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2.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 46(7): 410-412, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907580
4.
Respir Care ; 67(10): 1291-1299, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Timing of intubation in COVID-19 is controversial. We sought to determine the association of the ROX (Respiratory rate-OXygenation) index defined as [Formula: see text] divided by [Formula: see text] divided by breathing frequency at the time of intubation with clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with COVID-19 who were intubated by using a database composed of electronic health record data from patients with COVID-19 from 62 institutions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the impact of ROX index score on mortality. We analyzed the ROX index as a continuous variable as well as a categorical variable by using cutoffs previously described as predicting success with high-flow nasal cannula. RESULTS: Of 1,087 subjects in the analysis group, the median age was 64 years, and more than half had diabetes; 55.2% died, 1.8% were discharged to hospice, 7.8% were discharged to home, 27.3% were discharged to another institution, and 7.8% had another disposition. Increasing age and a longer time from admission to intubation were associated with mortality. After adjusting for sex, race, age, comorbidities, and days from admission to intubation, an increasing ROX index score at the time of intubation was associated with a lower risk of death. In a logistic regression model, each increase in the ROX index score by 1 at the time of intubation was associated with an 8% reduction in odds of mortality (odds ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.95). We also found an odds ratio for death of 0.62 (95% CI 0.47-0.81) for subjects with an ROX index score ≥ 4.88 at the time of intubation. CONCLUSIONS: Among a cohort of subjects with COVID-19 who were ultimately intubated, a higher ROX index at the time of intubation was positively associated with survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Gas Analysis , Cannula , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Crit Care Med ; 48(12): e1332-e1336, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Clinical observation suggests that early acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may be "atypical" due to a discrepancy between a relatively unaffected static respiratory system compliance and a significant hypoxemia. This would imply an "atypical" response to the positive end-expiratory pressure. DESIGN: Single-center, unblinded, crossover study. SETTING: ICU of Bari Policlinico Academic Hospital (Italy), dedicated to care patients with confirmed diagnosis of novel coronavirus disease 2019. PATIENTS: Eight patients with early severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 acute respiratory distress syndrome and static respiratory compliance higher than or equal to 50 mL/cm H2O. INTERVENTIONS: We compared a "lower" and a "higher" positive end-expiratory pressure approach, respectively, according to the intervention arms of the acute respiratory distress syndrome network and the positive end-expiratory pressure setting in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome studies. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were ventilated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome network and, subsequently, with the ExPress protocol. After 1 hour of ventilation, for each protocol, we recorded arterial blood gas, respiratory mechanics, alveolar recruitment, and hemodynamic variables. Comparisons were performed with analysis of variance for repeated measures or Friedman test as appropriate. Positive end-expiratory pressure was increased from 9 ± 3.5 to 17.7 ± 1.7 cm H2O (p < 0.01). Alveolar recruitment was 450 ± 111 mL. Static respiratory system compliance decreased from 58.3 ± 7.6 mL/cm H2O to 47.4 ± 14.5 mL/cm H2O (p = 0.018) and the "stress index" increased from 0.97 ± 0.03 to 1.22 ± 0.07 (p < 0.001). The PaO2/FIO2 ratio increased from 131 ± 22 to 207 ± 41 (p < 0.001), and the PaCO2 increased from 45.9 ± 12.7 to 49.8 ± 13.2 mm Hg (p < 0.001). The cardiac index went from 3.6 ± 0.4 to 2.9 ± 0.6 L/min/m (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the "higher" positive end-expiratory pressure approach in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 acute respiratory distress syndrome and high compliance improves oxygenation and lung aeration but may result in alveolar hyperinflation and hemodynamic alterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Gas Analysis , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
ASAIO J ; 68(8): 1017-1023, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865005

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has drastically increased the number of patients requiring extracorporeal life support. We investigate the efficacy and safety of low-dose recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) injection into exhausted oxygenators to delay exchange in critically ill COVID-19 patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO). Small doses of rtPA were injected directly into the draining section of a V-V ECMO circuit. We compared transmembrane pressure gradient, pump head efficiency, membrane arterial partial oxygen pressure, and membrane arterial partial carbon dioxide pressure before and after the procedure. Bleeding was compared with a matched control group of 20 COVID-19 patients on V-V ECMO receiving standard anticoagulation. Four patients received 16 oxygenator instillations with rtPA at 5, 10, or 20 mg per dose. Administration of rtPA significantly reduced transmembrane pressure gradient (Δ pm = 54.8 ± 18.1 mmHg before vs . 38.3 ± 13.3 mmHg after, p < 0.001) in a dose-dependent manner (Pearson's R -0.63, p = 0.023), allowing to delay oxygenator exchange, thus reducing the overall number of consumed oxygenators. rtPA increased blood flow efficiency η (1.20 ± 0.28 ml/revolution before vs . 1.24 ± 0.27 ml/r, p = 0.002). Lysis did not affect membrane blood gases or systemic coagulation. Minor bleeding occurred in 2 of 4 patients (50%) receiving oxygenator lysis as well as 19 of 20 control patients (95%). Lysis of ECMO oxygenators effectively delays oxygenator exchange, if exchange is indicated by an increase in transmembrane pressure gradient. Application of lysis did not result in higher bleeding incidences compared with anticoagulated patients on V-V ECMO for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Oxygenators, Membrane , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/instrumentation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
7.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 196, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting symptoms following SARS-CoV2-infection have been described in several studies. However, there is only limited knowledge about the ongoing pathophysiology and the association with pathological findings in medical examinations. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of a prospective trial, 135 patients following COVID-19 were enrolled and grouped with respect to the presence or absence of respiratory ongoing symptoms following COVID-19. Pulmonary function test (PFT), diffusion capacity measurement (TLCO SB and TLCO/VA), blood gas analysis (BGA), laboratory tests and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of patients with persistent respiratory symptoms were compared to those of asymptomatic patients. RESULTS: In this analysis, 71% (96/135) of all patients (mean age 49 years; range 20-91 years) reported long-lasting symptoms after a median (IQR) of 85 days (60-116) following COVID-19 whereby 57.8% (78/135) complained about persistent pulmonary symptoms. Pathological findings in blood test, PFT, TLCO, BGA and/or HRCT were found in 71.8% and 64.1% of patients with and without long-lasting respiratory symptoms respectively. Patients with persistent respiratory symptoms were significantly younger and presented a significant lower FVC (%), TLC (L), and TLCO SB compared to asymptomatic patients (p < 0.05). The multiple logistic regression results in a significant effect of age (p = 0.004) and TLCO SB (p = 0.042). CONCLUSION: Following COVID-19, a large proportion of patients experience ongoing symptoms, whereby the respiratory symptoms are the predominant complaints. Compared to asymptomatic patients, patients with ongoing symptoms were younger and presented a significant lower FVC, TLC and TLCO SB. The multiple logistic regression demonstrated only a significant association between the TLCO SB as the only PFT parameter and the perceived symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264774, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793507

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 outbreak challenged health systems around the world to design and implement cost-effective devices produced locally to meet the increased demand of mechanical ventilators worldwide. This study evaluates the physiological responses of healthy swine maintained under volume- or pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation by a mechanical ventilator implemented to bring life-support by automating a resuscitation bag and closely controlling ventilatory parameters. Physiological parameters were monitored in eight sedated animals (t0) prior to inducing deep anaesthesia, and during the next six hours of mechanical ventilation (t1-7). Hemodynamic conditions were monitored periodically using a portable gas analyser machine (i.e. BEecf, carbonate, SaO2, lactate, pH, PaO2, PaCO2) and a capnometer (i.e. ETCO2). Electrocardiogram, echocardiography and lung ultrasonography were performed to detect in vivo alterations in these vital organs and pathological findings from necropsy were reported. The mechanical ventilator properly controlled physiological levels of blood biochemistry such as oxygenation parameters (PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2, ETCO2), acid-base equilibrium (pH, carbonate, BEecf), and perfusion of tissues (lactate levels). In addition, histopathological analysis showed no evidence of acute tissue damage in lung, heart, liver, kidney, or brain. All animals were able to breathe spontaneously after undergoing mechanical ventilation. These preclinical data, supports the biological safety of the medical device to move forward to further evaluation in clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Ventilators, Mechanical , Animals , Automation , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hemodynamics , Male , Respiration , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Swine
9.
Acta Biomed ; 93(1): e2022032, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to establish the value of PETCO2 in COVID-19 patients intubated in emergency department, and its effects on mortality.  Objectives: Between May 15, 2020 and January 15, 2021, The patients aged ≥18 years and diagnosed COVID-19, scheduled for urgent intubation in the emergency department were included. METHOD: Single-center, prospective and observational study. Age, gender, vital signs, laboratory findings are recorded. Immediately after intubation as measured by the capnography, the initial PETCO2_1 and at post-ventilation 15 min, PETCO2_2 and first, second arterial blood gas analysis are recorded. RESULTS: The mean age of the 48 patients was 74 years. The PETCO2_1 and PETCO2_2 measurements were statistically significantly different between the patients who survived and those who died (p=0.014, p=0.015). The patients with a high first PETCO2_1 value and a decrease to the normal level survived, but those with a low PETCO2_1 value that could not increase to a normal value died (p=0.038, p=0.031). Increased levels of SpO2, PETCO2_1, PETCO2_2 and PaCO2_2 decreased the risk of mortality, while an increased level of PaO2_2 increased the risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: Capnography is non-invasive and provides continuous measurement. Assessment of changes in PETCO2 value would contribute to patient survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Gas Analysis , Capnography , Humans , Prospective Studies
10.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 82(2): 138-142, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684251

ABSTRACT

Modern blood gas analyzers are not able to identify hemolysis, lipemia and icterus; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of hemolysis on blood gas samples. Blood gas analysis represents an essential part in the diagnosis and treatment of critically ill patients, including those affected by the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hemolysis, lipemia, and icterus, are causes of clinical misinterpretation of laboratory tests. A total of 1244 blood gas specimens were collected over a one-week period from different clinical wards, including the Emergency Department, and were assessed for serum indices on Cobas C6000 CE (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). The prevalence of hemolysis, lipemia, and icterus were 5%, 12%, and 14%, respectively. Sample storage at room temperature, delivery to central laboratory using pneumatic tube system, as well as small sample size, strongly affected blood gas parameters (p < .01). Hemolysis led to an increase in analytical bias for pH, pO2, and potassium, and a significant decrease for pCO2, HCO3-, sodium, and Ca2+ (p <.01). Currently, hemolysis detection systems are not yet widespread, and a rapid centrifugation of samples after blood gas analysis along with the assessment of serum indices represent the only prompt approach to identify unsuitable results, avoiding pitfalls in clinical decision-making, although it cannot be applied to the Emergency Department routine. Blood gas analyzers manufacturers and suppliers should implement automated built-in serum indices detection systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperlipidemias , Jaundice , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Hematologic Tests , Hemolysis , Humans
11.
Crit Care Med ; 50(7): e638-e642, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The respiratory rate-oxygenation (ROX) index is a fraction of oxygen saturation, Fio2, and respiratory rate that has been validated to predict receipt of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients receiving high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). This study aimed to validate ROX in a cohort of inpatients with COVID-19-related respiratory failure. DESIGN: Retrospective validation of the ROX index. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and 95% CIs of ROX for invasive mechanical ventilation any time during hospitalization. SETTING: Twenty-one hospitals of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated healthcare delivery system. PATIENTS: We identified adults with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 polymerase chain reaction test within 3 weeks of, or during, hospitalization between February 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020. We calculated ROX at 12 hours after HFNC initiation. We grouped patients as low (≥ 4.88), intermediate (< 4.88 and ≥ 3.85), or high (< 3.85) risk using previously published thresholds. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We identified 1,847 patients who had no limitation of life support. Of these, 525 (31.7%) received invasive mechanical ventilation any time during hospitalization and 511 died (27.7%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 12-hour ROX threshold (< 3.85) predicting invasive mechanical ventilation were 32.3% (95% CI, 28.5-36.3%), 89.8% (95% CI, 88.0-91.4%), 59.4% (95% CI, 53.8-64.9%), and 74.1% (95% CI, 71.8-76.3%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The 12-hour ROX index has a positive predictive value (59.4%) using threshold of less than 3.85 for COVID-19 patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation. Our health system has embedded ROX into the electronic health record to prioritize rounding during periods of inpatient surge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies
13.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(12): 821-823, 2021 12.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599874

ABSTRACT

Portable blood gas analyzers are intended for blood Point-of-care testing (POCT); they make it possible to perform the examination directly at the patient's bed. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, this device proved useful in emergency medical service for the early assessment of respiratory distress, allowing the appropriate care level to be determined for each patient. 25 cases of covid-19 positive patients in the province of Arezzo were analyzed; POCT blood gas analysis made it possible to evaluate and treat at home about half of the patients (52%) and to admit the others directly to the most appropriate ward. However, some critical issues were found; the limited sample size suggest further research to assess the actual impact of this technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Blood Gas Analysis , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Comput Biol Med ; 142: 105166, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588031

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has made the world more cautious about widespread viruses, and a tragic pandemic that was caused by a novel coronavirus has harmed human beings in recent years. The new coronavirus pneumonia outbreak is spreading rapidly worldwide. We collect arterial blood samples from 51 patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis. Blood gas analysis is performed using a Siemens RAPID Point 500 blood gas analyzer. To accurately determine the factors that play a decisive role in the early recognition and discrimination of COVID-19 severity, a prediction framework that is based on an improved binary Harris hawk optimization (HHO) algorithm in combination with a kernel extreme learning machine is proposed in this paper. This method uses specular reflection learning to improve the original HHO algorithm and is referred to as HHOSRL. The experimental results show that the selected indicators, such as age, partial pressure of oxygen, oxygen saturation, sodium ion concentration, and lactic acid, are essential for the early accurate assessment of COVID-19 severity by the proposed feature selection method. The simulation results show that the established methodlogy can achieve promising performance. We believe that our proposed model provides an effective strategy for accurate early assessment of COVID-19 and distinguishing disease severity. The codes of HHO will be updated in https://aliasgharheidari.com/HHO.html.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Falconiformes , Animals , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 50: 106-110, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of pulse oximetry-derived oxygen saturation (SpO2) on room air, determined at hospital admission, as a predictor for the need for mechanical ventilatory support in patients with Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, demographic and clinical details of the patients were obtained during ICU admission. SpO2 and respiratory rate (RR) on room air were determined within the first 6 h of hospital admission. As all measurements were obtained on room air, we calculated the simplified respiratory rate­oxygenation (ROX) index by dividing the SpO2 by the RR. Based on the use of any assistance of mechanical ventilator (invasive or noninvasive), patients were divided into mechanical ventilation (MV) group and oxygen therapy group. The accuracy of the SpO2, CT score, and ROX index to predict the need to MV were determined using the Area under receiver operating curve (AUC). RESULTS: We included 72 critically ill patients who tested COVID-19-positive. SpO2 on the room air could predict any MV requirement (AUC [95% confidence interval]: 0.9 [0.8-0.96], sensitivity: 70%, specificity 100%, cut-off value ≤78%, P < 0.001). Within the MV group, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was successful in 37 (74%) patients, whereas 13 patients (26%) required endotracheal intubation. The cut-off ROX value for predicting early NIV failure was ≤1.4, with a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 86%, and an AUC of 0.86 (95% confidence interval of 0.73-0.94, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: A baseline SpO2 ≤78% is an excellent predictor of MV requirement with a positive predictive value of 100%. Moreover, the ROX index measured within the first 6 h of hospital admission is a good indicator of early NIV failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Oxygen Saturation , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Rate , Adult , Aged , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456343

ABSTRACT

Decreased oxygen saturation (SO2) at high altitude is associated with potentially life-threatening diseases, e.g., high-altitude pulmonary edema. Wearable devices that allow continuous monitoring of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), such as the Garmin Fenix® 5X Plus (GAR), might provide early detection to prevent hypoxia-induced diseases. We therefore aimed to validate GAR-derived SpO2 readings at 4559 m. SpO2 was measured with GAR and the medically certified Covidien Nellcor SpO2 monitor (COV) at six time points in 13 healthy lowlanders after a rapid ascent from 1130 m to 4559 m. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis served as the criterion measure and was conducted at four of the six time points with the Radiometer ABL 90 Flex. Validity was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and Bland-Altman plots. Mean (±SD) SO2, including all time points at 4559 m, was 85.2 ± 6.2% with GAR, 81.0 ± 9.4% with COV, and 75.0 ± 9.5% with ABG. Validity of GAR was low, as indicated by the ICC (0.549), the MAPE (9.77%), the mean SO2 difference (7.0%), and the wide limits of agreement (-6.5; 20.5%) vs. ABG. Validity of COV was good, as indicated by the ICC (0.883), the MAPE (6.15%), and the mean SO2 difference (0.1%) vs. ABG. The GAR device demonstrated poor validity and cannot be recommended for monitoring SpO2 at high altitude.


Subject(s)
Altitude Sickness , Wearable Electronic Devices , Blood Gas Analysis , Humans , Organophosphorus Compounds , Oxygen
17.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 214, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill COVID-19 patients have pathophysiological lung features characterized by perfusion abnormalities. However, to date no study has evaluated whether the changes in the distribution of pulmonary gas and blood volume are associated with the severity of gas-exchange impairment and the type of respiratory support (non-invasive versus invasive) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Northern Italy during the first pandemic wave. Pulmonary gas and blood distribution was assessed using a technique for quantitative analysis of dual-energy computed tomography. Lung aeration loss (reflected by percentage of normally aerated lung tissue) and the extent of gas:blood volume mismatch (percentage of non-aerated, perfused lung tissue-shunt; aerated, non-perfused dead space; and non-aerated/non-perfused regions) were evaluated in critically ill COVID-19 patients with different clinical severity as reflected by the need for non-invasive or invasive respiratory support. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients admitted to the intensive care unit between February 29th and May 30th, 2020 were included. Patients requiring invasive versus non-invasive mechanical ventilation had both a lower percentage of normally aerated lung tissue (median [interquartile range] 33% [24-49%] vs. 63% [44-68%], p < 0.001); and a larger extent of gas:blood volume mismatch (43% [30-49%] vs. 25% [14-28%], p = 0.001), due to higher shunt (23% [15-32%] vs. 5% [2-16%], p = 0.001) and non-aerated/non perfused regions (5% [3-10%] vs. 1% [0-2%], p = 0.001). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio correlated positively with normally aerated tissue (ρ = 0.730, p < 0.001) and negatively with the extent of gas-blood volume mismatch (ρ = - 0.633, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and oxygenation impairment were associated with loss of aeration and the extent of gas:blood volume mismatch.


