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1.
Diabet Med ; 39(4): e14755, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the rapid implementation of remote care delivery in type 1 diabetes. We studied current modes of care delivery, healthcare professional experiences and impact on insulin pump training in type 1 diabetes care in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: The UK Diabetes Technology Network designed a 48-question survey aimed at healthcare professionals providing care in type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-three healthcare professionals (48% diabetes physicians, 52% diabetes educators and 88% working in adult services) from approximately 75 UK centres (52% university hospitals, 46% general and community hospitals), responded to the survey. Telephone consultations were the main modality of care delivery. There was a higher reported time taken for video consultations versus telephone (p < 0.001). Common barriers to remote consultations were patient familiarity with technology (72%) and access to patient device data (67%). We assessed the impact on insulin pump training. A reduction in total new pump starts (73%) and renewals (61%) was highlighted. Common barriers included patient digital literacy (61%), limited healthcare professional experience (46%) and time required per patient (44%). When grouped according to size of insulin pump service, pump starts and renewals in larger services were less impacted by the pandemic compared to smaller services. CONCLUSION: This survey highlights UK healthcare professional experiences of remote care delivery. While supportive of virtual care models, a number of factors highlighted, especially patient digital literacy, need to be addressed to improve virtual care delivery and device training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Health Personnel , Self-Management/education , Telemedicine , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Biomedical Technology/education , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Glycemic Control/instrumentation , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Insulin Infusion Systems , Pandemics , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Patient Education as Topic/organization & administration , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Self-Management/methods , Self-Management/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 703905, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376692

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is no consensus on the impact of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the US. Aim: To determine the impact of the pandemic lockdown of March 15th through July 6th, 2020 on glycemic control after controlling for confounders. Subjects and Methods: An observational study of 110 subjects of mean age 14.8 ± 4.9 years(y), [male 15.4 ± 4.0y, (n=57); female 14.1 ± 3.8y, (n=53), p=0.07] with T1D of 6.31 ± 4.3y (95% CI 1.0-19.7y). Data were collected at 1-4 months before the lockdown and 1-4 months following the lifting of the lockdown at their first post-lockdown clinic visit. Results: There was no significant change in A1c between the pre- and post-pandemic lockdown periods, 0.18 ± 1.2%, (95% CI -0.05 to 0.41), p=0.13. There were equally no significant differences in A1c between the male and female subjects, -0.16 ± 1.2 vs -0.19 ± 1.2%, p=0.8; insulin pump users and non-pump users, -0.25 ± 1.0 vs -0.12 ± 1.4%, p=0.5; and pubertal vs prepubertal subjects, 0.18 ± 1.3 vs -0.11 ± 0.3%, p=0.6. The significant predictors of decrease in A1c were pre-lockdown A1c (p<0.0001) and the use of CGM (p=0.019). The CGM users had significant reductions in point-of-care A1c (0.4 ± 0.6%, p=0.0012), the CGM-estimated A1c (p=0.0076), mean glucose concentration (p=0.022), a significant increase in sensor usage (p=0.012), with no change in total daily dose of insulin (TDDI). The non-CGM users had significantly increased TDDI (p<0.0001) but no change in HbA1c, 0.06 ± 1.8%, p=0.86. Conclusions: There was no change in glycemic control during the pandemic lockdown of 2020 in US children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Glycemic Control , Quarantine , Adolescent , Age Factors , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Glycemic Control/instrumentation , Glycemic Control/methods , History, 21st Century , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Male , Pandemics , Quarantine/organization & administration , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
6.
Clin Biochem ; 92: 71-76, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141672

