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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 536, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621272

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effect of the combination of linagliptin and insulin on metabolic control and prognosis in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hyperglycemia. A parallel double-blind randomized clinical trial including hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia, randomized to receive 5 mg linagliptin + insulin (LI group) or insulin alone (I group) was performed. The main outcomes were the need for assisted mechanical ventilation and glucose levels during hospitalization. Subjects were screened for eligibility at hospital admission if they were not with assisted mechanical ventilation and presented hyperglycemia, and a total of 73 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia were randomized to the LI group (n = 35) or I group (n = 38). The average hospital stay was 12 ± 1 vs 10 ± 1 days for the I and LI groups, respectively (p = 0.343). There were no baseline clinical differences between the study groups, but the percentage of males was higher in the LI group (26 vs 18, p = 0.030). The improvements in fasting and postprandial glucose levels were better in the LI group that the I group (122 ± 7 vs 149 ± 10, p = 0.033; and 137 ± 7 vs 173 ± 12, p = 0.017, respectively), and insulin requirements tended to be lower in the LI group than the I group. Three patients in the LI group and 12 in the I group required assisted mechanical ventilation (HR 0.258, CI 95% 0.092-0.719, p = 0.009); 2 patients in the LI group and 6 in the I group died after a follow-up of 30 days (p = 0.139). No major side effects were observed. The combination of linagliptin and insulin in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia reduced the relative risk of assisted mechanical ventilation by 74% and improved better pre and postprandial glucose levels with lower insulin requirements, and no higher risk of hypoglycemia.This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT04542213 on 09/03/2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Insulin/therapeutic use , Linagliptin/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(8): 550-555, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526212

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-related disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated coagulopathy presents predominantly with thrombosis and leads to complications in close association with inflammatory process. Soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR), which is the soluble form of EPCR, reduces the anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activity of activated protein C. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sEPCR and the laboratory parameters and thorax computed tomography (CT) findings in the course of COVID-19. Twenty-five laboratory-confirmed [reverse transcription-quantitative polimerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) positive] and 24 clinically diagnosed (RT-qPCR negative) COVID-19 patients were enrolled in the study. Blood specimens were collected for sEPCR and haematological and biochemical parameter measurement. Thorax CT was performed to detect COVID-19 findings. These parameters from RT-qPCR positive and negative patients were then compared. Although there was no difference between the groups in terms of symptoms, the time between the onset of symptoms and the admission time was shorter in RT-qPCR positive group (P = 0.000). sEPCR levels were significantly higher in the RT-qPCR positive group (P = 0.011). Patients with ground-glass opacity and bilateral involvement on thorax CT have higher serum sEPCR levels (P = 0.012 and 0.043, respectively). This study has shown for the first time that serum sEPCR levels, which is a member of coagulation cascade and has also been reported to be associated with inflammation, is higher in patients with positive RT-qPCR test and patients with GGO or bilateral involvement on thorax CT regardless of the PCR result.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Endothelial Protein C Receptor/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Solubility , Thrombophilia/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(5): 1142-1146, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485221

ABSTRACT

It has been suggested that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a negative impact on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, no study has examined yearly trends in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels after the start of the COVID-19 outbreak. Here, we performed a retrospective analysis of HbA1c concentrations during the early period of the COVID-19 outbreak (COVID-19 cohort) and then compared the yearly trend in the mean HbA1c level, along with fluctuations in HbA1c levels, with those during previous years (non-COVID-19 cohorts). We observed that the mean HbA1c level in patients with T2DM increased during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 outbreak. After 6 months, HbA1c levels in the COVID-19 cohort returned to levels seen in the non-COVID-19 cohorts. The data suggest that vulnerable patients with T2DM should be monitored closely during the early period of a pandemic to ensure they receive appropriate care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycemic Control/trends , Adult , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Time Factors
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256682, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid (GC)-exacerbated hyperglycemia is prevalent in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) but evidence-based insulin guidelines in inpatient settings are lacking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Retrospective cohort study with capillary blood glucose (CBG) readings and insulin use, dosed with 50% basal (glargine)-50% bolus (lispro) insulin, analyzed in hospitalized patients with insulin-treated DM given GC and matched controls without GC (n = 131 pairs). GC group (median daily prednisone-equivalent dose: 53.36 mg (IQR 30.00, 80.04)) had greatest CBG differences compared to controls at dinner (254±69 vs. 184±63 mg/dL, P<0.001) and bedtime (260±72 vs. 182±55 mg/dL, P<0.001). In GC group, dinner CBG was 30% higher than lunch (254±69 vs. 199±77 mg/dL, P<0.001) when similar lispro to controls given at lunch. Bedtime CBG not different from dinner when 20% more lispro given at dinner (0.12 units/kg (IQR 0.08, 0.17) vs. 0.10 units/kg (0.06, 0.14), P<0.01). Despite receiving more lispro, bedtime hypoglycemic events were lower in GC group (0.0% vs. 5.9%, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Since equal bolus doses inadequately treat large dinner and bedtime GC-exacerbated glycemic excursions, initiating higher bolus insulin at lunch and dinner with additional enhanced GC-specific insulin supplemental scale may be needed as initial insulin doses in setting of high-dose GC.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin , Aged , Chicago/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
8.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(8): 550-555, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331612

