Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 147
Filter
1.
N Engl J Med ; 385(6): 503-515, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tirzepatide is a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The efficacy and safety of once-weekly tirzepatide as compared with semaglutide, a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist, are unknown. METHODS: In an open-label, 40-week, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1879 patients, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive tirzepatide at a dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg or semaglutide at a dose of 1 mg. At baseline, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 8.28%, the mean age 56.6 years, and the mean weight 93.7 kg. The primary end point was the change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. RESULTS: The estimated mean change from baseline in the glycated hemoglobin level was -2.01 percentage points, -2.24 percentage points, and -2.30 percentage points with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg of tirzepatide, respectively, and -1.86 percentage points with semaglutide; the estimated differences between the 5-mg, 10-mg, and 15-mg tirzepatide groups and the semaglutide group were -0.15 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.28 to -0.03; P = 0.02), -0.39 percentage points (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.26; P<0.001), and -0.45 percentage points (95% CI, -0.57 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Tirzepatide at all doses was noninferior and superior to semaglutide. Reductions in body weight were greater with tirzepatide than with semaglutide (least-squares mean estimated treatment difference, -1.9 kg, -3.6 kg, and -5.5 kg, respectively; P<0.001 for all comparisons). The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal and were primarily mild to moderate in severity in the tirzepatide and semaglutide groups (nausea, 17 to 22% and 18%; diarrhea, 13 to 16% and 12%; and vomiting, 6 to 10% and 8%, respectively). Of the patients who received tirzepatide, hypoglycemia (blood glucose level, <54 mg per deciliter) was reported in 0.6% (5-mg group), 0.2% (10-mg group), and 1.7% (15-mg group); hypoglycemia was reported in 0.4% of those who received semaglutide. Serious adverse events were reported in 5 to 7% of the patients who received tirzepatide and in 3% of those who received semaglutide. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide was noninferior and superior to semaglutide with respect to the mean change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. (Funded by Eli Lilly; SURPASS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03987919.).


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/administration & dosage , Glucagon-Like Peptides/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/adverse effects , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Glucagon-Like Peptides/adverse effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Incretins/therapeutic use , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Nausea/chemically induced , Weight Loss/drug effects
2.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(9): 1297-1302, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065226

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index on in-hospital mortality in nondiabetic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with myocardial injury. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, which included 218 nondiabetic COVID-19 patients who had myocardial injury. The TyG index was derived using the following equation: log [serum triglycerides (mg/dL) ×fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)/2]. RESULTS: Overall, 49 (22.4%) patients died during hospitalization. Patients who did not survive had a higher TyG index than survivors. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, it was found that the TyG index was independently associated with in-hospital death. A TyG index cutoff value greater than 4.97 was predicted in-hospital death in nondiabetic COVID-19 patients with myocardial damage, with 82% sensitivity and 66% specificity. A pairwise evaluation of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that the TyG index (AUC: 0.786) had higher discriminatory performance than both triglyceride (AUC: 0.738) and fasting blood glucose (AUC: 0.660) in predicting in-hospital mortality among these patients. CONCLUSIONS: The TyG index might be used to identify high-risk nondiabetic COVID-19 patients with myocardial damage.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Glucose , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Triglycerides
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 963834, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022990

ABSTRACT

The literature presents several reports of the impact of glycemic control and diabetes in the inflammatory and coagulatory response during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nevertheless, the long-term impact of the COVID-19 in diabetic patients is still to be explored. Therefore, we recruited 128 patients and performed a longitudinal analysis on COVID-19-associated biomarkers of patients with COVID-19, tree and 6 months after COVID-19 recovery and put into perspective the possible long-term complication generated after COVID-19. In our investigation, we failed to verify any long-term modification on inflammatory biomarkers, but detected an increase in the glycemia and glycated hemoglobin in patients without any pre-existing history or diagnosis of diabetes (non-diabetic patients). Although diabetic and non-diabetic patients presented elevated levels of glycated hemoglobin, the c-peptide test indicated a normal beta cell function in all patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e061756, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020055