ABSTRACT

Owing to their ease of use, glucose meters are frequently used in research and medicine. However, little is known of whether other non-glucose molecules, besides vitamin C, interfere with glucometry. Therefore, we sought to determine whether other antioxidants might behave like vitamin C in causing falsely elevated blood glucose levels, potentially exposing patients to glycemic mismanagement by being administered harmful doses of glucose-lowering drugs. To determine whether various antioxidants can be detected by seven commercial glucose meters, human blood samples were spiked with various antioxidants ex vivo and their effect on the glucose results were assessed by Parkes error grid analysis. Several of the glucose meters demonstrated a positive bias in the glucose measurement of blood samples spiked with vitamin C, N-acetylcysteine, and glutathione. With the most interference-sensitive glucose meter, non-blood solutions of 1 mmol/L N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, cysteine, vitamin C, dihydrolipoate, and dithiothreitol mimicked the results seen on that glucose meter for 0.7, 1.0, 1.2, 2.6, 3.7 and 5.5 mmol/L glucose solutions, respectively. Glucose meter users should be alerted that some of these devices might produce spurious glucose results not only in patients on vitamin C therapy but also in those being administered other antioxidants. As discussed herein, the clinical relevance of the data is immediate in view of the current use of antioxidant therapies for disorders such as the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose/analysis , Acetylcysteine/blood , Acetylcysteine/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/blood , Blood Glucose/chemistry , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Glutathione/blood , Glutathione/chemistry , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems
7.
Diabetes Care ; 44(4): 1055-1058, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076409

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The use of remote real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the hospital has rapidly emerged to preserve personal protective equipment and reduce potential exposures during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We linked a hybrid CGM and point-of-care (POC) glucose testing protocol to a computerized decision support system for continuous insulin infusion and integrated a validation system for sensor glucose values into the electronic health record. We report our proof-of-concept experience in a COVID-19 intensive care unit. RESULTS: All nine patients required mechanical ventilation and corticosteroids. During the protocol, 75.7% of sensor values were within 20% of the reference POC glucose with an associated average reduction in POC of 63%. Mean time in range (70-180 mg/dL) was 71.4 ± 13.9%. Sensor accuracy was impacted by mechanical interferences in four patients. CONCLUSIONS: A hybrid protocol integrating real-time CGM and POC is helpful for managing critically ill patients with COVID-19 requiring insulin infusion.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Critical Illness/therapy , Diabetes Complications , Insulin Infusion Systems , Insulin/administration & dosage , Remote Sensing Technology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Equipment and Supplies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , Proof of Concept Study , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 172: 112750, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893621

ABSTRACT

Tremendous research and commercialization efforts around the world are focused on developing novel wearable electrochemical biosensors that can noninvasively and continuously screen for biochemical markers in body fluids for the prognosis, diagnosis and management of diseases, as well as the monitoring of fitness. Researchers in North America are leading the development of innovative wearable platforms that can comfortably comply to the human body and efficiently sample fluids such as sweat, interstitial fluids, tear and saliva for the electrochemical detection of biomarkers through various sensing approaches such as potentiometric ion selective electrodes and amperometric enzymatic sensors. We start this review with a historical timeline overviewing the major milestones in the development of wearable electrochemical sensors by North American institutions. We then describe how such research efforts have led to pioneering developments and are driving the advancement and commercialization of wearable electrochemical sensors: from minimally invasive continuous glucose monitors for chronic disease management to non-invasive sweat electrolyte sensors for dehydration monitoring in fitness applications. While many countries across the globe have contributed significantly to this rapidly emerging field, their contributions are beyond the scope of this review. Furthermore, we share our perspective on the promising future of wearable electrochemical sensors in applications spanning from remote and personalized healthcare to wellness.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Wearable Electronic Devices , Biomarkers/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/history , Biosensing Techniques/trends , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/trends , Electrochemical Techniques/history , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Epidermis/chemistry , Equipment Design/history , Extracellular Fluid/chemistry , History, 21st Century , Humans , North America , Potentiometry/instrumentation , Saliva/chemistry , Sweat/chemistry , Tears/chemistry , Wearable Electronic Devices/history , Wearable Electronic Devices/trends
10.
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol ; 13(4): 468-472, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883950

