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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 48, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Between March 18th and May 13th 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in Finland resulted in the closure of schools and the limitation of daycare (i.e. lockdown). Social distancing changed the daily routines of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Healthcare professionals were forced to adapt to the pandemic by replacing physical outpatient visits with virtual visits. However, the influence of the lockdown on glycemic control in these patients remained unknown. METHODS: In this retrospective register study from a pediatric diabetes outpatient clinic, we analyzed the glycemic data of T1D patients (n = 245; aged 4 to 16 years) before and under the lockdown. All the participants used continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM or iCGM), two-thirds were on insulin pumps (CSII), and one-third on multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) therapy. RESULTS: In our patient cohort, time in range (TIR, n = 209) and mean glucose levels (n = 214) were similar prior to and under the lockdown (mean change 0.44% [95%CI: -1.1-2.0], p = 0.56 and -0.13 mmol/mol [95%CI: -0.3-0.1], p = 0.17, respectively). However, children treated with CSII improved their glycemic control significantly during the lockdown: TIR improved on average 2.4% [0.6-4.2] (p = 0.010) and mean blood glucose level decreased -0.3 mmol/mol [-0.6-(-0.1)] (p = 0.008). The difference was more pronounced in girls, adolescents and patients using conventional insulin pumps. CONCLUSIONS: The glycemic control in T1D children did not deteriorate under the lockdown, and patients on CSII even improved their control, which suggests that social distancing might have allowed families to use the insulin pump more accurately as out-of-home activities were on hold.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 752161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518577

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective analysis, we examine the impact of the lockdown of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) on eating habits in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) on a hybrid artificial pancreas (HAP). Dietary composition before and during lockdown was assessed by 7-day food records of 12 participants with T1D on HAP (three men and nine women, ages 38 ± 13 years, HbA1c 6.8 ± 0.3%, M ± SD). Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics and lifestyle changes (online questionnaire) were also assessed. Compared to prelockdown, reported body weight tended to increase during lockdown with no changes in total energy intake. Participants significantly decreased animal protein intake (-2.1 ± 3.7% of total energy intake, p = 0.048), but tended to increase carbohydrate intake (+17 ± 28 g/day, p = 0.052). These changes were induced by modifications of eating habits at breakfast and lunch during weekdays. Patients consumed more cereals (+21 ± 33 g/day, p = 0.038), whole grain (+22 ± 32 g/day, p = 0.044), and sweets (+13 ± 17 g/day, p = 0.021), and less animal protein sources (-42 ± 67 g/day, p = 0.054). Participants showed a more regular meal timing and decreased physical activity. Blood glucose control remained optimal (time-in-range 76 ± 8 vs. 75 ± 7% before lockdown), and daily total insulin infusion increased (42 ± 10 vs. 39 ± 12 I.U., p = 0.045). During the lockdown, patients with T1D on HAP modified dietary habits by decreasing animal protein and increasing carbohydrate intake. This increase, mainly concerning whole grain and low-glycemic-index products, did not influence blood glucose control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Pancreas, Artificial , Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Br J Community Nurs ; 26(11): 544-552, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506202