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Glycaemic variability and other metrics are not well characterised in subjects without diabetes. More comprehensive sampling as obtained with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may improve diagnostic accuracy of the transition from health to pre-diabetes. Our goal is to investigate the glycaemic system as it shifts from health to pre-disease in adult patients without diabetes using CGM metrics. New insights may offer therapeutic promise for reversing dysglycaemia more successfully with dietary, nutritional and lifestyle change before progression occurs to pre-diabetes and diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review will include comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov databases, with restrictions set to studies published in the last 10 years in English and planned search date 10 March 2022. Reference lists of studies that meet eligibility criteria in the screening process will subsequently be screened for the potential inclusion of additional studies. We will include studies that examine CGM use and report diagnostic criteria such as fasting glucose and/or haemoglobin A1c such that we can assess correlation between CGM metrics and established diagnostic criteria and describe how CGM metrics are altered in the transition from health to pre-diabetes. The screening and data extraction will be conducted by two independent reviewers using Covidence. All included papers will also be evaluated for quality and publication bias using Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tools. If there are two or more studies with quantitative estimates that can be combined, we will conduct a meta-analysis after assessing heterogeneity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review methodology does not require formal ethical review due to the nature of the study design. Study findings will be publicly available and published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022308222.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Adult , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Prediabetic State/diagnosis , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
J Integr Complement Med ; 28(9): 757-767, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017651

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Prediabetes is a major public health concern. Different plant extracts are used in homeopathy as mother tinctures (MTs) for the treatment of prediabetes as an adjunct to individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs); however, their effectiveness remains under-researched. Design: Open-label, randomized (1:1), active-controlled, pragmatic, exploratory trial. Setting: Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Howrah, West Bengal, India. Subjects: Eighty-nine patients with prediabetes. Interventions: Group 1 (n = 45; IHMs plus any one of the following MTs: Cephalandra indica, Gymnema sylvestre, and Syzygium jambolanum; experimental/verum) versus Group 2 (n = 44; IHMs only; control). Outcome measures: Blood parameters, including-the fasting blood sugar (FBS) level, blood sugar level 2 h after ingestion of 75 g of glucose (oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT] result), and glycosylated hemoglobin percentage (HbA1c%), and symptoms, including the Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R) score; all of them were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Results: Although recruitment of 140 patients was initially planned, the target sample size could not be achieved because of coronavirus disease pandemic-related restrictions. Only 89 patients could be enrolled, and the trial had to be terminated prematurely owing to the time constraints of the project. The data of 82 patients (Group 1, n = 40; Group 2, n = 42) were analyzed using a modified intention-to-treat approach. Improvements in all outcomes were greater in Group 1 than in Group 2, but without a significant difference: FBS level (F1, 80 = 4.095, p = 0.046), OGTT result (F1, 80 = 2.399, p = 0.125), HbA1c% (F1, 80 = 1.612, p = 0.208), and DSC-R score (F1, 80 = 0.023, p = 0.880). Conclusions: A promising but nonsignificant trend favored the combination of MTs and IHMs compared with IHMs alone among the patients with prediabetes, especially in FBS. Therefore, further studies are required. Clinical Trial Registration Number: CTRI/2018/08/015319; secondary identifier (UTN): U1111-1218-6016.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Prediabetic State , Blood Glucose/analysis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Prediabetic State/blood , Prediabetic State/drug therapy
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272000, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968874

ABSTRACT

Lipid ratios and the triglyceride and glucose index (TyG) could be a simple biochemical marker of insulin resistance (IR). The current study was carried out to examine the correlation between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C), total cholesterol to HDL-C (TC/HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol to HDL-C ratio (LDL-C/HDL-C), as well as TyG index with the severity and mortality of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 1228 confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in the current research. Regression models were performed to evaluate the correlation between the lipid index and severity and mortality of COVID-19. The TyG index and TG/HDL-C levels were significantly higher in the severe patients (P<0.05). TG/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C ratios, and TyG index were significantly lower in survivor cases (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that predictors of the severity adjusted for age, sex and BMI were TyG index, TG/HDL-C ratio (OR = 1.42 CI:1.10-1.82, OR = 1.06 CI: 1.02-1.11, respectively). This analysis showed that TG/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratios, and TyG index statistically are correlated with COVID-19 mortality (OR = 1.12 CI:1.06-1.18, OR = 1.24 CI:1.05-1.48, OR = 1.47 CI:1.19-1.80, OR = 1.52 CI:1.01-2.31, respectively). In summary, the TyG index and lipid ratios such as TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C could be used as an early indicator of COVID-19 mortality. Furthermore, the study revealed that TyG index and TG/HDL-C indices are biochemical markers of COVID-19 severe prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insulin Resistance , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/therapy , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Critical Care Outcomes , Glucose , Humans , Triglycerides
7.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 24(10): 1976-1982, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949121