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced health care teams to look for alternative approaches to manage a great number of children with diabetes, not only in rural but also in urban locations. The aim was to assess the provision of information about follow-up of new-onset pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, and to investigate the integration of telemedicine into routine clinical care in the long term. The changes in coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation and percentages of time in range (TIR), time below range (TBR) and time above range were evaluated in eight children with new-onset T1D, diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study period was two-months of follow-up using a telemedicine system. Median follow-up time was 51 (24-66) days. Two of the patients were using low glucose suspend system and six were on multiple daily injection therapy. Target TIR values were achieved in seven patients in the last televisit and, in line with recent guidelines, a TBR <70 mg/dL (<3.9 mmol/L) (level 1 hypoglycemia) of <4% and a TBR <54 mg/dL (<3.0 mmol/L) (level 2 hypoglycemia) of <1% were achieved in all patients. Seven patients achieved a CV of <36% at their last televisit. Telemedicine as an alternative follow-up tool during unusual circumstances such pandemics, even in countries where it is not routinely used, could be beneficial to achieve optimum glycemic control in patients with new-onset T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
11.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 14(6): 1065-1073, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amidst the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has emerged as an alternative for inpatient point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG) monitoring. We performed a feasibility pilot study using CGM in critically ill patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Single-center, retrospective study of glucose monitoring in critically ill patients with COVID-19 on insulin therapy using Medtronic Guardian Connect and Dexcom G6 CGM systems. Primary outcomes were feasibility and accuracy for trending POC-BG. Secondary outcomes included reliability and nurse acceptance. Sensor glucose (SG) was used for trends between POC-BG with nursing guidance to reduce POC-BG frequency from one to two hours to four hours when the SG was in the target range. Mean absolute relative difference (MARD), Clarke error grids analysis (EGA), and Bland-Altman (B&A) plots were calculated for accuracy of paired SG and POC-BG measurements. RESULTS: CGM devices were placed on 11 patients: Medtronic (n = 6) and Dexcom G6 (n = 5). Both systems were feasible and reliable with good nurse acceptance. To determine accuracy, 437 paired SG and POC-BG readings were analyzed. For Medtronic, the MARD was 13.1% with 100% of readings in zones A and B on Clarke EGA. For Dexcom, MARD was 11.1% with 98% of readings in zones A and B. B&A plots had a mean bias of -17.76 mg/dL (Medtronic) and -1.94 mg/dL (Dexcom), with wide 95% limits of agreement. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, CGM is feasible in critically ill patients and has acceptable accuracy to identify trends and guide intermittent blood glucose monitoring with insulin therapy.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Point-of-Care Systems , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(2): 231-237, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871475

ABSTRACT

AIMS: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) face the daily task of implementing self-management strategies to achieve their glycaemic goals. The UK COVID-19 lockdown has had an impact on day-to-day behaviour, which may affect diabetes self-management and outcomes. We assessed whether sensor-based outcomes pre- and during lockdown periods were different in a cohort of glucose sensor users with T1D. METHODS: Data were collected from Freestyle Libre (FSL) or Dexcom G6 sensor users who remotely shared their data with the diabetes clinic web platform. Sensor metrics according to international consensus were analysed and compared between pre-lockdown period and 2 and 3 weeks into lockdown (periods 1 and 2). RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-nine T1D patients (baseline HbA1c 57 ± 14 mmol/mol) were identified as FSL (n = 190) or Dexcom G6 (n = 79) users. In patients with sensor use > 70% (N = 223), compared to pre-lockdown period percentage TIR 3.9-10 mM (TIR) significantly increased during period 1 (59.6 ± 18.2 vs. 57.5 ± 17.2%, p = 0.002) and period 2 (59.3 ± 18.3 vs. 57.5 ± 17.2%, p = 0.035). The proportion of patients achieving TIR ≥ 70% increased from 23.3% pre-lockdown to 27.8% in period 1 and 30.5% in period 2. A higher proportion also achieved the recommended time below and above range, and coefficient of variation in periods 1 and 2. Dexcom G6 users had significantly lower % time below range (< 3.9 mM) compared to FSL users during both lockdown periods (period 1: Dexcom G6 vs. FSL: 1.8% vs. 4%; period 2: 1.4% vs. 4%, p < 0.005 for both periods). CONCLUSION: Sensor-based glycaemic outcomes in people with T1D in the current cohort improved during COVID-19 lockdown, which may be associated with positive changes in self-management strategies. Further work is required to evaluate long-term sustainability and support.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Quarantine , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , Telemedicine , Adult , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Clinical Audit , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Computer Systems , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Female , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Remote Sensing Technology/standards , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards
14.
Acta Diabetol ; 57(12): 1511-1517, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833993