Subject(s)
Blood Volume/physiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/metabolism , Pulmonary Gas Exchange/physiology , Aged , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
18.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(11): 828-831, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406806

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Controversial data have been published regarding the prognostic role of cardiac troponins in patients who need hospitalization because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the study was to assess the role of high-sensitivity troponin plasma levels and of respiratory function at admission on all-cause deaths in unselected patients hospitalized because of COVID-19. METHODS: We pooled individual patient data from observational studies that assessed all-cause mortality of unselected patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The individual data of 722 patients were included. The ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) and high-sensitivity troponins was reported at admission in all patients. This meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020213209). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 14 days, 180 deaths were observed. At multivariable regression analysis, age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.083, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.061-1.105, P < 0.0001], male sex (HR 2.049, 95% CI 1.319-3.184, P = 0.0014), moderate-severe renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate  < 30 mL/min/m2) (HR 2.108, 95% CI 1.237-3.594, P = 0.0061) and lower PaO2/FiO2 (HR 0.901, 95% CI 0.829-0.978, P = 0.0133) were the independent predictors of death. A linear increase in the HR was associated with decreasing values of PaO2/FiO2 below the normality threshold. On the contrary, the HR curve for troponin plasma levels was near-flat with large CI for values above the normality thresholds. CONCLUSION: In unselected patients hospitalized for COVID-19, mortality is mainly driven by male gender, older age and respiratory failure. Elevated plasma levels of high-sensitivity troponins are not an independent predictor of worse survival when respiratory function is accounted for.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen/analysis , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Troponin/blood , Age Factors , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
19.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394125

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of direct-to-consumer pulse oximeters under clinical conditions, with arterial blood gas measurement (SaO2) as reference standard. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, validation study. SETTING: Intensive care. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients requiring SaO2-monitoring. INTERVENTIONS: The studied oximeters are top-selling in Europe/USA (AFAC FS10D, AGPTEK FS10C, ANAPULSE ANP 100, Cocobear, Contec CMS50D1, HYLOGY MD-H37, Mommed YM101, PRCMISEMED F4PRO, PULOX PO-200 and Zacurate Pro Series 500 DL). Directly after collection of a SaO2 blood sample, we obtained pulse oximeter readings (SpO2). SpO2-readings were performed in rotating order, blinded for SaO2 and completed <10 min after blood sample collection. OUTCOME MEASURES: Bias (SpO2-SaO2) mean, root mean square difference (ARMS), mean absolute error (MAE) and accuracy in identifying hypoxaemia (SaO2 ≤90%). As a clinical index test, we included a hospital-grade SpO2-monitor (Philips). RESULTS: In 35 consecutive patients, we obtained 2258 SpO2-readings and 234 SaO2-samples. Mean bias ranged from -0.6 to -4.8. None of the pulse oximeters met ARMS ≤3%, the requirement set by International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)-standards and required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 501(k)-clearance. The MAE ranged from 2.3 to 5.1, and five out of ten pulse oximeters met the requirement of ≤3%. For hypoxaemia, negative predictive values were 98%-99%. Positive predictive values ranged from 11% to 30%. Highest accuracy (95% CI) was found for Contec CMS50D1; 91% (86-94) and Zacurate Pro Series 500 DL; 90% (85-94). The hospital-grade SpO2-monitor had an ARMS of 3.0% and MAE of 1.9, and an accuracy of 95% (91%-97%). CONCLUSION: Top-selling, direct-to-consumer pulse oximeters can accurately rule out hypoxaemia, but do not meet ISO-standards required for FDA-clearance.


Subject(s)
Blood Gas Analysis/instrumentation , Oximetry , Oxygen , Aged , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oximetry/instrumentation
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