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the impact of the stay-at-home policy on different glucose metrics for time in range (%TIR 3.9-10 mmol/L), time below range (%TBR < 3.9 mmol/L) and time above range (%TAR > 10 mmol/L) for UK adult FreeStyle Libre (FSL) users within four defined age groups and on observed changes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Data were extracted from 8914 LibreView de-identified user accounts for adult users aged 18 years or older with 5 or more days of sensor readings in each month from January to June 2020. Age-group categories were based on self-reported age on LibreView accounts (18-25, 26-49, 50-64 and ≥65 years). RESULTS: In January, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the 65 years or older age group had the highest %TIR (57.9%), while the 18-25 years age group had the lowest (51.2%) (P < .001). Within each age group, TIR increased during the analysed months, by 1.7% (26-49 years) to 3.1% (≥65 years) (P < .001 in all cases). %TBR was significantly reduced only in the 26-49 years age group, whereas %TAR was reduced by 1.5% (26-49 years) to 3.0% (≥65 years) (P < .001 in both cases). The proportion of adults achieving both of the more than 70% TIR and less than 4% TBR targets increased from 11.7% to 15.9% for those aged 65 years or older (P < .001) and from 6.0% to 9.1% for those aged 18-25 years (P < .05). Mean daily glucose-sensor scan rates were at least 12 per day and remained stable across the analysis period. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the baseline glucose metrics for FSL users in the UK across different age groups under usual care. During lockdown in the UK, the proportion of adults achieving TIR consensus targets increased among FSL users.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
8.
Clin Chim Acta ; 532: 188-192, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To examine glycaemic status, and the impact of at-admission HbA1c levels on outcome, in a large group of participants hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: We inclued 515 participants with confirmed COVID-19 infection, with or without known diabetes, who met the following additional criteria: 1) age > 18 years, 2) HbA1c was determined at admission; 3) fasting plasma glucose was determined in the week of admission, and 4) discharge or death was reached before the end of the study. We examined attributes of participants at admission and 3-6 months post-discharge. To assess the associations of pre-admission attributes with in-hospital mortality, logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Mean age was 70 years, 98.8% were of white race, 49% were female, 31% had known diabetes (KD), an additional 7% met the HbA1c criterion for diabetes, and 13.6% died. In participants with KD, FPG and HbA1c levels were not associated with mortality in adjusted analyses; however, in participants without KD, whereas FPG showed direct association with mortality, HbA1c showed slight inverse association. CONCLUSIONS: There was a very high prevalence of people without KD with HbA1c levels above normal at-admission. This alteration does not seem to have been related to blood glucose levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Aftercare , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Fasting , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge
9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(7): 1369-1372, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To find out the association between poor glycaemic levels and biochemical and haematological abnormalities in patients of corona virus disease-2019. METHODS: The prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted at the Combined Military Hospital, Quetta, Pakistan, from September 2020 to February 2021, and comprised all patients who tested positive for coronavirus disease-2019 on polymerase chain reaction test and were subsequently admitted. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of random blood glucose level at the time of admission; ≥11.1mmol/l (206mg/dl) in group A and 4-11.1mmol (74-206mg/dl) in group B. Association between categorical variables was evaluated and hazard ratio was measured. Data was analysed using SPSS 21. RESULTS: Of the 349 patients, there were 56(16%) in group A; 40(71.4%) males and 16(28.6%) females with age range 39-61 years. There were 293(84%) subjects in group B; 239(81.5%) males and 54(18.5%) females with age range 27-53 years. Overall, 75(21.4%) patients were known type 2 diabetics. A significant association was found between poor glycaemic control and raised levels of C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, troponin, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and D-dimers (p<0.05). Inter-group differences were significant for acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, Intensive care unit admission for coagulation abnormalities and for overall mortality (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Poor glycaemic control was found to be a risk factor for developing multisystem complications in patients of coronavirus disease-2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Alanine Transaminase , Blood Glucose/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Creatine , Creatine Kinase, MB Form , Creatinine , Female , Ferritins , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Troponin
10.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(11): 1925-1933, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886687

