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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987828

ABSTRACT

Blood group antigen is a class of heritable antigenic substances present on the erythrocyte membrane. However, the role of blood group antigens in cancer prognosis is still largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of 33 blood group antigen genes and their association with the prognosis of 30 types of cancers in 31,870 tumor tissue samples. Our results revealed that blood group antigens are abnormally expressed in a variety of cancers. The high expression of these antigen genes was mainly related to the activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway. High expression of seven antigen genes, i.e., FUT7, AQP1, P1, C4A, AQP3, KEL and DARC, were significantly associated with good OS (Overall Survival) in six types of cancers, while ten genes, i.e., AQP1, P1, C4A, AQP3, BSG, CD44, CD151, LU, FUT2, and SEMA7A, were associated with poor OS in three types of cancers. Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) is associated with the largest number (14 genes) of prognostic antigen genes, i.e., CD44, CD151, SEMA7A, FUT7, CR1, AQP1, GYPA, FUT3, FUT6, FUT1, SLC14A1, ERMAP, C4A, and B3GALT3. High expression of SEMA7A gene was significantly correlated with a poor prognosis of KIRC in this analysis but has not been reported previously. SEMA7A might be a putative biomarker for poor prognosis in KIRC. In conclusion, our analysis indicates that blood group antigens may play functional important roles in tumorigenesis, progression, and especially prognosis. These results provide data to support prognostic marker development and future clinical management.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney Neoplasms , Semaphorins , Antigens, CD , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , GPI-Linked Proteins , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , Prognosis , Semaphorins/genetics
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 4776-4779, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981849

ABSTRACT

Studies show that there may be a relationship between ABO blood type and SARS-CoV-2 transmission. It was aimed to determine by investigating the blood type of patients whose one-step reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test were positive for SARS-CoV-2. ABO and Rh blood types of individuals whose RT-qPCR test was positive for SARS-CoV-2 were examined and an evaluation was made to identify whether there was a relationship between them or not. The blood type data of 44.928 SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-qPCR test results have been obtained. 17.656 (39.29%) were delta, 8048 (17.91%) were alpha, 800 (1.78%) were beta, and 3000 (6.67%) were omicrons while 15.424 (34.33%) SARS-CoV-2 positive mutation was found to be negative. Our study suggests that O and Rh (-) blood types may provide protection against delta, AB and Rh (+) blood types may hinder omicron infection while A and Rh (+) blood types may be more vulnerable to alpha and delta while B and Rh (+) are more sensitive to beta mutation. The molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between blood types and SARS-CoV-2 infection needs further molecular studies and multi-centered studies.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Mutation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(3): 181-191, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to provide an outline of the factors mainly influencing severe disease and fatal outcome among Italian COVID-19 patients in the pre-vaccination phase, also describing the impact of the scenarios driven by variants, vaccines, and available therapies. DESIGN: a literature search was carried out for peer-reviewed articles searching for COVID-19 and prognosis, including severe disease and death. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Italian patients with COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: the association between risk factors and severe disease and death as the main outcomes was assessed through epidemiological measures, including relative risk, odds ratio, and hazard ratio. RESULTS: advanced age, obesity, overweight, non-0 blood group, and male gender were the factors more associated with severe disease. Fatal outcome mostly correlated with old age, non-0 blood group, and obesity, together with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, cancer, chronic kidney disease, and acute kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the Italian population, integrated with omics data, could be highly valuable to stratify risk of worse prognosis among patients, and to address targeted prevention and treatment interventions.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Precision Medicine , Prognosis , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Med J Aust ; 216(6): 288-289, 2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818604
6.
Curr Pharm Des ; 28(12): 981-992, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19), a current worldwide pandemic is the cause of serious concern. Risk-adjusted differences in outcomes of the patients are not well characterized. Therefore, susceptibility to infection with respect to blood group, blood pressure, pulse rate, hemoglobin, age, and BMI is analyzed in this study. METHODS: Blood donors of all ages and gender, who recovered from COVID-19 infection, were selected for the study. Samples were collected from the regional laboratory and the central blood bank of Hafr al Batin, Saudi Arabia. Out of 1508 healthy blood donors, 134 had recovered from corona without any preexisting diseases. RESULTS: Major donors were male (85.1%). 28% of donors were in the age range of 26-35 years. O+(32.8%) donors were in majority. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate elevated significantly in the age group 46-55 (p<0.05) and 56-65 (p<0.001). Systolic blood pressure in males (134.13 ± 9.57) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in females (129.35 ± 10.61). Donors with Rh+ had significantly higher systolic (p<0.05) and pulse rate (p<0.05) as compared to Rh-. DISCUSSION: O+ donors were found to be highly susceptible. Blood pressure, pulse rate and Hb altered with age. Males exhibited higher variation in systolic blood pressure, with the Rh+ factor playing a predominant role. Donors above 45-years of age and with a high BMI had significantly elevated blood pressure and pulse. These results are challenging or contradictory to the results of Turkish and Chinese studies where blood group A+ was more predominantly affected by the SARS-CoV-2 with the minimum infection rate in females and Rh- donors. CONCLUSION: Factors like blood group, age, physical characteristics and BMI should be taken into account before initiating any therapeutic approach to obtain the best possible outcomes with minimum adverse effects from the current drugs utilized for SARS CoV-2 treatment, especially with the age group of 45 years and above.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Adult , Blood Donors , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Saudi Med J ; 43(2): 177-186, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the impact and distribution of blood groups in different ethnicities and the extent of susceptibility to infection with COVID-19 in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 4,609 COVID-19 patients from five ethnic groups to assess the impact and distribution of different blood types and susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. The study was carried out between November 2020 and June 2021 in the College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University in collaboration with the General Directorate of Health Affairs, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Blood group (A, B, and O) distributions in 2,617 COVID-19 patients with local control populations was done. Our study found that in both Saudi and non-Saudi populations, blood groups O and A were associated with higher infection rates, whereas blood group AB was associated with lower infection rates (p=0.0001). COVID-19 seems to be associated with blood groups A, B, and AB (RR=3.23, 95% CI=2.702-3.821, p=0.0001). COVID-19 risk was lower in people with O blood group (RR=0.783, 95% CI=0.733-0.836, p=0.0001). South Asians had higher odds of COVID-19 infection when compared to Saudi cases and other ethnic groups (OR=1.12, 95 % CI: 1.074-1.24, p=0.04). CONCLUSION: We emphasize that COVID-19 infection is not proportional among ethnically related blood groups. Notably, RhD-negative protect against COVID-19, whereas A and O blood types are more susceptible. Thus, when assessing COVID-19 prognosis and vaccination priority, blood groups A and O are critical.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
9.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(1): S57-S59, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667995

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to find out the association of ABO blood groups with the severity and outcome of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children. It included all laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 and post-COVID multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)/ Kawasaki disease (KD) like illness, admitted from March to September, 2020 to The Children's Hospital, Lahore. Out of 66 children, 45 (68.2%) were COVID-19 and 21 (31.8%) MIS-C/KD temporally associated with SARS-C0V-2. The mean age was 7.9 ± 4.2 years. Majority of children had mild to moderate illness 38 (57.6%), while 23 (34.8%) had severe or critical disease. Among all patients, 24 (36.4%) had some underlying comorbidity. Blood group A was significantly associated with severe and critical disease (p=0.030). COVID-19 in children had generally a good outcome, but children with blood group A were more susceptible to severe/critical disease. Key Words: Coronavirus disease 2019, ABO blood groups, Children, Severity, Outcome.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
10.
Ginekol Pol ; 92(11): 818-821, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573977

