significantly lower seropositivity of 3.2 % (p < 0.001) was observed among HCW as compared to 10.9 % seropositivity in NHCW. Among NHCW no difference in seropositivity was observed based on residence in containment or non-containment zone. Significantly higher (p = 0.012) seroprevalence was observed among A blood group donors (12.5 %) as compared to O blood group donors (6.8 %). CONCLUSION: Results suggests that a blood donor, in a hospital setting is less likely to be exposed to COVID-19 disease than when participating in activities of daily living. It is postulated that the lower seroprevalence among HCW as compared to NHCW reflects differences in knowledge and practice of preventive measures among these groups. The findings should instil confidence among blood donors and motivate them to donate blood without fear.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Humans , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
16.
Transfus Med ; 31(3): 200-205, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of actually Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected blood donors applying a statistical forecasting model. BACKGROUND: Following the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, a drop in blood donation has been observed. It is crucial to determine the actual number of potential SARS-CoV-2-positive donors to define the measures and ensure adequate blood supply. METHODS: The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity, calculated on the general population, was applied to the donor population by estimating the number of positive subjects. The calculation model was validated by the linear interpolation method. The number of blood units actually discarded based on post-donation information was also taken into account. RESULTS: Three months after the outbreak, 5322 donors were estimated to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were therefore potentially excluded from donation. A total of units of blood components were discarded following post donation information. The estimated number of donors deceased (180) and the number of clinically recovered individuals in the same period was also considered. CONCLUSION: This forecasting model can be used to obtain information on blood donors' involvement during future SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, especially in case of changes concerning epidemiology, incidence by age bracket and geographical distribution and also for new outbreaks of emerging viruses.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Banks/supply & distribution , Blood Safety/statistics & numerical data , Donor Selection/statistics & numerical data , Female , Forecasting , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
17.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(2): 175-179, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID 19 is an acute respiratory disease caused by infection by the virus SARS-COV-2 and has been declared as a pandemic whose specific treatment is still not established. One of the options in the treatment is Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy when there is presence of required amount of neutralizing antibodies in the plasma of recovered COVID patients. Our objective was to analyze the challenges and the constraints encountered in motivation of COVID 19 recovered persons to come for the screening procedures and to convince the selected persons to come for Plasma donation voluntarily. MATERIAL & METHODS: The present retrospective observational study was conducted for a period of five and half months. Out of 1515 number of persons contacted telephonically for Plasma donation, 1291 persons came for screening of whom 1028 persons were eligible for donation, 263 cases were deferred and 966 persons finally donated. RESULTS: Maximum number of acceptance cases were from males-(98.7%). Of the accepted cases, (41.73%) were from the 18-30 years' age group. 33.94% were from blood group 'O' Rh D positive giving maximum contribution from any blood group. 38.3% of the accepted cases had resolution of all COVID symptoms within time period of 28-40 days. Maximum number of accepted individuals (39.75%) had suffered from multiple symptoms followed by 39.02% of asymptomatic persons. Highest number of Plasma donation was contributed by Odisha Government Police personnel (51.56%). DISCUSSION: In this global ongoing pandemic, the "Fear Factor of contracting the disease" has acted as a major challenge in motivating and convincing a COVID recovered patient for plasma donation. The challenge before the medical professionals was to motivate, educate and convince the potential donors and the society about the likely benefits of convalescent plasma. This could be finally overcome with the help of positive orientation through social and conventional media as well as mass appeal from government side on the benefits of plasma therapy in saving lives in the present pandemic.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/supply & distribution , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1383, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114711

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in the cities of Wuhan, Shenzhen, and Shijiazhuang in China. From January to April 2020, 38,144 healthy blood donors in the three cities were tested for total antibody against SARS-CoV-2 followed by pseudotype SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests, IgG, and IgM antibody testing. Finally, a total of 398 donors were confirmed positive. The age- and sex-standardized SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among 18-60 year-old adults (18-65 year-old in Shenzhen) was 2.66% (95% CI: 2.24%-3.07%) in Wuhan, 0.033% (95% CI: 0.0029%-0.267%) in Shenzhen, and 0.0028% (95% CI: 0.0001%-0.158%) in Shijiazhuang, respectively. Female sex and older-age were identified to be independent risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among blood donors in Wuhan. As most of the population of China remained uninfected during the early wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective public health measures are still certainly required to block viral spread before a vaccine is widely available.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Neutralization Tests , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Transfusion ; 61(6): 1822-1829, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, during crises the number of new blood donors increases. However, the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created additional barriers to donate due to governmental prevention measures and increased personal health risks. In this report, we examined how the pandemic affected new donor registrations in the Netherlands, especially among groups with higher risk profiles for severe COVID-19. Additionally, we explored the role of media for blood donation and new donor registrations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed new donor registrations and attention for blood donation in newspapers and on social media from January until May 2020, in comparison to the same period in 2017 to 2019. RESULTS: After the introduction of nationwide prevention measures, several peaks in new donor registrations occurred, which coincided with peaks in media attention. Interestingly, people with a higher risk profile for COVID-19 (e.g., due to age or region of residence) were overrepresented among new registrants. DISCUSSION: In sum, the first peak of the current pandemic has led to increased new blood donor registrations, despite the associated increased health risks. Time and future studies will have to tell whether these new donors are one-off 'pandemic' donors or if they will become regular, loyal donors.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19 , Donor Selection , Adolescent , Adult , Advertising , Blood Banks/organization & administration , Blood Banks/standards , Blood Banks/statistics & numerical data , Blood Donors/psychology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Blood Safety/methods , Blood Safety/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Donor Selection/methods , Donor Selection/organization & administration , Donor Selection/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Records/standards , Middle Aged , Motivation , Netherlands/epidemiology , Newspapers as Topic , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Social Media , Young Adult
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