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To investigate overlooked diabetes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 462 COVID-19 inpatients were included in this retrospective study. The presence of diabetes before COVID-19 admission, and the HbA1c and blood glucose levels at admission were examined. RESULTS: Of the 462 patients, 116 had diabetes. Seventy-six patients had been diagnosed with diabetes before COVID-19 admission, and 40 patients were diagnosed for the first time. Of the patients with diabetes 72% required insulin. Patients with diabetes were significantly (P < 0.05) older, more likely to be male, heavier, and showed a lower eGFR. Patients with overlooked diabetes showed a lower HbA1c (average 7.1% vs 7.5%), a lower casual blood glucose (average 157 vs 179 mg/dL), and they used less insulin per day during hospitalization (average 16.0 units vs 34.5 units) than patients with previously diagnosed diabetes. Patients with overlooked diabetes tended to have more severe COVID-19 than those with pre-diagnosed diabetes. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that the increased odds ratios (ORs) of aggravation in all patients with COVID-19 were associated with age [OR 1.04], BMI [OR 1.05], and diabetes [OR 2.15]. The risk factors for aggravation in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes were age [OR 1.05] and HbA1c [OR 1.45]. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is a predictor of COVID-19 aggravation. Furthermore, in COVID-19 patients with diabetes, high HbA1c levels are a risk factor for severe COVID-19. A total of 8.7% of COVID-19 inpatients were diagnosed with diabetes after HbA1c was measured on admission. Therefore, it is important to measure HbA1c in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Male , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Blood Glucose/analysis , Inpatients , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Insulin/therapeutic use
11.
J Investig Med ; 70(7): 1481-1487, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874631

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is known to increase mortality in patients with diabetes. We aim to demonstrate the differences in disease course and clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 regarding the presence of impaired fasting glucose, pre-existing diabetes mellitus (DM) or new-onset DM. 236 patients with positive reverse transcription-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 were included in this single-center, retrospective observational study between March 2020 and May 2021. Laboratory results, comorbidities, medications and imaging findings were noted. Logistic regression was used to estimate associated factors for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). 43 patients with normal glucose, 53 with impaired fasting glucose, 60 with newly diagnosed DM, and 80 with pre-existing DM were classified. Patients with pre-existing DM had higher fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin than the other groups (p<0.001 for all). Patients with newly diagnosed DM were more likely to need dexamethasone 6 mg (p=0.001). In both newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired fasting glucose groups, 250 mg methylprednisolone was needed at higher rates (p=0.002). Newly diagnosed DM had higher rates of intubation (21.6%) and more mortality (20.0%) (p=0.045 and p=0.028, respectively). Mortality and hospitalization in the ICU were lower in the group receiving antidiabetic treatment. The risk of ICU attendance was higher in patients with impaired fasting glucose (HR=1.71, 95% CI: 0.48 to 6.08) and newly diagnosed DM (HR=1.88, 95% CI: 0.57 to 6.17), compared with pre-existing DM and non-diabetics. Newly diagnosed DM and impaired fasting glucose are associated with increased mortality and intubation in inpatients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Prediabetic State , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Dexamethasone , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Fasting , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Methylprednisolone , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3240-3250, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850119

ABSTRACT

To observe the predictive effect of fasting blood glucose (FBG) level on the prognosis, clinical sequelae, and pulmonary absorption in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with and without a history of diabetes, respectively, and to evaluate the correlation between the dynamic changes of FBG and poor prognosis. In this bidirectional cohort study, we enrolled 2545 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (439 diabetics and 2106 without a diabetic history) and followed up for 1 year. The patients were divided according to the level of admission FBG. The dynamic changes of FBG were compared between the survival and the death cases. The prediction effect of FBG on 1-year mortality and sequelae was analyzed. The 1-year all cause mortality rate and in-hospital mortality rate of COVID-19 patients were J-curve correlated with FBG (p < 0.001 for both in the nondiabetic history group, p = 0.004 and p = 0.01 in the diabetic history group). FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L had a higher risk of developing sequelae (p = 0.025) and have slower recovery of abnormal lung scans (p < 0.001) in patients who denied a history of diabetes. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L was an independent risk factor for the mortality of COVID-19 regardless of the presence or deny a history of diabetes (hazard atio [HR] = 10.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.15-15.83, p < 0.001; HR = 3.9, 95% CI: 1.56-9.77, p = 0.004, respectively). Our study shows that FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L can be a predictive factor of 1-year all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients, independent of diabetes history. FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L has an advantage in predicting the severity, clinical sequelae, and pulmonary absorption in COVID-19 patients without a history of diabetes. Early detection, timely treatment, and strict control of blood glucose when finding hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients (with or without diabetes) are critical for their prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Fasting , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 536, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815583

