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1.
J Med Life ; 15(2): 180-187, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789887

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease caused by the novel enveloped single-stranded RNA virus quickly declared a pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the severity of COVID-19 infection in patients with blood group type A. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Al-Amal specialized hospital, Al-Najaf (March 8 to March 20/2021). The study included 123 hospitalized patients (63 females and 60 males), aged between 15-95 years, diagnosed with COVID-19, tested for blood group, blood sugar, blood urea, D-dimer, and serum ferritin. Results indicated significant differences in blood sugar and D-dimer in patients with type A blood group at P>0.05. At the same time, no significant difference was found in blood urea and ferritin at P>0.05. The majority of patients showed elevated levels of blood sugar, blood urea, serum D-dimer and ferritin. COVID-19 can infect people of all ages and causes severe infection in all blood groups.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ferritins , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Urea , Young Adult
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785648

ABSTRACT

Postprandial hyperglycemia can be corrected by exercise; however, the effect of home-based high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), a new time-efficient exercise, on glycemic control is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of home-based HIIE on postprandial hyperglycemia. Twelve young adult males (mean age: 24.3 ± 2.3 y) with postprandial hyperglycemia that had not yet led to diabetes completed home-based HIIE, moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE), and control conditions on separate days, randomly. The intervention began 30 min after the start of a standardized meal intake, with 11 min of HIIE completed at maximal effort in the home-based HIIE condition, 30 min of running performed at 50% maximum oxygen uptake in the MICE condition, or 30 min of sitting at rest completed in the control condition. The participants sat at rest after each intervention for up to 120 min. Interstitial fluid glucose concentrations were measured using a continuous glucose monitoring system that scanned every 15 min for up to 2 h after the meal. The glucose concentrations after the meal were significantly lower in the home-based HIIE and MICE conditions than in the control condition (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the glucose concentrations between the home-based HIIE and MICE conditions. In conclusion, home-based HIIE was able to correct postprandial hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Glucose , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Humans , Hyperglycemia/prevention & control , Male , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption , Young Adult
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785646

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Telemedicine interventions are gradually being used in primary health care to help patients with type 2 diabetes receive ongoing medical guidance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of using telemedicine in primary health care for the management of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A systematic search was conducted from database inception to August 2021 in nine databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, EBSCO, CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP, and CBM. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed for studies that met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.4 (Cochrane) and Stata v.16.0SE (College Station, TX, USA). Results: A total of 32 articles were included in this study. Analysis showed a reduction in glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose, and postprandial glucose after the telemedicine intervention. Systolic blood pressure and self-efficacy improved significantly, but there was no significant improvement in weight, lipid metabolism, or diabetes awareness. Subgroup analysis based on the duration of intervention showed significant improvement in glycated hemoglobin at 6 months of intervention. Conclusions: Telemedicine interventions may help patients with type 2 diabetes to effectively control blood glucose and improve self-management in primary health care. There is only moderate benefit, and the benefit may not be sustained beyond 6 months. However, the evidence for the improvement in lipid metabolism is insufficient and further studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Telemedicine , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Primary Health Care
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 850191, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785450

