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2.
Transfusion ; 62(2): 336-345, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/CASE STUDIES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted the global blood supply. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) already experienced blood supply deficits that preceded the pandemic. We sought to characterize the challenges experienced during the pandemic, and adaptations, such as COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: A cross-sectional survey explored blood availability, challenges, and adaptations. The survey contained 31 questions, e-mailed in English, French, or Spanish, to selected LMIC blood transfusion practitioners. Data acquisition occurred between October 28 and December 28, 2020. A mixed methods analysis followed. RESULTS/FINDINGS: A total of 31 responses from 111 invitations represented 26 LMIC countries. Languages included English (22, 71%), Spanish (7, 22.6%), and French (2, 6.4%). Most respondents (29/31, 93.5%) collected blood; 58% also transfused blood (18/31). The supply of blood came from hospital-based blood donations (61%, 11/18); blood suppliers (17%, 3/18); and both sources (22%, 4/18). Collectively, 77.4% (24/31) of respondents experienced a decline in blood availability, ranging from 10% to 50%. Contributing factors included public fear of COVID-19 (21/24); stay-at-home measures (18/24); logistics (14/24); and canceled blood drives (16/24). Adaptations included increased collaboration within and between institutions (17/27), donor eligibility changes (21/31); social media or phone promotion (22/39); and replacement donation (3/27). Fifteen of 31 responses reported CCP donation (48.4%); CCP transfusion occurred in 6 (19.4%). The primary barrier was engaging recovered patients for donation (7/15). CONCLUSION: Our survey describes challenges experienced by LMIC blood systems during the COVID-19 pandemic. While the decline in blood supplies was severe, adaptive measures included collaboration, outreach, and CCP programs.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Transfusion , COVID-19 , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Transfusion ; 62(2): 279-285, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought tremendous challenges to the United States blood supply. Decreased collections have caused blood product shortages. The number of hospital-based donor centers (HBDCs) has decreased in the past decades, but they provide important support to their hospital systems. MATERIALS/METHODS: We identified 79 active HBDCs through an information request to the FDA. These centers were invited to participate in a survey about their activities, blood product collections, and perceived value. RESULTS: Thirty-six centers responded (46% response rate). The centers represented a wide range of states and geographic settings. Whole blood collection was most common, but some respondents also prepared specialized products such as COVID-19 convalescent plasma and pathogen-reduced platelets. Positive impacts of HBDCs included inventory availability, cost-effectiveness/savings, community outreach, supporting special patient populations, and collecting specialty products. All respondents anticipate at least stable operations, if not growth, in the future. CONCLUSION: HBDCs continue to be valuable assets in addressing emerging patient transfusion needs. Their unique offerings are tailored to the populations their hospitals support, and demonstrate the value in having the collection infrastructure in place to rapidly respond to critical shortages. This survey provides benchmark data about a broad group of HBDCs including products prepared, inventory self-sufficiency levels, and reasons for positive impact.


Subject(s)
Blood Banks/statistics & numerical data , Blood Donors , Hospitals , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , United States
7.
Vox Sang ; 116(7): 774-784, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affected millions of people worldwide and caused disruptions at the global level including in healthcare provision. Countries of the WHO African region have put in place measures for the COVID-19 pandemic containment that may adversely affect blood system activities and subsequently reduce the supply and demand of blood and blood components. This study aims to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on blood supply and demand in the WHO African Region and propose measures to address the challenges faced by countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey questionnaire was sent to all 47 countries in the WHO African Region to collect information on blood supply and demand for the first 5 months of 2019 and 2020, respectively, and on COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma therapy in September 2020. RESULTS: Thirty-seven countries provided responses. The total number of blood donations dropped in 32 countries while it increased in five countries. The proportion of blood drives also decreased in 21 countries and increased in nine countries. The blood requested and issued for transfusion decreased for blood demand and for blood issued for transfusion in 30 countries. Ten countries reported some activities of convalescent plasma. However, very few units of this product collected have been transfused to COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a reduction of blood related activities in the region, including the supply and demand. Countries preparedness plans for health emergencies need more emphasis to maintaining blood stock.