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effect of the combination of linagliptin and insulin on metabolic control and prognosis in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hyperglycemia. A parallel double-blind randomized clinical trial including hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia, randomized to receive 5 mg linagliptin + insulin (LI group) or insulin alone (I group) was performed. The main outcomes were the need for assisted mechanical ventilation and glucose levels during hospitalization. Subjects were screened for eligibility at hospital admission if they were not with assisted mechanical ventilation and presented hyperglycemia, and a total of 73 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia were randomized to the LI group (n = 35) or I group (n = 38). The average hospital stay was 12 ± 1 vs 10 ± 1 days for the I and LI groups, respectively (p = 0.343). There were no baseline clinical differences between the study groups, but the percentage of males was higher in the LI group (26 vs 18, p = 0.030). The improvements in fasting and postprandial glucose levels were better in the LI group that the I group (122 ± 7 vs 149 ± 10, p = 0.033; and 137 ± 7 vs 173 ± 12, p = 0.017, respectively), and insulin requirements tended to be lower in the LI group than the I group. Three patients in the LI group and 12 in the I group required assisted mechanical ventilation (HR 0.258, CI 95% 0.092-0.719, p = 0.009); 2 patients in the LI group and 6 in the I group died after a follow-up of 30 days (p = 0.139). No major side effects were observed. The combination of linagliptin and insulin in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia reduced the relative risk of assisted mechanical ventilation by 74% and improved better pre and postprandial glucose levels with lower insulin requirements, and no higher risk of hypoglycemia.This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT04542213 on 09/03/2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Insulin/therapeutic use , Linagliptin/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 850191, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785450

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether first-trimester fasting plasma glucose (FPG), blood coagulation function and lipid metabolism could predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. Methods: From October 2020 to May 2021, a total of 584 pregnant women who took prenatal care in Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital were chosen as the observation subjects. The clinical information and serum samples of all pregnant women were collected at 10-13 weeks of gestation and the blood coagulation function, fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles of the pregnant women were detected. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed up to 24-28 weeks of gestation. One hundred forty-two pregnant women with GDM and 442 pregnant women without GDM were detected. Data were expressed by x ± s or median (interquartile range) and were analyzed using student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Logistic regression analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) to analyze the predictive values. Results: Compared with non-GDM group, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, FPG, FIB, D-Dimer, FDP, FPG, TC, TG, LDL-C, sdLDL-C, APOB and APOE in GDM group were significantly higher than those in non-GDM group, while PT, INR, APTT and TT were significantly lower than those in non-GDM group. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors of GDM. Gestational age, pre-pregnancy BMI, FPG, PT, INR, APTT, FIB, TT, D-Dimer, TC, TG, LDL-C, sdLDL-C, APOB and APOE were all independent predictors of GDM. Multivariatelogistic regression showed that pre-pregnancy BMI, FPG, APTT, TT, TG, LDL-C, sdLDL-C and APOB were risk factors for GDM. The AUC of the established GDM risk prediction model was 0.892 (0.858-0.927), and the sensitivity and specificity were 80.71 and 86.85%, respectively; which were greater than that of pre-pregnancy BMI, FPG, APTT, TT,TG, LDL-C, sdLDL-C, APOB alone, and the difffference was statistically signifificant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: FPG, APTT, TT, TG, LDL-C, sdLDL-C, APOB and pre-pregnancy BMI in early pregnancy has important clinical value for the prediction of GDM, We combined these laboratory indicators and established a GDM risk prediction model, which is conducive to the early identification, intervention and treatment of GDM, so as to reduce the morbidity of maternal and infant complications.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational , Apolipoproteins B/metabolism , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Blood Coagulation , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Female , Glycolipids , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Pregnancy
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1967-1975, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777577