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether first-trimester fasting plasma glucose (FPG), blood coagulation function and lipid metabolism could predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. Methods: From October 2020 to May 2021, a total of 584 pregnant women who took prenatal care in Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital were chosen as the observation subjects. The clinical information and serum samples of all pregnant women were collected at 10-13 weeks of gestation and the blood coagulation function, fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles of the pregnant women were detected. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed up to 24-28 weeks of gestation. One hundred forty-two pregnant women with GDM and 442 pregnant women without GDM were detected. Data were expressed by x ± s or median (interquartile range) and were analyzed using student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Logistic regression analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) to analyze the predictive values. Results: Compared with non-GDM group, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, FPG, FIB, D-Dimer, FDP, FPG, TC, TG, LDL-C, sdLDL-C, APOB and APOE in GDM group were significantly higher than those in non-GDM group, while PT, INR, APTT and TT were significantly lower than those in non-GDM group. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors of GDM. Gestational age, pre-pregnancy BMI, FPG, PT, INR, APTT, FIB, TT, D-Dimer, TC, TG, LDL-C, sdLDL-C, APOB and APOE were all independent predictors of GDM. Multivariatelogistic regression showed that pre-pregnancy BMI, FPG, APTT, TT, TG, LDL-C, sdLDL-C and APOB were risk factors for GDM. The AUC of the established GDM risk prediction model was 0.892 (0.858-0.927), and the sensitivity and specificity were 80.71 and 86.85%, respectively; which were greater than that of pre-pregnancy BMI, FPG, APTT, TT,TG, LDL-C, sdLDL-C, APOB alone, and the difffference was statistically signifificant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: FPG, APTT, TT, TG, LDL-C, sdLDL-C, APOB and pre-pregnancy BMI in early pregnancy has important clinical value for the prediction of GDM, We combined these laboratory indicators and established a GDM risk prediction model, which is conducive to the early identification, intervention and treatment of GDM, so as to reduce the morbidity of maternal and infant complications.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational , Apolipoproteins B/metabolism , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Blood Coagulation , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Female , Glycolipids , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Pregnancy
5.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 50, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779649

ABSTRACT

The 7th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit on Cardiovascular, Renal, and Glycemic Outcomes, was held virtually on November 18-19, 2021. Pursuing the tradition of the previous summits, this reference congress served as a platform for in-depth discussion and exchange on recently completed CVOTs. This year's focus was placed on the outcomes of EMPEROR-Preserved, FIGARO-DKD, AMPLITUDE-O, SURPASS 1-5, and STEP 1-5. Trial implications for diabetes and obesity management and the impact on new treatment algorithms were highlighted for endocrinologists, diabetologists, cardiologists, nephrologists, and general practitioners. Discussions evolved from outcome trials using SGLT2 inhibitors as therapy for heart failure, to CVOTs with nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, trials for glycemic and overweight/obesity management, challenges in diabetes management in COVID-19, and novel guidelines and treatment strategies were discussed.Trial registration The 8th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial Summit will be held virtually on November 10-11, 2022 ( http://www.cvot.org ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Blood Glucose , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects
6.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) ; 69(3): 201-208, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778114

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Metabolic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depends on many factors such as eating habits, exercise and lifestyle. The objective of this study was to investigate how these factors were affected during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown and impacted metabolic control in children with T1D. MATERIALS AND METHOD: One hundred children with T1D were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric measurements, snack and meal frequency, carbohydrate consumption, HbA1c levels, and exercise patterns were recorded and compared before and after the lockdown. Subjects were divided into two subgroups-patients with decreased and patients with increased HbA1c levels after the lockdown-and comparisons of the same parameters were also made between these two subgroups. RESULTS: In the overall group, the mean HbA1c level was significantly higher after the lockdown compared to before (p=0.035). Meal schedules changed due to delayed sleep and waking times, and total daily carbohydrate consumption increased in the subgroup with increased HbA1c while it decreased in the subgroup with decreased HbA1c (p<0.001 for both). CONCLUSION: Our study supports the notion that blood sugar management in children with T1D worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although it is not possible to explain this with any one factor, some behavioral changes observed in our study, such as inactivity, irregular meal frequency and timing, and irregular sleep and waking patterns appeared to be associated with blood sugar management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1967-1975, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777577