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-related disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated coagulopathy presents predominantly with thrombosis and leads to complications in close association with inflammatory process. Soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR), which is the soluble form of EPCR, reduces the anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory activity of activated protein C. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sEPCR and the laboratory parameters and thorax computed tomography (CT) findings in the course of COVID-19. Twenty-five laboratory-confirmed [reverse transcription-quantitative polimerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) positive] and 24 clinically diagnosed (RT-qPCR negative) COVID-19 patients were enrolled in the study. Blood specimens were collected for sEPCR and haematological and biochemical parameter measurement. Thorax CT was performed to detect COVID-19 findings. These parameters from RT-qPCR positive and negative patients were then compared. Although there was no difference between the groups in terms of symptoms, the time between the onset of symptoms and the admission time was shorter in RT-qPCR positive group (P = 0.000). sEPCR levels were significantly higher in the RT-qPCR positive group (P = 0.011). Patients with ground-glass opacity and bilateral involvement on thorax CT have higher serum sEPCR levels (P = 0.012 and 0.043, respectively). This study has shown for the first time that serum sEPCR levels, which is a member of coagulation cascade and has also been reported to be associated with inflammation, is higher in patients with positive RT-qPCR test and patients with GGO or bilateral involvement on thorax CT regardless of the PCR result.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Endothelial Protein C Receptor/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Solubility , Thrombophilia/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102188, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293736

ABSTRACT

AIM: The pandemic has generated the need for COVID-19 patients to be treated as best as possible; however, the effect of these treatments on glycemic control has not yet been taken into account. This article aims to determine whether the daily variation of glucose is influenced by the use of corticosteroids in COVID-19 patients treated in Lima-Peru. METHODOLOGY: A prospective cohort study was undertook, in which glucose was measured four times a day in 53 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. These values were associated with the use of corticosteroids and adjusted for other socio-educational variables, all by means of PA-GEE models. RESULTS: Nested multivariate analysis of daily glucose variation found that those using corticosteroids increased the daily average glucose as well as the first and last glucose measurements, this is, at 6am and 10pm, respectively (all p-values <0.026). An increase in glucose levels was also observed in those with diabetes (all p-values <0.001). In contrast, we found that there was a decrease in the last glucose measurement of the day in obese patients (p-value = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: The patients who used corticosteroids for the treatment of COVID-19 increased the average glucose per day, especially in the first and last measurement.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 severity. This multi-center randomized clinical trial aims to determine the effects of 5000 IU versus 1000 IU daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation in the recovery of symptoms and other clinical parameters among mild to moderate COVID-19 patients with sub-optimal vitamin D status. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A total of 69 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 positive adults who were hospitalized for mild to moderate COVID-19 disease were allocated to receive once daily for 2 weeks either 5000 IU oral vitamin D3 (n = 36, 21 males; 15 females) or 1000 IU oral vitamin D3 (standard control) (n = 33, 13 males; 20 females). Anthropometrics were measured and blood samples were taken pre- and post-supplementation. Fasting blood glucose, lipids, serum 25(OH)D, and inflammatory markers were measured. COVID-19 symptoms were noted on admission and monitored until full recovery. RESULTS: Vitamin D supplementation for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D levels in the 5000 IU group only (adjusted p = 0.003). Within-group comparisons also showed a significant decrease in BMI and IL-6 levels overtime in both groups (p-values < 0.05) but was not clinically significant in between-group comparisons. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the 5000 IU group had a significantly shorter time to recovery (days) than the 1000 IU group in resolving cough, even after adjusting for age, sex, baseline BMI, and D-dimer (6.2 ± 0.8 versus 9.1 ± 0.8; p = 0.039), and ageusia (loss of taste) (11.4 ± 1.0 versus 16.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: A 5000 IU daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation for 2 weeks reduces the time to recovery for cough and gustatory sensory loss among patients with sub-optimal vitamin D status and mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms. The use of 5000 IU vitamin D3 as an adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 patients with suboptimal vitamin D status, even for a short duration, is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lipids/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(10): e4007-e4016, 2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261287