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess whether blood glucose control can be used as predictors for the severity of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and to improve the management of diabetic patients with COVID-19. A two-center cohort with a total of 241 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with definite outcomes was studied. After the diagnosis of COVID-19, the clinical data and laboratory results were collected, the fasting blood glucose levels were followed up at initial, middle stage of admission and discharge, the severity of the COVID-19 was assessed at any time from admission to discharge. Hyperglycemia patients with COVID-19 were divided into three groups: good blood glucose control, fair blood glucose control, and blood glucose deterioration. The relationship of blood glucose levels, blood glucose control status, and severe COVID-19 were analyzed by univariate and multivariable regression analysis. In our cohort, 21.16% were severe cases and 78.84% were nonsevere cases. Admission hyperglycemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.938; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.387-2.707), mid-term hyperglycemia (aOR, 1.758; 95% CI, 1.325-2.332), and blood glucose deterioration (aOR, 22.783; 95% CI, 2.661-195.071) were identified as the risk factors of severe COVID-19. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, reaching an area under ROC curve of 0.806, and a sensitivity and specificity of 80.40% and 68.40%, respectively, revealed that hyperglycemia on admission and blood glucose deterioration of diabetic patients are potential predictive factors for severe COVID-19. Our results indicated that admission hyperglycemia and blood glucose deterioration were positively correlated with the risk factor for severe COVID-19, and deterioration of blood glucose may be more likely to the occurrence of severe illness in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(6): e13771, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on glycaemic control and diabetes follow-up in a Spanish metropolitan area with a total general population of 340,000. METHODS: A retrospective real-world study comparing HbA1c testing, an indicator of diabetes control, and mean HbA1c during different COVID-19 restriction periods in 2020 (full lockdown, post-lockdown, partial lockdown) with the same periods in 2019. HbA1c testing was analysed per study period and according to gender, age and clinical setting. Associations between HbA1c testing and different covariables were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Changes in HbA1c were evaluated by repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: During full lockdown, 6847 individuals, of which 56.7% were over 65 and 6.5% below 40, were tested for HbA1c compared to 14,180 in 2019 (OR 0.47, 95% CI:0.46-0.49). Reduction in HbA1c testing was greater among older individuals (OR 0.44, 95% CI:0.42-0.45). No differences were observed for post-lockdown (OR 1.01, 95% CI:0.99-1.04). During partial lockdown, 10,816 individuals had at least one HbA1c measured compared to 12,749 in 2019 (OR 0.84, 95% CI:0.82-0.87). Mean HbA1c during full lockdown was 7.26% (±1.06) compared to 7.50% (±1.14) in 2019 (p < .0001). For gender and across all age groups, HbA1c levels were lower during full lockdown. HbA1c changes were not significantly different during post-lockdown and partial lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 restriction measures affected HbA1c testing. During complete lockdown, HbA1c testing decreased by half across all gender and age groups. No deleterious effect on glycaemic control was observed during lockdown and post-lockdown among those tested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
17.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725891