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess whether blood glucose control can be used as predictors for the severity of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and to improve the management of diabetic patients with COVID-19. A two-center cohort with a total of 241 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with definite outcomes was studied. After the diagnosis of COVID-19, the clinical data and laboratory results were collected, the fasting blood glucose levels were followed up at initial, middle stage of admission and discharge, the severity of the COVID-19 was assessed at any time from admission to discharge. Hyperglycemia patients with COVID-19 were divided into three groups: good blood glucose control, fair blood glucose control, and blood glucose deterioration. The relationship of blood glucose levels, blood glucose control status, and severe COVID-19 were analyzed by univariate and multivariable regression analysis. In our cohort, 21.16% were severe cases and 78.84% were nonsevere cases. Admission hyperglycemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.938; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.387-2.707), mid-term hyperglycemia (aOR, 1.758; 95% CI, 1.325-2.332), and blood glucose deterioration (aOR, 22.783; 95% CI, 2.661-195.071) were identified as the risk factors of severe COVID-19. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, reaching an area under ROC curve of 0.806, and a sensitivity and specificity of 80.40% and 68.40%, respectively, revealed that hyperglycemia on admission and blood glucose deterioration of diabetic patients are potential predictive factors for severe COVID-19. Our results indicated that admission hyperglycemia and blood glucose deterioration were positively correlated with the risk factor for severe COVID-19, and deterioration of blood glucose may be more likely to the occurrence of severe illness in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(3): 102439, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We investigate the impact of blood glucose on mortality and hospital length of stay (HLOS) among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Retrospective study of 456 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and glycemic dysregulation in the New York City area. RESULTS: We found that impaired glucose adjusted for other organs systems involved (OR:1.87; 95% CI:1.36-2.57, p < 0.001), increased glucose nadir (OR:34.28; 95% CI:3.97-296.05, p < 0.01) and abnormal blood glucose levels at discharge (OR:5.07; 95% CI:2.31-11.14, p < 0.001) were each significantly associated with increased odds for mortality. New or higher from baseline insulin requirement during hospitalization (OR:0.34; 95% CI:0.15-0.78; p < 0.05) was significantly associated with decreased odds for mortality. Increased glucose peak (B = 0.001, SE=<0.001, p < 0.001), new or higher from baseline insulin requirement during hospitalization (B = 0.11, SE = 0.03, p < 0.001), and increased days to dysglycemia (B = 0.15, SE = 0.04, p < 0.001) were each significantly associated with increased HLOS. Increased glucose nadir (B = -0.67, SE = 0.07, p < 0.001), insulin intravenous drip (B = -0.10, SE = 0.05, p < 0.05), and increased proportion days endocrine system involved (B = -0.25, SE = 0.06, p < 0.001) were each significantly associated with decreased HLOS. CONCLUSION: Glucose dysregulation adversely affects mortality and HLOS in COVID-19. These data can help clinicians to guide patient treatment and management in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Glucose , Glucose , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies
9.
Diabetes Metab J ; 46(2): 260-272, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abrupt implementation of lockdowns during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected the management of diabetes mellitus in patients worldwide. Limited access to health facilities and lifestyle changes potentially affected metabolic parameters in patients at risk. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine any differences in the control of metabolic parameters in patients with diabetes, before and during lockdown. METHODS: We performed searches of five databases. Meta-analyses were carried out using random- or fixed-effect approaches to glycaemic control parameters as the primary outcome: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), random blood glucose (RBG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), time-in-range (TIR), time-above-range (TAR), time-below-range (TBR). Mean difference (MD), confidence interval (CI), and P value were calculated. Lipid profile was a secondary outcome and is presented as a descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies enrolling a total of 3,992 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM or T2DM) were included in the study. Patients with T1DM showed a significant improvement of TIR and TAR (MD=3.52% [95% CI, 0.29 to 6.74], I2=76%, P=0.03; MD=-3.36% [95% CI, -6.48 to -0.25], I2=75%, P=0.03), while FBG among patients with T2DM significantly worsened (MD=3.47 mg/dL [95% CI, 1.22 to 5.73], I2=0%, P<0.01). No significant difference was found in HbA1c, RBG, and TBR. Use of continuous glucose monitoring in T1DM facilitated good glycaemic control. Significant deterioration of lipid parameters during lockdown, particularly triglyceride, was observed. CONCLUSION: Implementation of lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic did not worsen glycaemic control in patients with diabetes. Other metabolic parameters improved during lockdown, though lipid parameters, particularly triglyceride, worsened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Triglycerides
10.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732137