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong condition which affects all age ranges, for reasons unknown, and the UK has one of the highest incidences of this complex condition in the world. Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune damage to the insulin-producing ß-cells found in the pancreatic islet cells, leading to severe insulin deficiency. People with diabetes need to achieve a target glyosylated haemoglobin level to avoid macro- and microvascular complications, but there is the associated risk of hypoglycaemic events. These can vary in severity and consequences but will likely always cause worry for the person living with diabetes. There are many risk factors and reasons to be explored when looking at hypoglycaemia. This case study explores the nursing interventions that can be safely worked through and prioritised, within the community setting, to allow people with diabetes to be safe from severe hypoglycaemia, thus improving their quality of life and safety, as well as reducing costs for the NHS.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/nursing , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Hypoglycemia/nursing , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Quality of Life
4.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021399, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 pandemic determined a profound impact in everyday life and in routine follow-up of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this context, telemedicine represented an important tool to guarantee a regular care for these patients. Aim of our work was to assess metabolic control before and after lockdown in the cohort of T1D patients followed-up by our Service, to evaluate the impact of restrictive measures and of disease management through telemedicine. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study. Subjects were enrolled among children, adolescents and young adults affected by T1D and followed at the Regional Paediatric Diabetology Centre of the University-Hospital of Parma, Italy. We collected data about age, gender, ethnicity, anthropometric measurements, duration of disease, type of blood glucose monitoring used, type of insulin administration, daily insulin requirement and metabolic control, assessed using capillary HbA1c. RESULTS: We enrolled 139 patients, mean age 13.9 years. During lockdown, we reported significantly more contacts through telemedicine between patients and medical team. Global glycol-metabolic control significantly improved, without differences in daily insulin requirement. Patients with a previous poor-controlled diabetes showed a greater improvement. Finally, mean weekly hours of physical activity decreased significantly, without worsening in BMI z-score. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a global improvement in mean HbA1c, with a stronger result for patients with a previous non satisfactory control. In our setting, despite regulatory rules and physical and logistic limitations related to pandemic, no worsening of metabolic control has been shown for patients with type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Glycemic Control , Humans , Life Style , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to light both challenges and unique opportunities regarding type 1 diabetes (T1D) management, including the usage of telemedicine platforms. METHODS: This study was conducted in a tertiary hospital diabetes clinic. All consecutive T1D patients during March and June 2021 were asked to fill out a structured anonymous questionnaire that aimed to determine their preference regarding continuous use of a virtual platform. RESULTS: In total, 126 T1D patients answered the questionnaire, of whom 51% were under the age of 40, half were men, half used insulin pumps, and 69% used continuous glucose monitoring. During the pandemic, the exposure of patients to virtual visits has grown about twofold, from 29% to 53%. Of the respondents, 49% expressed an interest in future usage of a virtual platform, but most of them preferred use in a hybrid manner. We found an association between preference to use telemedicine in the future and younger age, previous virtual platform experience, and confidence in being able to download data. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that the COVID-19 experience has led to a growing interest of T1D patients in using the hybrid format of telemedicine. However, we still need to better understand who will benefit most from this platform and assess its cost-effectiveness and organization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Telemedicine , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050027, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455718

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies demonstrate that optimal glycaemic control reduces morbidity from diabetes mellitus but remains elusive in a significant portion of patients. Although research shows that continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and flash glucose monitoring (FGM) improves glycaemic control in selected subsets of patients with diabetes in specialty practices, we found no systematic reviews evaluating the use of CGM/FGM in primary care, where the majority of patients with diabetes are cared for.This systematic review aims to answer the questions: 'compared with usual care of self-monitoring blood glucose and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), does the addition of CGM/FGM use in the primary care of patients with diabetes improve glycaemic control, decrease rates of hypoglycaemia, and improve patient and physician satisfaction?' and if so, 'what subgroups of primary care patients with diabetes are most likely to benefit?'. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Aligning with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines, a search will be conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science. We will include studies investigating CGM/FGM use and reporting the primary outcome measure of HbA1c and secondary outcome measures of hypoglycaemia, time in range, time below range, time above range and patient/staff satisfaction. We will examine which patient populations appear to benefit from CGM/FGM. Three independent researchers will use the Covidence systematic review software for blinded screening and study selection. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute quality assessment tool and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation will be used to assess the risk of bias and quality of evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review methodology does not require ethics approval due to the nature of the study design. Study findings will be publicly available to a wide readership across disciplines and will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021229416.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hypoglycemia , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , Systematic Reviews as Topic
7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 180: 109066, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433132

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess the effects of lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic on glucose metrics, measured by glucose monitoring systems, in adult individuals with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search for English language articles from MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science up to February 28, 2021, using "diabetes", "lockdown", and "glucose" as key search terms. Time in range (TIR) was the main outcome; other metrics were time above range (TAR), time below range (TBR), mean blood glucose (MBG) and its variability (%CV), estimated HbA1c (eA1c) or glucose management indicator (GMI). RESULTS: Seventeen studies for a total of 3,441 individuals with type 1 diabetes were included in the analysis. In the lockdown period, TIR 70-180 mg/dl increased by 3.05% (95% CI 1.67-4.43%; p < 0.0001) while TAR (>180 mg/dL and > 250 mg/dL) declined by 3.39% (-5.14 to -1.63%) and 1.96% (-2.51 to -1.42%), respectively (p < 0.0001 for both). Both TBR < 70 and <54 mg/dL remained unchanged. MBG slightly decreased by 5.40 mg/dL (-7.29 to -3.51 mg/dL; p < 0.0001) along with a reduction in %CV. Pooled eA1c and GMI decreased by 0.18% (-0.24 to -0.11%; p < 0.0001) and a similar reduction was observed when GMI alone was considered (0.15%, -0.23 to -0.07%; p < 0.0001). Sensor use was only slightly but not significantly reduced during lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis shows that well-controlled people with type 1 diabetes on both MDI and CSII with continuous or flash glucose monitoring did not experience a deterioration in glucose control throughout the COVID-19 lockdown, showing a modest, though statistically significant improvement in many glucose control parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Glycemic Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(S3): S56-S65, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429162