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a need for remote blood glucose (BG) monitoring in the intensive care unit (ICU). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate feasibility and patient safety of a hybrid monitoring strategy of point-of-care (POC) BG plus continuous glucose monitor (CGM) in the ICU. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: ICU of an academic medical center. PATIENTS: Patients with COVID-19 on IV insulin. INTERVENTION: After meeting initial validation criteria, CGM was used for IV insulin titration and POC BG was performed every 6 hours or as needed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included frequency of POC BG, workflow, safety, and accuracy measures. RESULTS: The study included 19 patients, 18 with CGM data, mean age 58 years, 89% on mechanical ventilation, 37% on vasopressors, and 42% on dialysis. The median time to CGM validation was 137 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 114-206). During IV insulin, the median number of POC values was 7 (IQR 6-16) on day 1, and declined slightly thereafter (71% reduction compared with standard of 24/day). The median number of CGM values used nonadjunctively to titrate IV insulin was 11.5 (IQR 0, 15) on day 1 and increased thereafter. Time in range 70 to 180 mg/dL was 64 ± 23% on day 1 and 72 ± 16% on days 2 through 7, whereas time <70 mg/dL was 1.5 ± 4.1% on day 1 and <1% on days 2 through 7. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data to support that CGM using a hybrid protocol is feasible, accurate, safe, and has potential to reduce nursing and staff workload.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Insulin/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Illness/therapy , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Complications/virology , Female , Glycemic Control/methods , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 16(4): 181-189, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233816

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire population with the most deleterious effects in elders. Elders, especially those with diabetes, are at the highest risk of COVID-19 related adverse outcomes and mortality. This is usually linked to the comorbidities that accumulate with age, diabetes-related chronic inflammation, and the pandemic's psychosocial effects.Areas covered: We present some approaches to manage these complicated elderly patients with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the inpatient setting, we suggest similar (pre-pandemic) glycemic targets and emphasize the importance of using IV insulin and possible use of continuous glucose monitoring to reduce exposure and PPE utilization. Outside the hospital, we recommend optimal glycemic control within the limits imposed by considerations of safety. We also describe the advantages and challenges of using various technological platforms in clinical care.Expert opinion: The COVID-19 pandemic has lifted the veil off serious deficiencies in the infrastructures for care at both the individual level and the population level and also highlighted some of the strengths, all of which affect individuals with diabetes and COVID-19. We anticipate that things will not return to 'normal' after the COVID-19 pandemic has run its course, but rather they will be superseded by 'New Normal.'


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Inflammation/complications , Personal Protective Equipment/ethics , Administration, Intravenous , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Management , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Telemedicine/methods
14.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(5): 358-366, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217792

ABSTRACT

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first identified during pregnancy. Delays in diagnosis and challenges in management can lead to serious adverse outcomes for the mother and child. As rates of GDM diagnosis increase worldwide, health systems and maternity services have become increasingly strained, especially with new restrictions around in-person care due to the current COVID-19 pandemic. Mobile health (mHealth) has increasingly shown promise for management of chronic disease, driven by smartphone adoption and increased internet connectivity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adoption and multidisciplinary care coordination of an mHealth platform called M♡THer in a cohort of women with first-time diagnosis of GDM. Methods: The mHealth platform for GDM management was developed incorporating a smartphone application, clinician portal, and secure cloud data storage. Forty participants with a first-time diagnosis of GDM were recruited to use the app during their pregnancy. User attitudes from clinicians and women were captured through post-hoc surveys, and app-usage metrics. Results: Clinicians and women indicated satisfaction and ease of use of the mHealth platform, with some technological challenges around wireless connectivity. Blood glucose reviews and antenatal contact were higher with use of the M♡THer app compared with a matched historical sample. Conclusion: The M♡THer mHealth platform is a new comprehensive tool for health care of women with GDM, and may provide an effective new avenue to enhance multidisciplinary care in the face of COVID-19 disruptions and challenges to traditional care pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes, Gestational/therapy , Mobile Applications , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Women's Health , Adult , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Cohort Studies , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Patient Care Team , Patient Satisfaction , Pregnancy , Smartphone , Young Adult
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202187

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, infects host cells using the angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor after priming by host proteases, including TMPRSS2. COVID-19 affects multiple organ systems, and male patients suffer increased severity and mortality. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive-age women and is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphology. PCOS is associated with obesity and cardiometabolic comorbidities, both being risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 pathology. We hypothesize that elevated androgens in PCOS regulate SARS-CoV-2 entry proteins in multiple tissues increasing the risk for this population. Female mice were treated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 90 days. Body composition was measured by EchoMRI. Fasting glucose was determined by an enzymatic method. mRNA and protein levels of ACE2, Tmprss2, Cathepsin L, Furin, Tmprss4, and Adam17 were quantified by RT-qPCR, Western-blot, or ELISA in tissues, serum, and urine. DHT treatment increased body weight, fat and lean mass, and fasting glucose. Ace2 mRNA was upregulated in the lung, cecum, heart, and kidney, while downregulated in the brain by DHT. ACE2 protein was upregulated by DHT in the small intestine, heart, and kidney. The SARS-CoV-2 priming proteases Tmprss2, Cathepsin L, and Furin mRNA were upregulated by DHT in the kidney. ACE2 sheddase Adam17 mRNA was upregulated by DHT in the kidney, which corresponded with increased urinary ACE2 in DHT treated mice. Our results highlight the potential for increased cardiac, renal, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in PCOS women with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Hyperandrogenism/pathology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/urine , Animals , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin L/genetics , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Virus Internalization
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 640529, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190303

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study examined changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels during hospitalization and their effect on risk of death for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients without previously diagnosed diabetes. A model with low- and high-stable pattern trajectories was established based on a longitudinal change in FBG levels. We analyzed FBG trajectory-associated clinical features and risk factors for death due to COVID-19. Of the 230 enrolled patients, 44 died and 87.83% had a low-stable pattern (average FBG range: 6.63-7.54 mmol/L), and 12.17% had a high-stable pattern (average FBG range: 12.59-14.02 mmol/L). There were statistical differences in laboratory findings and case fatality between the two FBG patterns. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that increased neutrophil count (odds ratio [OR], 25.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.07, 313.03), elevated direct bilirubin (OR, 5.80; 95%CI: 1.72, 19.58), elevated creatinine (OR, 26.69; 95% CI: 5.82, 122.29), lymphopenia (OR, 8.07; 95% CI: 2.70, 24.14), and high-stable FBG pattern (OR, 8.79; 95% CI: 2.39, 32.29) were independent risk factors for higher case fatality in patients with COVID-19 and hyperglycemia but no history of diabetes. FBG trajectories were significantly associated with death risk in patients with COVID-19 and no diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Aged , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus , Fasting , Female , Glycemic Control , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Leukocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 173: 108674, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The DAR Global survey of Ramadan-fasting during the COVID-19 pandemic aimed to describe the characteristics and care in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with a specific comparison between those <65 years and ≥65 years. METHODS: Participants were consented to answer a physician-administered questionnaire following Ramadan 2020. Impact of COVID-19 on the decision of fasting, intentions to fast and duration of Ramadan and Shawal fasting, hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia events were assessed. Specific analysis comparing age categories of <65 years and ≥65 years were performed. RESULTS: Among the 5865 participants, 22.5% were ≥65 years old. Concern for COVID-19 affected fasting decision for 7.6% (≥65 years) vs 5.4% (<65 years). More participants ≥65 years old did not fast (28.8% vs 12.7%, <65 years). Of the 83.6%, participants fulfilling Ramadan-fasting, 94.8% fasted ≥15 days and 12.6% had to break fast due to diabetes-related illness. The average number of days fasting within and post-Ramadan were 27 and 6 days respectively, regardless of age. Hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia occurred in 15.7% and 16.3% of participants respectively, with 6.5% and 7.4% requiring hospital care respectively. SMBG was performed in 73.8% of participants and 43.5% received Ramadan-focused education. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, universally high rates of Ramadan-fasting were observed regardless of fasting risk level. Glycemic complications occurred frequently with older adults requiring higher rates of acute hospital care. Risk stratification is essential followed by pre-Ramadan interventions, Ramadan-focused diabetes education and self-monitoring to reduce and prevent complications, with particular emphasis in older adults.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Fasting/physiology , Islam , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Diabetes Metab ; 47(3): 101254, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a known risk factor for mortality in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Our objective was to identify prevalence of hyperglycaemia in COVID-19 patients with and without prior diabetes and quantify its association with COVID-19 disease course. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This observational cohort study included all consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to John H Stroger Jr. Hospital, Chicago, IL from March 15, 2020 to May 3, 2020 and followed till May 15, 2020. The primary outcome was hospital mortality, and the studied predictor was hyperglycaemia [any blood glucose ≥7.78 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) during hospitalization]. RESULTS: Of the 403 COVID-19 patients studied, 51 (12.7%) died; 335 (83.1%) were discharged while 17 (4%) were still in hospital. Hyperglycaemia occurred in 228 (56.6%) patients; 83 of these hyperglycaemic patients (36.4%) had no prior history of diabetes. Compared to the reference group no-diabetes/no-hyperglycaemia patients the no-diabetes/hyperglycaemia patients showed higher mortality [1.8% versus 20.5%, adjusted odds ratio 21.94 (95% confidence interval 4.04-119.0), P < 0.001]; improved prediction of death (P = 0.01) and faster progression to death (P < 0.01). Hyperglycaemia within the first 24 and 48 h was also significantly associated with mortality (odds ratio 2.15 and 3.31, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycaemia without prior diabetes was common (20.6% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients) and was associated with an increased risk of and faster progression to death. Development of hyperglycaemia in COVID-19 patients who do not have diabetes is an early indicator of progressive disease.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged
20.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029621996445, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the factors associated with elevated fibrinogen (Fbg) levels in COVID-19 patients with and without diabetes (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). METHODS: According to whether or not their glucose metabolism was impaired, COVID-19 patients were subdivided into 2 groups: 1) with DM and IFG, 2) control group. Their demographic data, medical history, signs and symptoms, laboratory results, and final clinical results were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: 28 patients (16.3%) died during hospitalization, including 21 (29.2%) in group 1 and 7 (7.0%) in group 2 (P < 0.001). Fbg levels in groups 1 and 2 were higher than the normal range, at 5.6 g/L (IQR 4.5-7.2 g/L) and 5.0 g/L (IQR 4.0-6.1 g/L), respectively (P = 0.009). Serum ferritin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), triglycerides (TG) were significantly increased in group 1 compared to those in the control. TG levels were 1.3 mmol/L in the control, while that in group 1 was 1.8 mmol/L. Multiple linear regression showed that the predicting factors of Fbg in the control group were serum ferritin and CRP, R2 = 0.295; in group 1, serum ferritin, CRP, and TG, R2 = 0.473. CONCLUSIONS: Fbg in all COVID-19 patients is related to serum ferritin and CRP involved in inflammation. Furthermore, in COVID-19 patients with insulin resistance, Fbg is linearly positively correlated with TG. This suggests that regulation of TG, insulin resistance, and inflammation may reduce hypercoagulability in COVID-19 patients, especially those with insulin resistance.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Fasting/blood , Fibrinogen/analysis , Insulin Resistance , Thrombophilia/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/virology , Triglycerides/blood , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
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