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Billions of people have been under lockdown in an attempt to prevent COVID-19 spread. Lifestyle changes during lockdown could lead to deterioration of glycemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the glycemic control of pediatric patients with T1D. METHODS: This observational real-life study from the AWeSoMe Group assessed continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics of 102 T1D patients (52.9% males, mean age 11.2 ± 3.8 years, mean diabetes duration 4.2 ± 3.8 years) who used  Dexcom G5. The data were accessed without any interface between patients, caregivers, and the diabetes team. Study variables from CGM metrics were: mean glucose level, time-in-range (TIR, 70-180 mg/dL; 3.9-10 mmol/L), hypoglycemia (< 54 mg/dL; < 3 mmol/L), hyperglycemia (> 250 mg/dL; > 13.3 mmol/L), coefficient of variation (CV), and time CGM active before and during lockdown. Delta-variable = lockdown variable minus before-lockdown variable. RESULTS: The mean TIR was 60.9 ± 14.3% before lockdown, with no significant change during lockdown (delta-TIR was 0.9 ± 7.9%). TIR during lockdown was significantly correlated with TIR before lockdown (r = 0.855, P < 0.001). Patients with improved TIR (delta-TIR > 3%) were significantly older than patients with stable or worse TIR (P = 0.028). Children aged < 10 years had a significantly higher CV before lockdown and during lockdown than children aged ≥ 10 years (P = 0.02 and P = 0.005, respectively). Among children aged < 10 years, a multiple linear regression model revealed associations of age and lower socioeconomic cluster with delta-TIR (F = 4.416, P = 0.019) and with delta-mean glucose (F = 4.459, P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: CGM metrics in pediatric patients with T1D were relatively stable during a nationwide lockdown. Intervention plans should focus on younger patients with lower socioeconomic position.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Blood Glucose/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , COVID-19 , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics
15.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(2): 146-154, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752273

ABSTRACT

The increasing prevalence of diabetes, combined with a growing global shortage of health care professionals (HCP), necessitates the need to develop new approaches to diabetes care delivery to expand access to care, lessen the burden on people with diabetes, improve efficiencies, and reduce the unsustainable financial liability on health systems and payers. Use of digital diabetes technologies and telehealth protocols within a digital/virtual diabetes clinic has the potential to address these challenges. However, several issues must be resolved to move forward. In February 2020, organizers of the Advanced Technologies & Treatments for Diabetes Annual Conference convened an international panel of HCP, researchers, patient advocates, and industry representatives to review the status of digital diabetes technologies, characterize deficits in current technologies, and identify issues for consideration. Since that meeting, the importance of using telehealth and digital diabetes technologies has been demonstrated amid the global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This article summarizes the panel's discussion of the opportunities, obstacles, and requisites for advancing the use of these technologies as a standard of care for the management of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Technology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Digital Technology , Telemedicine , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Communication , Congresses as Topic , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Insulin Infusion Systems , Mobile Applications , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Physician-Patient Relations
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 168: 108393, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Jordan implemented abrupt and extreme lockdown measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This study aims to evaluate the effect of these measures on paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes in terms of acute metabolic complications and shortages in insulin and glucose measuring supplies. It also evaluates the caregivers' perceptions of the use of telemedicine during the lockdown. METHODS: This is a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. It was completed using Google forms and patients/caregivers were asked to consent if they agreed to answer. RESULTS: 235 patients/families participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 10.8 years ± 3.9 years (N = 229). Twenty-four children (10.2%) needed to visit the emergency department during the lockdown period which lasted for 10 weeks. Of these, eight (3.4%) were hospitalized due to acute metabolic complications. Families (58.3%) faced insulin shortages and 14% had to ration insulin, i.e., decrease the dose, during the lockdown. Glucose monitoring strips were rationed by 43.4% of families leading to more frequent low/high glucose readings in 75.5% of children of these families. Telemedicine using phones and social media applications was utilized for communication with healthcare professionals and continuing medical care. Most of the participants (85.5%) described it as a smooth and positive experience. CONCLUSIONS: The extreme lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic caused insulin and glucose measuring equipment shortages in children with diabetes in Jordan. However, the use of telemedicine for providing guidance and support was perceived positively by the families.


Subject(s)
Child Care , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Child , Child Care/methods , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Insulin/administration & dosage , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Perception , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , Young Adult
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