Subject(s)
Blood Banks/supply & distribution , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Blood , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , World Health Organization
10.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 2038-2046, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263879

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA could be detected in the blood of infected cases. From February 9, all blood establishments in Hubei province, China, implemented nucleic acid testing (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA among blood donors to ensure blood safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Nucleic acid test screening individually (ID) or by minipool (MP) testing was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Inactivated culture supernatant of SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells was quantified by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and series diluted with negative plasma to evaluate the assay's performance. RESULTS: The limit of detection of the kit for MP testing was 62.94 and 33.14 copies/mL for N and ORF1ab region, respectively. ID testing could achieve 3.87 and 4.85 copies/mL for two regions using 1600 µL of plasma. Coefficients of variations of two different concentrations of reference samples were all less than 5% in MP testing. As of April 30, 2020, a total of 98,342 blood donations including 87,095 whole blood donations and 11,247 platelet donations were tested by ID or MP testing, and no RNAemia was found. In addition, Hubei province suffered precipitously decreased blood supply, especially in February: 86% reduction compared with the same period of 2019. CONCLUSION: Nucleic acid test screening of SARS-CoV-2 on blood donations is suitable in blood establishments using the commercial real-time PCR detection kit based on available instruments. The negative result indicated that SARS-CoV-2 appears to be no direct threat to blood safety but raises some serious issues for general blood supply.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia/diagnosis , Animals , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Limit of Detection , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virus Cultivation
11.
Vox Sang ; 116(5): 497-503, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241034

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Numerous concerns regarding maintenance of blood inventory have been raised after SARS-CoV-2 pandemic outbreak. These concerns were based on the experience of blood centres in previous pandemics where shortage of blood components was reported. The present study had tried to understand the impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on blood collection and demand as well as the impact of disaster planning in maintaining an adequate inventory. METHODS: Data related to blood supply and demand were collected retrospectively using blood bank management software for pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 time period and compared. Strategies adopted and effects of changes in existing disaster plans to maintain an adequate inventory were studied. RESULTS: A drastic fall in the red cell inventory was observed as compared to pre-COVID-19 time period was observed due to disproportionate decrease in blood collection (1/6 to 1/9 of the previous collection) and demand (1/2 of the previous demand). The buffer stock fell gradually over a period of three weeks with cancellation of planned blood donation drives. A buffer stock equivalent to 2-week inventory led to adequate inventory in the initial lockdown periods. Similar fall was observed in the platelet inventory with reduction in the blood collection but almost a proportionate reduction in the platelet demand led to adequate inventory. No increase in wastage was observed for both red cells and platelets during this period. DISCUSSION: A buffer stock of blood and blood components, strict adherence to the transfusion triggers, good coordination with the clinical staff and a prospective review of blood transfusion requests to ensure rational blood transfusion were some of the steps which helped us to successfully maintain transfusion requirements in the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Use of first-in-first-out policy prevented any wastage due to outdating of blood.