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort (United Kingdom, N = 21,318, 1993-1998), we studied how associations between meal patterns and non-fasting triglyceride and glucose concentrations were influenced by the hour of day at which the blood sample was collected to ascertain face validity of reported meal patterns, as well as the influence of reporting bias (assessed using formula of energy expenditure) on this association. Meal size (i.e., reported energy content), mealtime and meal frequency were reported using pre-structured 7-day diet diaries. In ANCOVA, sex-specific means of biomarker concentrations were calculated by hour of blood sample collection for quartiles of reported energy intake at breakfast, lunch and dinner (meal size). Significant interactions were observed between breakfast size, sampling time and triglyceride concentrations and between lunch size, sampling time and triglyceride, as well as glucose concentrations. Those skipping breakfast had the lowest triglyceride concentrations in the morning and those skipping lunch had the lowest triglyceride and glucose concentrations in the afternoon, especially among acceptable energy reporters. Eating and drinking occasion frequency was weakly associated with glucose concentrations in women and positively associated with triglyceride concentrations in both sexes; stronger associations were observed for larger vs. smaller meals and among acceptable energy reporters. Associations between meal patterns and concentration biomarkers can be observed when accounting for diurnal variation and underreporting. These findings support the use of 7-day diet diaries for studying associations between meal patterns and health.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Diet Records , Eating/physiology , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Meals/physiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Triglycerides/blood , United Kingdom
18.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 7424748, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious global health threat and has spread dramatically worldwide. Prolonged viral shedding is associated with a more severe disease course and inflammatory reaction. Blood glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: Previous studies focused primarily on the relationship between blood glucose and mortality or severe outcomes, but there were few research studies on the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA positive status. To explore the relationship between FPG levels and prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral positivity, the clinical data of COVID-19 patients were analyzed. METHOD: In this retrospective study, 99 cases of COVID-19 patients in Beijing Ditan Hospital were recruited, and their clinical and laboratory findings at admission were collected and analyzed. Furthermore, the risk factors for prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding were identified, and the relationship between FPG levels and the prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was evaluated. RESULT: We found that elevated FPG levels were correlated with longer duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity, classification of COVID-19, imaging changes of chest CT, inflammation-related biomarkers, and CD8+ T cell number in COVID-19 patients. In a logistic regression model, after adjusting for gender and age, COVID-19 patients with elevated FPG were more likely to had longer duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity than those with normal FPG levels (OR 3.053 [95% CI 1.343, 6.936]). CONCLUSION: Higher FPG levels (≥6.1 mmol/l) at admission was an independent predictor for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding, regardless of a known history of diabetes. It suggests that intensive monitoring and control of blood glucose are important for all COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Patient Admission , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Fasting/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 777130, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662576

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify clinical and biochemical characteristics associated with 7- & 30-day mortality and intensive care admission amongst diabetes patients admitted with COVID-19. Research Design and Methods: We conducted a cohort study collecting data from medical notes of hospitalised people with diabetes and COVID-19 in 7 hospitals within the Mersey-Cheshire region from 1 January to 30 June 2020. We also explored the impact on inpatient diabetes team resources. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed and optimised by splitting the dataset into a training, test, and validation sets, developing a robust predictive model for the primary outcome. Results: We analyzed data from 1004 diabetes patients (mean age 74.1 (± 12.6) years, predominantly men 60.7%). 45% belonged to the most deprived population quintile in the UK. Median BMI was 27.6 (IQR 23.9-32.4) kg/m2. The primary outcome (7-day mortality) occurred in 24%, increasing to 33% by day 30. Approximately one in ten patients required insulin infusion (9.8%). In univariate analyses, patients with type 2 diabetes had a higher risk of 7-day mortality [p < 0.05, OR 2.52 (1.06, 5.98)]. Patients requiring insulin infusion had a lower risk of death [p = 0.02, OR 0.5 (0.28, 0.9)]. CKD in younger patients (<70 years) had a greater risk of death [OR 2.74 (1.31-5.76)]. BMI, microvascular and macrovascular complications, HbA1c, and random non-fasting blood glucose on admission were not associated with mortality. On multivariate analysis, CRP and age remained associated with the primary outcome [OR 3.44 (2.17, 5.44)] allowing for a validated predictive model for death by day 7. Conclusions: Higher CRP and advanced age were associated with and predictive of death by day 7. However, BMI, presence of diabetes complications, and glycaemic control were not. A high proportion of these patients required insulin infusion warranting increased input from the inpatient diabetes teams.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Receptors, Immunologic/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(1): 148-155, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621938

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To explore the relationship between handgrip strength per weight (HGS/W), triglyceride glucose index (TyG) and diabetes, and whether lower HGS levels precede TyG in the Chinese elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two linear regression models were used to explore the association of whether baseline HGS/W predicted follow-up variation of TyG or baseline TyG predicted follow-up variation of HGS/W. The logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between baseline HGS/W and future diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 4,561 participants in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were enrolled, of which 47.0% were men, and the mean age was 58.7 years (standard deviation 8.68 years). A lower baseline HGS/W significantly correlated with a higher level of follow-up TyG (ß = -0.173, P = 0.002). The baseline level of HGS/W was significantly negatively associated with the incidence risk of diabetes (rate ratio 0.375, P = 0.004). However, in sex stratification, the statistical association between HGS/W and TyG and diabetes was only in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that HGS/W was inversely associated with TyG and diabetes, and lower HGS/W levels preceded TyG levels in the elderly population. However, the effect was inconsistent between men and women, and the possible mechanism would require further clarification.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Hand Strength , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Aged , Body Weight , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL