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1.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(2): 445-452, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392054

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is aimed at evaluating changes in metrics of glucose control in home-isolated patients with type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 using a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system. METHODS: We included adults aged 18-45 years with type 1 diabetes, using CGM, followed by telemedicine at a Southern Italian University Hospital. Thirty-two home-quarantined subjects with SARS-CoV-2 positive swab constituted the COVID-19 group. Thirty age-matched diabetic individuals without COVID-19 formed the control group. The effects of COVID-19 on glycemic control in patients infected were assessed at different time points [2 weeks before-COVID-19 (Time 1), 2 weeks during-COVID-19 (Time 2) and 2 weeks after COVID-19 (Time 3)] and compared with those without infection. RESULTS: A significant reduction of TIR (Time 1 vs Time 2, %, 60.1 ± 16.6 vs 55.4 ± 19.2, P = 0.03), associated with a significant increase of TAR level 2 (10.1 ± 7.3 vs 16.7 ± 12.9, P < 0.001), GMI (7.1 ± 0.6 vs 7.5 ± 0.8, P < 0.001), CV (37.3 ± 7.1 vs 39.6 ± 7.0, P = 0.04), mean glucose values (mg/dL, 160.2 ± 26.5 vs 175.5 ± 32.6, P = 0.001) and standard deviation (59.2 ± 13.1 vs 68.6 ± 17.7, P = 0.001) was observed in patients with COVID-19. No significant change of glycemic metrics was found in the NO COVID-19 group across the time. CONCLUSION: Young home-isolated patients with type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 showed a worsening of glucose control during COVID-19, as compared with age-matched diabetic subjects without the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Glycemic Control , Quarantine , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/drug effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Italy , Male , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine , Young Adult
3.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 128, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) may exert beneficial effects on the immune system of patients with viral infections. This paper aimed to examine the effect of n3-PUFA supplementation on inflammatory and biochemical markers in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 128 critically ill patients infected with COVID-19 who were randomly assigned to the intervention (fortified formula with n3-PUFA) (n = 42) and control (n = 86) groups. Data on 1 month survival rate, blood glucose, sodium (Na), potassium (K), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), albumin, hematocrit (HCT), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), mean arterial pressure (MAP), O2 saturation (O2sat), arterial pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), bicarbonate (HCO3), base excess (Be), white blood cells (WBCs), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (Plt), and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were collected at baseline and after 14 days of the intervention. RESULTS: The intervention group had significantly higher 1-month survival rate and higher levels of arterial pH, HCO3, and Be and lower levels of BUN, Cr, and K compared with the control group after intervention (all P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between blood glucose, Na, HCT, Ca, P, MAP, O2sat, PO2, PCO2, WBCs, GCS, Hb, Plt, PTT, and albumin between two groups. CONCLUSION: Omega-3 supplementation improved the levels of several parameters of respiratory and renal function in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Further clinical studies are warranted. Trial registry Name of the registry: This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT); Trial registration number: IRCT20151226025699N3; Date of registration: 2020.5.20; URL of trial registry record: https://en.irct.ir/trial/48213.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness/therapy , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Gas Analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Female , Hematocrit , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Iran/epidemiology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
4.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(3): e007048, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin reduces the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We sought to elucidate the effect of empagliflozin as an add-on therapy on decongestion and renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted for acute decompensated heart failure. METHODS: The study was terminated early due to COVID-19 pandemic. We enrolled 59 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes admitted for acute decompensated heart failure. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either empagliflozin add-on (n=30) or conventional glucose-lowering therapy (n=29). We performed laboratory tests at baseline and 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after randomization. Percent change in plasma volume between admission and subsequent time points was calculated using the Strauss formula. RESULTS: There were no significant baseline differences in left ventricular ejection fraction and serum NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), hematocrit, or serum creatinine levels between the 2 groups. Seven days after randomization, NT-proBNP level was significantly lower in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group (P=0.040), and hemoconcentration (≥3% absolute increase in hematocrit) was more frequently observed in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group (P=0.020). The decrease in percent change in plasma volume between baseline and subsequent time points was significantly larger in the empagliflozin group than in the conventional group 7 days after randomization (P=0.017). The incidence of worsening renal function (an increase in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dL) did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory analysis, empagliflozin achieved effective decongestion without an increased risk of worsening renal function as an add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes with acute decompensated heart failure. Registration: URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm; Unique identifier: UMIN000026315.


Subject(s)
Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Kidney/drug effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Female , Glucosides/adverse effects , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Japan , Kidney/physiopathology , Male , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prospective Studies , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 55-62, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly evolving, thereby posing a profound challenge to the global healthcare system. Cardiometabolic disorders are associated with poor clinical outcomes in persons with COVID-19. Healthcare challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic are linked to resource constraints including shortage of Personal Protective Equipment's (PPE), laboratory tests and medication. In this context, a group of clinical experts discussed the endocrine and cardiology vigilance required in times of COVID-19. Further, the group proposed certain resource husbandry recommendations to be followed during the pandemic to overcome the constraints. METHOD: The clinical experts discussed and provided their inputs virtually. The expert panel included clinical experts comprising endocrinologists, Consultant Physicians and cardiologists from India. The panel thoroughly reviewed existing literature on the subject and proposed expert opinion. RESULTS: The expert panel put forward clinical practice-based opinion for the management of cardiometabolic conditions including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. As these conditions are associated with poor clinical outcomes, the expert panel recommends that these persons be extra-cautious and take necessary precautions during the ongoing pandemic. Further, experts also provided appropriate, affordable, available and accessible solution to the resource constraint situations in times of COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The clinical expert opinion put forward in this article will serve as a reference for clinicians treating diabetes and cardiovascular disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Expert Testimony/trends , Health Resources/trends , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , India/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 407-413, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetes and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) share a bidirectional relationship. Hyperglycemia occurring in the setting of either previously diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes is known to be associated with poor outcomes. Here, we aim to provide a simple and practical guidance on the diagnosis and management of hyperglycemia in admitted patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The guidance is formulated based on experience of authors and relevant literature on the subject searched using Pubmed. RESULTS: Every patient admitted to a COVID care facility should be investigated for hyperglycemia using a combination of tests including capillary blood glucose, fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Oral glucose lowering drugs can be considered in patients with mild COVID illness who have mild hyperglycemia [pre-meal blood glucose of <180 mg/dl (10 mmol/L) and post-meal blood glucose of <250 mg/dl (13.9 mmol/L)] and no contraindication to the use of these agents.. All patients with moderate-severe disease and/or hyperglycemia of greater severity should be initiated on insulin therapy. Hyperglycemia should be aggressively screened for and managed in patients receiving systemic glucocorticoids. CONCLUSION: This document provides a broad overview on the diagnosis and management of hyperglycemia at COVID care facilities and should be useful to a wide range of healthcare personnel involved in care of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Mass Screening/trends , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Management , Humans , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , India/epidemiology , Mass Screening/standards
7.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(3): 174-188, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052051

ABSTRACT

Hyperglycaemia in people with and without diabetes admitted to the hospital is associated with a substantial increase in morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs. Professional societies have recommended insulin therapy as the cornerstone of inpatient pharmacological management. Intravenous insulin therapy is the treatment of choice in the critical care setting. In non-intensive care settings, several insulin protocols have been proposed to manage patients with hyperglycaemia; however, meta-analyses comparing different treatment regimens have not clearly endorsed the benefits of any particular strategy. Clinical guidelines recommend stopping oral antidiabetes drugs during hospitalisation; however, in some countries continuation of oral antidiabetes drugs is commonplace in some patients with type 2 diabetes admitted to hospital, and findings from clinical trials have suggested that non-insulin drugs, alone or in combination with basal insulin, can be used to achieve appropriate glycaemic control in selected populations. Advances in diabetes technology are revolutionising day-to-day diabetes care and work is ongoing to implement these technologies (ie, continuous glucose monitoring, automated insulin delivery) for inpatient care. Additionally, transformations in care have occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, including the use of remote inpatient diabetes management-research is needed to assess the effects of such adaptations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Disease Management , Hospitalization/trends , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage
8.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 15(3): 607-614, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028273

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the clinical utility and accuracy of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) (Dexcom G6) in managing diabetes patients with severe COVID-19 infection following admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We present retrospective analysis of masked rtCGM in 30 patients with severe COVID-19. rtCGM was used during the first 24 hours for comparison with arterial-line point of care (POC) values, where clinicians utilized rtCGM data to adjust insulin therapy in patients if rtCGM values were within 20% of point-of-care (POC) values during the masked period. An investigator-developed survey was administered to assess nursing staff (n = 66) perceptions regarding the use of rtCGM in the ICU. RESULTS: rtCGM data were used to adjust insulin therapy in 30 patients. Discordance between rtCGM and POC glucose values were observed in 11 patients but the differences were not considered clinically significant. Mean sensor glucose decreased from 235.7 ± 42.1 mg/dL (13.1 ± 2.1 mmol/L) to 202.7 ± 37.6 mg/dL (11.1 ± 2.1 mmol/L) with rtCGM management. Improvements in mean sensor glucose were observed in 77% of patients (n = 23) with concomitant reductions in daily POC measurements in 50% of patients (n = 15) with rtCGM management. The majority (63%) of nurses reported that rtCGM was helpful for improving care for patients with diabetes patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, and 49% indicated that rtCGM reduced their use of personal protective equipment (PPE). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a strong rationale to increase clinician awareness for the adoption and implementation of rtCGM systems in the ICU. Additional studies are needed to further understand the utility of rtCGM in critically ill patients and other clinical care settings.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Intensive Care Units , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Remote Sensing Technology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/drug effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Care Nursing , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Patient Admission , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 159-167, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several observational studies have recently reported the outcomes of non-insulin anti-diabetic agents (ADA) in patients with T2DM and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to review the literature to appraise the clinicians on these outcomes. METHODS: A literature search using the specific keywords was carried out in the database of PubMed, MedRxiv and Google Scholar up till December 11, 2020 applying Boolean method. Full text of all the relevant articles that reported the outcomes of ADA in patients with T2DM and COVID-19 were retrieved. Subsequently, an appraisal of literature report was narratively presented. RESULTS: Available studies that reported the outcomes of ADA are either case series or retrospective cohorts or prospective observational studies, in absence of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results from these observational studies suggest that amongst all the non-insulin ADA, metformin users prior to the hospitalization had improved outcomes compared to the non-users. Data for dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are encouraging although inconsistent. No documentation of any harm or benefit has been observed for sulfonylureas (SUs), sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) and glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). No data is yet available for pioglitazone. CONCLUSION: Metformin and DPP-4i should be continued in patients with T2DM until hospitalization or unless contraindicated. No evidence of harm suggests that SUs, SGLT-2i or GLP-1RAs may not be stopped unless very sick, hospitalized or contraindicated. The results from RCTs are needed to claim any meaningful benefit with either metformin or DPP-4i in patients with T2DM and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(21): 11409-11420, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a lifestyle disease and it has become an epidemic worldwide in recent decades. In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation, diabetes has become a serious health concern since large numbers of patients are vulnerable to die from the virus. Thus, diabetic patients affected by COVID-19 cause a major health crisis now. Reports show that large occurrence of diabetes makes it a serious comorbidity in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is crucial to understand how COVID-19 affects diabetes patients. This paper has reviewed published literature extensively to understand the pattern, importance, care, and medication. RESULTS: This review summarizes the association between COVID-19 and diabetes in terms of susceptibility for pneumonia and other diseases. It also discusses the harshness of COVID-19 with diabetes populations and immunological impacts. It further adds the ACE2 receptor role in diabetes with COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Finally, this paper illustrates different types of diabetes management techniques, such as blood glucose management, self-management, mental health management, and therapeutic management. It also summarizes the current knowledge about diabetic patients with COVID-19 to fight this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Pancreas/pathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Replication/immunology
11.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 17(1): 11-30, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926817

ABSTRACT

Initial studies found increased severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in patients with diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, COVID-19 might also predispose infected individuals to hyperglycaemia. Interacting with other risk factors, hyperglycaemia might modulate immune and inflammatory responses, thus predisposing patients to severe COVID-19 and possible lethal outcomes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), is the main entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2; although dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) might also act as a binding target. Preliminary data, however, do not suggest a notable effect of glucose-lowering DPP4 inhibitors on SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. Owing to their pharmacological characteristics, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors might cause adverse effects in patients with COVID-19 and so cannot be recommended. Currently, insulin should be the main approach to the control of acute glycaemia. Most available evidence does not distinguish between the major types of diabetes mellitus and is related to type 2 diabetes mellitus owing to its high prevalence. However, some limited evidence is now available on type 1 diabetes mellitus and COVID-19. Most of these conclusions are preliminary, and further investigation of the optimal management in patients with diabetes mellitus is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Disease Management , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/metabolism , Risk Factors
12.
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol ; 13(4): 468-472, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883950

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced health care teams to look for alternative approaches to manage a great number of children with diabetes, not only in rural but also in urban locations. The aim was to assess the provision of information about follow-up of new-onset pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, and to investigate the integration of telemedicine into routine clinical care in the long term. The changes in coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation and percentages of time in range (TIR), time below range (TBR) and time above range were evaluated in eight children with new-onset T1D, diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study period was two-months of follow-up using a telemedicine system. Median follow-up time was 51 (24-66) days. Two of the patients were using low glucose suspend system and six were on multiple daily injection therapy. Target TIR values were achieved in seven patients in the last televisit and, in line with recent guidelines, a TBR <70 mg/dL (<3.9 mmol/L) (level 1 hypoglycemia) of <4% and a TBR <54 mg/dL (<3.0 mmol/L) (level 2 hypoglycemia) of <1% were achieved in all patients. Seven patients achieved a CV of <36% at their last televisit. Telemedicine as an alternative follow-up tool during unusual circumstances such pandemics, even in countries where it is not routinely used, could be beneficial to achieve optimum glycemic control in patients with new-onset T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
14.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 115, 2020 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662457

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization and is causing substantial morbidity and mortality all over the world. Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease significantly increase the risk for hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are both predictors for adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients. An optimized glycemic control should be pursued in patients with diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 infection in order to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19 course. Both insulin and GLP-1RAs have shown optimal glucose-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects in type 2 diabetic patients and may represent a valid therapeutic option to treat asymptomatic and non-critically ill COVID-19 diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Incretins/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Incretins/adverse effects , Insulin/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 114, 2020 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656673

ABSTRACT

In the pandemic "Corona Virus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) people with diabetes have a high risk to require ICU admission. The management of diabetes in Intensive Care Unit is always challenging, however, when diabetes is present in COVID-19 the situation seems even more complicated. An optimal glycemic control, avoiding acute hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability may significantly improve the outcome. In this case, intravenous insulin infusion with continuous glucose monitoring should be the choice. No evidence suggests stopping angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-renin-blockers or statins, even it has been suggested that they may increase the expression of Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, which is used by "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to penetrate into the cells. A real issue is the usefulness of several biomarkers, which have been suggested to be measured during the COVID-19. N-Terminal-pro-Brain Natriuretic-Peptide, D-dimer and hs-Troponin are often increased in diabetes. Their meaning in the case of diabetes and COVID-19 should be therefore very carefully evaluated. Even though we understand that in such a critical situation some of these requests are not so easy to implement, we believe that the best possible action to prevent a worse outcome is essential in any medical act.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
16.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 37(2): e3379, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615188

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine has been proposed for the cure of the COVID-19 due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-viral action. People with diabetes are more prone to severe outcome if affected by COVID-19 and the use of Hydroxychloroquine might have some benefit in this setting. However, the use of Hydroxychloroquine in diabetes deserves particular attention for its documented hypoglycemic action.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glycemic Control/methods , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20844, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616557

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a rapidly spreading communicable disease affecting individuals worldwide. Patients with diabetes are more vulnerable to the disease, and the mortality is higher than in those without diabetes. We reported a severe COVID-19 patient with diabetes and shared our experience with blood glucose management. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old female diabetes patient was admitted to the intensive care unit due to productive coughing for 8 days without any obvious cause. The results of blood gas analysis indicated that the partial pressure of oxygen was 84 mm Hg with oxygen 8 L/min, and the oxygenation index was less than 200 mm Hg. In addition, postprandial blood glucose levels were abnormal (29.9 mmol/L). DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 (severe type) and type 2 diabetes. INTERVENTIONS: Comprehensive interventions including establishing a multidisciplinary team, closely monitoring her blood glucose level, an individualized diabetes diet, early activities, psychological care, etc, were performed to control blood glucose while actively treating COVID-19 infection. OUTCOMES: After the comprehensive measures, the patient's blood glucose level gradually became stable, and the patient was discharged after 20 days of hospitalization. LESSONS: This case indicated that the comprehensive measures performed by a multidisciplinary team achieved good treatment effects on a COVID-19 patient with diabetes. Targeted treatment and nursing methods should be performed based on patients' actual situations in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications/virology , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/psychology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy
19.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 76, 2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593567

ABSTRACT

A possible association could exist between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Coronavirus-19 (Covid-19) infection. Indeed, patients with T2DM show high prevalence, severity of disease and mortality during Covid-19 infection. However, the rates of severe disease are significantly higher in patients with diabetes compared with non-diabetes (34.6% vs. 14.2%; p < 0.001). Similarly, T2DM patients have higher rates of need for Intensive Care Unit (ICU, 37.0% vs. 26.7%; p = 0.028). Thus, about the pneumonia of Covid-19, we might speculate that the complicated alveolar-capillary network of lungs could be targeted by T2DM micro-vascular damage. Therefore, T2DM patients frequently report respiratory symptoms and are at increased risk of several pulmonary diseases. In addition, pro-inflammatory pathways as that involving interleukin 6 (IL-6), could be a severity predictor of lung diseases. Therefore, it looks intuitive to speculate that this condition could explain the growing trend of cases, hospitalization and mortality for patients with T2DM during Covid-19 infection. To date, an ongoing experimental therapy with monoclonal antibody against the IL-6 receptor in Italy seems to have beneficial effects on severe lung disease and prognosis in patients with Covid-19 infection. Therefore, should patients with T2DM be treated with more attention to glycemic control and monoclonal antibody against the IL-6 receptor during the Covid-19 infection?


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycemic Index/drug effects , Glycemic Index/physiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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