ABSTRACT

Associations between habitual dietary intake of minerals and glucose metabolism have been extensively studied in relation to metabolic disorders. However, similar research has yet to be conducted in individuals after acute pancreatitis (AP). The main aim was to investigate the associations between habitual intake of 13 minerals and glycaemic status: new-onset prediabetes/diabetes after AP (NODAP), pre-existing prediabetes/type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and normoglycaemia after AP (NAP). Associations between the dietary intake of minerals and markers of glucose metabolism (glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose) were also studied. The EPIC-Norfolk food frequency questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional fashion to determine the habitual intake of 13 dietary minerals. ANCOVA as well as multiple linear regression analyses were conducted and five statistical models were built to adjust for covariates. The study included 106 individuals after AP. In the NODAP group, intake of 4 minerals was significantly less when compared with the NAP group: iron (B = -0.076, p = 0.013), nitrogen (B = -0.066, p = 0.003), phosphorous (B = -0.046, p = 0.006), and zinc (B = -0.078, p = 0.001). Glycated haemoglobin was significantly associated with iodine intake (B = 17.763, p = 0.032) and manganese intake (B = -17.147, p = 0.003) in the NODAP group. Fasting plasma glucose was significantly associated with manganese intake (B = -2.436, p = 0.027) in the NODAP group. Habitual intake of minerals differs between individuals with NODAP, T2DM, and NAP. Prospective longitudinal studies and randomised controlled trials are now warranted to further investigate the associations between mineral intake and NODAP.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diet , Minerals/administration & dosage , Pancreatitis/complications , Prediabetic State/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Female , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis/metabolism , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Prospective Studies
11.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725891

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort (United Kingdom, N = 21,318, 1993-1998), we studied how associations between meal patterns and non-fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations were influenced by the hour of day at which the blood sample was collected to ascertain face validity of reported meal patterns, as well as the influence of reporting bias (assessed using formula of energy expenditure) on this association. Meal size (i.e., reported energy content), mealtime and meal frequency were reported using pre-structured 7-day diet diaries. In ANCOVA, sex-specific means of biomarker concentrations were calculated by hour of blood sample collection for quartiles of reported energy intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner (meal size). Significant interactions were observed between breakfast size, sampling time and triglyceride concentrations and between lunch size, sampling time and triglyceride, as well as glucose concentrations. Those skipping breakfast had the lowest triglyceride concentrations in the morning and those skipping lunch had the lowest triglyceride and glucose concentrations in the afternoon, especially among acceptable energy reporters. Eating and drinking occasion frequency was weakly associated with glucose concentrations in women and positively associated with triglyceride concentrations in both sexes; stronger associations were observed for larger vs. smaller meals and among acceptable energy reporters. Associations between meal patterns and concentration biomarkers can be observed when accounting for diurnal variation and underreporting. These findings support the use of 7-day diet diaries for studying associations between meal patterns and health.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Diet Records , Eating/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Meals/physiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Triglycerides/blood , United Kingdom
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e220773, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718200

ABSTRACT

Importance: Women with recent gestational diabetes (GDM) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Objective: To investigate whether a resource-appropriate and context-appropriate lifestyle intervention could prevent glycemic deterioration among women with recent GDM in South Asia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, participant-unblinded controlled trial investigated a 12-month lifestyle intervention vs usual care at 19 urban hospitals in India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. Participants included women with recent diagnosis of GDM who did not have type 2 diabetes at an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 3 to 18 months postpartum. They were enrolled from November 2017 to January 2020, and follow-up ended in January 2021. Data were analyzed from April to July 2021. Interventions: A 12-month lifestyle intervention focused on diet and physical activity involving group and individual sessions, as well as remote engagement, adapted to local context and resources. This was compared with usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was worsening category of glycemia based on OGTT using American Diabetes Association criteria: (1) normal glucose tolerance to prediabetes (ie, impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) or type 2 diabetes or (2) prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. The primary analysis consisted of a survival analysis of time to change in glycemic status at or prior to the final patient visit, which occurred at varying times after 12 months for each patient. Secondary outcomes included new-onset type 2 diabetes and change in body weight. Results: A total of 1823 women (baseline mean [SD] age, 30.9 [4.9] years and mean [SD] body mass index, 26.6 [4.6]) underwent OGTT at a median (IQR) 6.5 (4.8-8.2) months postpartum. After excluding 160 women (8.8%) with type 2 diabetes, 2 women (0.1%) who met other exclusion criteria, and 49 women (2.7%) who did not consent or were uncontactable, 1612 women were randomized. Subsequently, 11 randomized participants were identified as ineligible and excluded from the primary analysis, leaving 1601 women randomized (800 women randomized to the intervention group and 801 women randomized to usual care). These included 600 women (37.5%) with prediabetes and 1001 women (62.5%) with normoglycemia. Among participants randomized to the intervention, 644 women (80.5%) received all program content, although COVID-19 lockdowns impacted the delivery model (ie, among 644 participants who engaged in all group sessions, 476 women [73.9%] received some or all content through individual engagement, and 315 women [48.9%] received some or all content remotely). After a median (IQR) 14.1 (11.4-20.1) months of follow-up, 1308 participants (81.2%) had primary outcome data. The intervention, compared with usual care, did not reduce worsening glycemic status (204 women [25.5%] vs 217 women [27.1%]; hazard ratio, 0.92; [95% CI, 0.76-1.12]; P = .42) or improve any secondary outcome. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that a large proportion of women in South Asian urban settings developed dysglycemia soon after a GDM-affected pregnancy and that a lifestyle intervention, modified owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, did not prevent subsequent glycemic deterioration. These findings suggest that alternate or additional approaches are needed, especially among high-risk individuals. Trial Registration: Clinical Trials Registry of India Identifier: CTRI/2017/06/008744; Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: SLCTR/2017/001; and ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03305939.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Diabetes, Gestational/prevention & control , Diet , Exercise , Glycemic Control/methods , Life Style , Postpartum Period , Adult , Bangladesh , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/ethnology , Diabetes, Gestational/ethnology , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , India , Pregnancy , Sri Lanka , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Urban Population
14.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 7424748, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685760

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious global health threat and has spread dramatically worldwide. Prolonged viral shedding is associated with a more severe disease course and inflammatory reaction. Blood glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Objective: Previous studies focused primarily on the relationship between blood glucose and mortality or severe outcomes, but there were few research studies on the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA positive status. To explore the relationship between FPG levels and prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral positivity, the clinical data of COVID-19 patients were analyzed. Method: In this retrospective study, 99 cases of COVID-19 patients in Beijing Ditan Hospital were recruited, and their clinical and laboratory findings at admission were collected and analyzed. Furthermore, the risk factors for prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding were identified, and the relationship between FPG levels and the prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was evaluated. Result: We found that elevated FPG levels were correlated with longer duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity, classification of COVID-19, imaging changes of chest CT, inflammation-related biomarkers, and CD8+ T cell number in COVID-19 patients. In a logistic regression model, after adjusting for gender and age, COVID-19 patients with elevated FPG were more likely to had longer duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity than those with normal FPG levels (OR 3.053 [95% CI 1.343, 6.936]). Conclusion: Higher FPG levels (≥6.1 mmol/l) at admission was an independent predictor for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding, regardless of a known history of diabetes. It suggests that intensive monitoring and control of blood glucose are important for all COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Patient Admission , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Fasting/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
15.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(1): 127-134, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683497

ABSTRACT

AIMS: COVID-19 lockdown imposes many challenges to patients with diabetes. We aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on health-related behavior and disease control among patients with diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults with diabetes attending a diabetes clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka in June-July 2020. Lifestyle and disease control changes before and during the lockdown, were determined using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and review of medical records. RESULTS: Among 1727 participants mean HbA1c decreased by 0.30% (95% CI 0.24-0.36, p < 0.001). HbA1c improved in 37.6% but deteriorated in 18.8%. Male sex (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.10-1.67), better education (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) and being employed (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.16) were sociodemographic predictors of improved control. Better dietary adherence (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13-2.12), night-time sleep (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.13-1.88) and indoor exercise (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.07) were behavioural determinants of improved glycaemia. Decreases in self-monitoring of blood glucose (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.09-1.93), exercise (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.32-2.20), medication use (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.37-2.78), dietary adherence (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.32-2.26) and family income (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.12-1.88) predicted worsening glycaemia. Only 4.1% used telehealth services; 83.1% of them reported good satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Mean HbA1c improved during the lockdown. Overall, 37.6% of participants improved their glycaemic control. Well-educated employed men were more likely to improve glycaemic status. Improving diabetes control through healthy lifestyle practices and self-monitoring are feasible even in resource limited settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , Asia/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Diabetologia ; 65(3): 506-517, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1610630

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Lifestyle modification and weight loss are cornerstones of type 2 diabetes management. However, carbohydrate restriction may have weight-independent beneficial effects on glycaemic control. This has been difficult to demonstrate because low-carbohydrate diets readily decrease body weight. We hypothesised that carbohydrate restriction enhances the beneficial metabolic effects of weight loss in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This open-label, parallel RCT included adults with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c 48-97 mmol/mol (6.5-11%), BMI >25 kg/m2, eGFR >30 ml min-1 [1.73 m]-2 and glucose-lowering therapy restricted to metformin or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Participants were randomised by a third party and assigned to 6 weeks of energy restriction (all foods were provided) aiming at ~6% weight loss with either a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet (CRHP, percentage of total energy intake [E%]: CH30/P30/F40) or a conventional diabetes diet (CD, E%: CH50/P17/F33). Fasting blood samples, continuous glucose monitoring and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to assess glycaemic control, lipid metabolism and intrahepatic fat. Change in HbA1c was the primary outcome; changes in circulating and intrahepatic triacylglycerol were secondary outcomes. Data were collected at Copenhagen University Hospital (Bispebjerg and Herlev). RESULTS: Seventy-two adults (CD 36, CRHP 36, all white, 38 male sex) with type 2 diabetes (mean duration 8 years, mean HbA1c 57 mmol/mol [7.4%]) and mean BMI of 33 kg/m2 were enrolled, of which 67 (CD 33, CRHP 34) completed the study. Body weight decreased by 5.8 kg (5.9%) in both groups after 6 weeks. Compared with the CD diet, the CRHP diet further reduced HbA1c (mean [95% CI] -1.9 [-3.5, -0.3] mmol/mol [-0.18 (-0.32, -0.03)%], p = 0.018) and diurnal mean glucose (mean [95% CI] -0.8 [-1.2, -0.4] mmol/l, p < 0.001), stabilised glucose excursions by reducing glucose CV (mean [95% CI] -4.1 [-5.9, -2.2]%, p < 0.001), and augmented the reductions in fasting triacylglycerol concentration (by mean [95% CI] -18 [-29, -6]%, p < 0.01) and liver fat content (by mean [95% CI] -26 [-45, 0]%, p = 0.051). However, pancreatic fat content was decreased to a lesser extent by the CRHP than the CD diet (mean [95% CI] 33 [7, 65]%, p = 0.010). Fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA2-IR and cholesterol concentrations (total, LDL and HDL) were reduced significantly and similarly by both diets. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Moderate carbohydrate restriction for 6 weeks modestly improved glycaemic control, and decreased circulating and intrahepatic triacylglycerol levels beyond the effects of weight loss itself compared with a CD diet in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Concurrent differences in protein and fat intakes, and the quality of dietary macronutrients, may have contributed to these results and should be explored in future studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03814694. FUNDING: The study was funded by Arla Foods amba, The Danish Dairy Research Foundation, and Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg Frederiksberg.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Dietary Carbohydrates , Glycemic Control , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Male , Weight Loss
17.
J Diabetes Complications ; 36(4): 108145, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665158

ABSTRACT

AIMS: High rates of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (NDDM) have been reported in association with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Factors associated with NDDM and long-term glycemic outcomes are not known. METHODS: Retrospective review of individuals admitted with COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus (DM; based on labs, diagnoses, outpatient insulin use, or severe inpatient hyperglycemia) between March and September 2020, with follow-up through July 2021. RESULTS: Of 1902 individuals admitted with COVID-19, 594 (31.2%) had DM; 77 (13.0%) of these had NDDM. Compared to pre-existing DM, NDDM was more common in younger patients and less common in those of non-Hispanic White race/ethnicity. Glycemic parameters were lower and inflammatory markers higher in patients with NDDM. In adjusted models, NDDM was associated with lower insulin requirements, longer length of stay, and intensive care unit admission but not death. Of 64 survivors with NDDM, 36 (56.3%) continued to have DM, 26 (40.6%) regressed to normoglycemia or pre-diabetes, and 2 were unable to be classified at a median follow-up of 323 days. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes diagnosed at COVID-19 presentation is associated with lower glucose but higher inflammatory markers and ICU admission, suggesting stress hyperglycemia as a major physiologic mechanism. Approximately half of such individuals experience regression of DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 777130, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662576

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify clinical and biochemical characteristics associated with 7- & 30-day mortality and intensive care admission amongst diabetes patients admitted with COVID-19. Research Design and Methods: We conducted a cohort study collecting data from medical notes of hospitalised people with diabetes and COVID-19 in 7 hospitals within the Mersey-Cheshire region from 1 January to 30 June 2020. We also explored the impact on inpatient diabetes team resources. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed and optimised by splitting the dataset into a training, test, and validation sets, developing a robust predictive model for the primary outcome. Results: We analyzed data from 1004 diabetes patients (mean age 74.1 (± 12.6) years, predominantly men 60.7%). 45% belonged to the most deprived population quintile in the UK. Median BMI was 27.6 (IQR 23.9-32.4) kg/m2. The primary outcome (7-day mortality) occurred in 24%, increasing to 33% by day 30. Approximately one in ten patients required insulin infusion (9.8%). In univariate analyses, patients with type 2 diabetes had a higher risk of 7-day mortality [p < 0.05, OR 2.52 (1.06, 5.98)]. Patients requiring insulin infusion had a lower risk of death [p = 0.02, OR 0.5 (0.28, 0.9)]. CKD in younger patients (<70 years) had a greater risk of death [OR 2.74 (1.31-5.76)]. BMI, microvascular and macrovascular complications, HbA1c, and random non-fasting blood glucose on admission were not associated with mortality. On multivariate analysis, CRP and age remained associated with the primary outcome [OR 3.44 (2.17, 5.44)] allowing for a validated predictive model for death by day 7. Conclusions: Higher CRP and advanced age were associated with and predictive of death by day 7. However, BMI, presence of diabetes complications, and glycaemic control were not. A high proportion of these patients required insulin infusion warranting increased input from the inpatient diabetes teams.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Receptors, Immunologic/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
Food Funct ; 13(3): 1617-1627, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655678

ABSTRACT

High-amylose starch branching enzyme II (sbeII) mutant wheat has potential to be low-glycaemic compared to conventional wheat; however, the effects of bread made from sbeII wheat flour on glycaemic response and product quality require investigation. We report the impact of white bread made from sbeII wheat flour on in vitro starch digestibility and product quality, and on postprandial glycaemia in vivo, compared to an isoglucidic wild-type (WT) control white bread. Starch in sbeII bread was ∼20% less susceptible to in vitro amylolysis leading to ∼15% lower glycaemic response measured in vivo, compared to the WT control bread, without major effects on bread appearance or texture, measured instrumentally. Despite the early termination of the in vivo intervention study due to the COVID-19 outbreak (n = 8 out of 19), results from this study indicate that sbeII wheat produces bread with lower starch digestibility than conventional white bread.


Subject(s)
1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme/metabolism , Amylose/metabolism , Bread , Digestion , Functional Food , Triticum , Adult , Blood Glucose , Cross-Over Studies , Double-Blind Method , Female , Glycemic Index , Humans , Male , Postprandial Period , Satiation
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