Subject(s)
Blood Banks/organization & administration , Blood Safety/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Blood Banks/standards , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , Blood Safety/methods , Hospitals/standards , Humans
16.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(2): 175-179, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID 19 is an acute respiratory disease caused by infection by the virus SARS-COV-2 and has been declared as a pandemic whose specific treatment is still not established. One of the options in the treatment is Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy when there is presence of required amount of neutralizing antibodies in the plasma of recovered COVID patients. Our objective was to analyze the challenges and the constraints encountered in motivation of COVID 19 recovered persons to come for the screening procedures and to convince the selected persons to come for Plasma donation voluntarily. MATERIAL & METHODS: The present retrospective observational study was conducted for a period of five and half months. Out of 1515 number of persons contacted telephonically for Plasma donation, 1291 persons came for screening of whom 1028 persons were eligible for donation, 263 cases were deferred and 966 persons finally donated. RESULTS: Maximum number of acceptance cases were from males-(98.7%). Of the accepted cases, (41.73%) were from the 18-30 years' age group. 33.94% were from blood group 'O' Rh D positive giving maximum contribution from any blood group. 38.3% of the accepted cases had resolution of all COVID symptoms within time period of 28-40 days. Maximum number of accepted individuals (39.75%) had suffered from multiple symptoms followed by 39.02% of asymptomatic persons. Highest number of Plasma donation was contributed by Odisha Government Police personnel (51.56%). DISCUSSION: In this global ongoing pandemic, the "Fear Factor of contracting the disease" has acted as a major challenge in motivating and convincing a COVID recovered patient for plasma donation. The challenge before the medical professionals was to motivate, educate and convince the potential donors and the society about the likely benefits of convalescent plasma. This could be finally overcome with the help of positive orientation through social and conventional media as well as mass appeal from government side on the benefits of plasma therapy in saving lives in the present pandemic.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/supply & distribution , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
17.
Transfusion ; 61(6): 1822-1829, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, during crises the number of new blood donors increases. However, the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created additional barriers to donate due to governmental prevention measures and increased personal health risks. In this report, we examined how the pandemic affected new donor registrations in the Netherlands, especially among groups with higher risk profiles for severe COVID-19. Additionally, we explored the role of media for blood donation and new donor registrations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed new donor registrations and attention for blood donation in newspapers and on social media from January until May 2020, in comparison to the same period in 2017 to 2019. RESULTS: After the introduction of nationwide prevention measures, several peaks in new donor registrations occurred, which coincided with peaks in media attention. Interestingly, people with a higher risk profile for COVID-19 (e.g., due to age or region of residence) were overrepresented among new registrants. DISCUSSION: In sum, the first peak of the current pandemic has led to increased new blood donor registrations, despite the associated increased health risks. Time and future studies will have to tell whether these new donors are one-off 'pandemic' donors or if they will become regular, loyal donors.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19 , Donor Selection , Adolescent , Adult , Advertising , Blood Banks/organization & administration , Blood Banks/standards , Blood Banks/statistics & numerical data , Blood Donors/psychology , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Blood Safety/methods , Blood Safety/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Donor Selection/methods , Donor Selection/organization & administration , Donor Selection/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Records/standards , Middle Aged , Motivation , Netherlands/epidemiology , Newspapers as Topic , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Social Media , Young Adult
19.
Mo Med ; 118(1): 74-80, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068429

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma is an old treatment for a new disease. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused the analysis of convalescent plasma to reemerge as a possible treatment. First, a systematic review summarizes the available research examining the use of convalescent plasma for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Second, we describe our experience in establishing a single-center convalescent plasma donation program.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Donor Selection/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
20.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(1): 60-67, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With the advent of COVID-19 in Pakistan, the already fragmented blood transfusion services (BTS) received a severe blow, putting the lives of transfusion-dependent thalassemia children on stake. This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 on blood transfusion therapy (BTT) of thalassemia patients and suggest ways to ensure safe and reliable blood supplies amid such health crises. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2019 (before COVID-19) to July 2020 (during COVID-19) based on the data provided by a thalassemia center, named Help International Welfare Trust, Karachi, Pakistan. SPSS version 24.0 was used for the data analysis. Data were described in the form of means and percentages. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the consumption of PRBCs bags after the emergence of COVID-19 (P=0.002). Moreover, the number of thalassemia patients receiving BTT was dropped by 10.56% during the pandemic. There was a strong negative correlation observed between the rising cases of COVID-19 in Pakistan and the number of patients missing their therapy sessions (r=-0.914, P=0.030). A considerable decline in the reserves of all Rhesus-negative blood groups amid the COVID-19 outbreak was also observed. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected the already suboptimal care catered to thalassemia patients in Karachi, Pakistan. The fear of the virus contraction coupled with the lockdown and restricted mobility has disrupted the entire transfusion chain from donor to the recipient. Collaborated efforts by the government and healthcare authorities are essential to ensure sufficient blood for thalassemia patients amid the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/supply & distribution , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , beta-Thalassemia/therapy , Adolescent , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Compliance , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Retrospective Studies , Rural Population , beta-Thalassemia/epidemiology
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