ABSTRACT

Use of telemedicine and remote monitoring technologies can significantly improve glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Patients' ability to interact remotely with their health care providers via smartphones and other communication devices can increase their access to clinical care and online coaching and support programs. The establishment of metrics for clinical use of continuous glucose monitoring data and standardization of data reporting has enabled clinicians to maintain high-quality diabetes care through remote monitoring and telemedicine visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article discusses our experiences using remote monitoring and telemedicine visits during this time.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Blood Glucose , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Pandemics
9.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 15(4): 916-960, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403193

ABSTRACT

Diabetes Technology Society hosted its annual Diabetes Technology Meeting on November 12 to November 14, 2020. This meeting brought together speakers to cover various perspectives about the field of diabetes technology. The meeting topics included artificial intelligence, digital health, telemedicine, glucose monitoring, regulatory trends, metrics for expressing glycemia, pharmaceuticals, automated insulin delivery systems, novel insulins, metrics for diabetes monitoring, and discriminatory aspects of diabetes technology. A live demonstration was presented.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus , Artificial Intelligence , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Humans , Technology
10.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(9): 632-641, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387687

ABSTRACT

Aims: To investigate the short-term effects of the first wave of COVID-19 on clinical parameters in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from 82 worldwide centers participating in the Better Control in Pediatric and Adolescent DiabeteS: Working to CrEate CEnTers of Reference (SWEET) registry. Materials and Methods: Aggregated data per person with T1D ≤21 years of age were compared between May/June 2020 (first wave), August/September 2020 (after wave), and the same periods in 2019. Hierarchic linear and logistic regression models were applied. Models were adjusted for gender, age-, and diabetes duration-groups. To distinguish the added burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, the centers were divided into quartiles of first wave COVID-19-associated mortality in their country. Results: In May/June 2019 and 2020, respectively, there were 16,735 versus 12,157 persons, 52% versus 52% male, median age 13.4 (Q1; Q3: 10.1; 16.2) versus13.5 (10.2; 16.2) years, T1D duration 4.5 (2.1; 7.8) versus 4.5 (2.0; 7.8) years, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 60.7 (53.0; 73.8) versus 59.6 (50.8; 70.5) mmol/mol [7.8 (7.0; 8.9) versus 7.6 (6.8; 8.6) %]. Across all country quartiles of COVID-19 mortality, HbA1c and rate of severe hypoglycemia remained comparable to the year before the first wave, while diabetic ketoacidosis rates increased significantly in the centers from countries with the highest mortality rate, but returned to baseline after the wave. Continuous glucose monitoring use decreased slightly during the first wave (53% vs. 51%) and increased significantly thereafter (55% vs. 63%, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although glycemic control was maintained, a significant rise in DKA at follow-up was seen during first wave in the quartile of countries with the highest COVID mortality. Trial Registration: NCT04427189.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Glycemic Control , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Male , Pandemics
11.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 703905, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376692

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is no consensus on the impact of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the US. Aim: To determine the impact of the pandemic lockdown of March 15th through July 6th, 2020 on glycemic control after controlling for confounders. Subjects and Methods: An observational study of 110 subjects of mean age 14.8 ± 4.9 years(y), [male 15.4 ± 4.0y, (n=57); female 14.1 ± 3.8y, (n=53), p=0.07] with T1D of 6.31 ± 4.3y (95% CI 1.0-19.7y). Data were collected at 1-4 months before the lockdown and 1-4 months following the lifting of the lockdown at their first post-lockdown clinic visit. Results: There was no significant change in A1c between the pre- and post-pandemic lockdown periods, 0.18 ± 1.2%, (95% CI -0.05 to 0.41), p=0.13. There were equally no significant differences in A1c between the male and female subjects, -0.16 ± 1.2 vs -0.19 ± 1.2%, p=0.8; insulin pump users and non-pump users, -0.25 ± 1.0 vs -0.12 ± 1.4%, p=0.5; and pubertal vs prepubertal subjects, 0.18 ± 1.3 vs -0.11 ± 0.3%, p=0.6. The significant predictors of decrease in A1c were pre-lockdown A1c (p<0.0001) and the use of CGM (p=0.019). The CGM users had significant reductions in point-of-care A1c (0.4 ± 0.6%, p=0.0012), the CGM-estimated A1c (p=0.0076), mean glucose concentration (p=0.022), a significant increase in sensor usage (p=0.012), with no change in total daily dose of insulin (TDDI). The non-CGM users had significantly increased TDDI (p<0.0001) but no change in HbA1c, 0.06 ± 1.8%, p=0.86. Conclusions: There was no change in glycemic control during the pandemic lockdown of 2020 in US children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Glycemic Control , Quarantine , Adolescent , Age Factors , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Glycemic Control/instrumentation , Glycemic Control/methods , History, 21st Century , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Male , Pandemics , Quarantine/organization & administration , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 179: 109022, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370489

ABSTRACT

In patients with autoimmune diabetes no significant differences were observed in glucose control, expressed as time in range evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring comparing the 3 days after Sars-Cov2 vaccine with the 14 days preceding the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glucose , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(2): 240-255, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359307

ABSTRACT

Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) have suddenly become part of routine care in many hospitals. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has necessitated the use of new technologies and new processes to care for hospitalized patients, including diabetes patients. The use of CGMs to automatically and remotely supplement or replace assisted monitoring of blood glucose by bedside nurses can decrease: the amount of necessary nursing exposure to COVID-19 patients with diabetes; the amount of time required for obtaining blood glucose measurements, and the amount of personal protective equipment necessary for interacting with patients during the blood glucose testing. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is now exercising enforcement discretion and not objecting to certain factory-calibrated CGMs being used in a hospital setting, both to facilitate patient care and to obtain performance data that can be used for future regulatory submissions. CGMs can be used in the hospital to decrease the frequency of fingerstick point of care capillary blood glucose testing, decrease hyperglycemic episodes, and decrease hypoglycemic episodes. Most of the research on CGMs in the hospital has focused on their accuracy and only recently outcomes data has been reported. A hospital CGM program requires cooperation of physicians, bedside nurses, diabetes educators, and hospital administrators to appropriately select and manage patients. Processes for collecting, reviewing, storing, and responding to CGM data must be established for such a program to be successful. CGM technology is advancing and we expect that CGMs will be increasingly used in the hospital for patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/trends , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitals/trends , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hypoglycemia/blood , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/prevention & control , Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Monitoring, Ambulatory/trends
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 178: 108988, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330747

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Our observational study aimed to evaluate the impact of the lockdown period due to 2019 Coronavirus disease pandemic on glycaemic control in a cohort of paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Eighty-five patients with T1D aged 5-18 years using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems were enrolled. Demographic and clinical data, including glucose metrics generated by CGM-specific web-based cloud platforms, were collected in three different periods (pre-lockdown phase, lockdown phase, and post-lockdown phase) of 90 days each and were statistically analysed. RESULTS: During the lockdown period, a clear improvement in almost all CGM metrics (time in range, time above range, coefficient of variation, and glucose management indicator) was observed in our study population, regardless of age and insulin type treatment. In the months following lockdown, maintaining satisfactory diabetes outcomes was confirmed only in younger patients (aged 5-9 years) and in those individuals on hybrid closed loop therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing use of innovative technological devices together with data sharing systems and interaction with multidisciplinary diabetes team through telemedicine allowed paediatric patients with T1D to improve glucose metrics during the lockdown period. However, our findings showed that the achievement of better glycaemic control was transient for most patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Glycemic Control , Adolescent , Benchmarking , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Male
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 591982, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325579

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are public health issues worldwide, and their comorbidities trigger the progress to severe disease and even death in such patients. Globally, DM has affected an estimated 9.3% adults, and as of April 18, 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed 141,727,940 COVID-19 confirmed cases. The virus is spread via droplets, aerosols, and direct touch with others. Numerous predictive factors have been linked to COVID-19 severity, including impaired immune response and increased inflammatory response, among others. Angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 have also been identified as playing a boosting role in both susceptibility and severity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Specifically, in DM patients, both their control and management during this pandemic is herculean as the restriction periods have markedly hampered the maintenance of means to control glycemia, hypertension, and neuroendocrine and kidney diseases. In addition, as a result of the underlyin cardio-metabolic and immunological disorders, DM patients are at a higher risk of developing the severe form of COVID-19 despite other comorbidities, such as hypertension, also potentially boosting the development of higher COVID-19 severity. However, even in non-DM patients, SARS-CoV-2 may also cause transient hyperglycemia through induction of insulin resistance and/or pancreatic ß-cell injury. Therefore, a strict glucose monitoring of DM patients with COVID-19 is mandatory to prevent life-threatening complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e932156, 2021 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Diabetes is one of the most commonly reported comorbidities among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. This retrospective study of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was conducted to evaluate the association between blood glucose levels and the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia and patient mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 268 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in this retrospective study. We obtained demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, laboratory data, and survival information from patients' electronic medical records. Blood glucose was measured on admission to the hospital. Comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease, were collected by self-reported medical history. RESULTS Significantly higher risks of severe COVID-19 were found in patients with blood glucose levels ranging from 5.53 to 7.27 mmol/L (odds ratio [OR], 3.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-8.75) and in patients with blood glucose ≥7.27 mmol/L (OR, 12.10; 95% CI, 5.53-26.48) than in those with blood glucose <5.53 mmol/L. There was a trend toward better survival in patients with blood glucose <5.53 mmol/L than in patients with blood glucose from 5.53 to 7.27 mmol/L (hazard ratio [HR], 6.34; 95% CI, 1.45-27.71) and ≥7.27 mmol/L (HR, 19.37; 95% CI, 4.68-80.17). Estimated 10-day overall survival rates were 96.8%, 90.6%, and 69.3% in patients with blood glucose <5.53 mmol/L, 5.53 to 7.27 mmol/L, and ³7.27 mmol/L, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Hyperglycemia was association with severity of COVID-19 pneumonia and with increased patient mortality. These findings support the need for blood glucose monitoring and control of hyperglycemia in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/virology , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e050713, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311169

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Optimising glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains challenging. Flash glucose monitoring with FreeStyle Libre 2 (FSL2) is a novel alternative to the current standard of care self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). No randomised controlled trials to date have explored the potential benefits of FSL2 in T1D. We aim to assess the impact of FSL2 in people with suboptimal glycaemic control T1D in comparison with SMBG. METHODS: This open-label, multicentre, randomised (via stochastic minimisation), parallel design study conducted at eight UK secondary and primary care centres will aim to recruit 180 people age ≥16 years with T1D for >1 year and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.5%-11%. Eligible participants will be randomised to 24 weeks of FSL2 (intervention) or SMBG (control) periods, after 2-week of blinded sensor wear. Participants will be assessed virtually or in-person owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. HbA1c will be measured at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks (primary outcome). Participants will be contacted at 4 and 12 weeks for glucose optimisation. Control participants will wear a blinded sensor during the last 2 weeks. Psychosocial outcomes will be measured at baseline and 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include sensor-based metrics, insulin doses, adverse events and self-report psychosocial measures. Utility, acceptability, expectations and experience of using FSL2 will be explored. Data on health service resource utilisation will be collected. ANALYSIS: Efficacy analyses will follow intention-to-treat principle. Outcomes will be analysed using analysis of covariance, adjusted for the baseline value of the corresponding outcome, minimisation factors and other known prognostic factors. Both within-trial and life-time economic evaluations, informed by modelling from the perspective of the National Health Service setting, will be performed. ETHICS: The study was approved by Greater Manchester West Research Ethics Committee (reference 19/NW/0081). Informed consent will be sought from all participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03815006. PROTOCOL VERSION: 4.0 dated 29 June 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , United Kingdom
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