ABSTRACT

The influence of the blood group on the occurrence and severity of diseases has aroused the curiosity of scientists for many years. The AB0 group system is the best known and described blood group system. It is also the only system whose antibodies are constantly present in the blood serum. The most common blood type in Poland, according to data provided by Honorary blood donation and blood therapy, is group A Rh+ (plus), while the least common is group AB Rh- (minus). In studies of pregnant women scientists discovered the influence of blood type in the development of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, the risk of preterm labor, and even COVID-19 infection. The impact of the mothers' blood group also affects the birth weight of newborns, as well as the development of hemolytic disease of the newborn due to the heterospecificity of AB0. The influence of the blood group on the increased risk of developing certain diseases and complications of the neonatal period has also been proven. Therefore, it seems important to study blood groups of pregnant women and newborns of different nationalities, correlate the results with available reports and use this knowledge in everyday clinical practice. This will help to increase the speed of detection of diseases in pregnancy and neonatal period. It will also facilitate the management of the patient depending on their blood group.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/blood , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27537, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501207

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, had health and economic results that profoundly affected communities worldwide. Investigating the seroprevalence of SARS-Cov-2 in blood donors is of a significant clinical and scientific value as it adds to knowledge about local herd immunity levels.To study the prevalence of SARS-Cov-2 infection among blood donors at a tertiary referral hospital in the north of Jordan.This is a prospective study that included all blood donors between September 2020 and March 2021. Donors' IgG antibodies were qualitatively immunoassayed to determine the antibody status against SARS-CoV-2. The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 technique was utilized.One thousand samples were tested by total antibody against SARS-CoV-2. The median age was 29 years, 96.7% were males. The seroprevalence was 14.5%, and 80% of the positive participants did not report previous COVID-19 infection. The seroprevalence of COVID-19 antibodies was less among smokers and those with an O blood group and higher among donors with an AB blood group.The prevalence of COVID-19 among healthy young blood donors at a tertiary teaching health facility in the north of Jordan was 14.5%. Smokers and those with an O blood group were less likely to be seropositive, as opposed to donors with an AB blood group.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Blood Group Antigens/immunology , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481011

ABSTRACT

Human noroviruses are a common pathogen causing acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Among all norovirus genotypes, GII.3 is particularly prevalent in the pediatric population. Here we report the identification of two distinct blockade antibody epitopes on the GII.3 capsid. We generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from mice immunized with virus-like particle (VLP) of a GII.3 cluster 3 strain. Two of these mAbs, namely 8C7 and 8D1, specifically bound the parental GII.3 VLP but not VLPs of GII.4, GII.17, or GI.1. In addition, 8C7 and 8D1 efficiently blocked GII.3 VLP binding with its ligand, histo-blood group antigens (HBGA). These data demonstrate that 8C7 and 8D1 are GII.3-specific blockade antibodies. By using a series of chimeric VLPs, we mapped the epitopes of 8C7 and 8D1 to residues 385-400 and 401-420 of the VP1 capsid protein, respectively. These two blockade antibody epitopes are highly conserved among GII.3 cluster 3 strains. Structural modeling shows that the 8C7 epitope partially overlaps with the HBGA binding site (HBS) while the 8D1 epitope is spatially adjacent to HBS. These findings may enhance our understanding of the immunology and evolution of GII.3 noroviruses.


Subject(s)
Norovirus/genetics , Norovirus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Blocking/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Blood Group Antigens/genetics , Caliciviridae Infections/genetics , Capsid/immunology , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/immunology , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Genotype , Humans , Mice , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/genetics
13.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 107-118, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389067

ABSTRACT

Viruses have caused the death of millions of people worldwide. Specifically, human viruses are grouped into 21 families, including the family of coronaviruses (CoVs). In December 2019, in Wuhan, China, a new human CoV was identified, SARS-CoV-2. The first step of the infection mechanism of the SARS-CoV-2 in the human host is adhesion, which occurs through the S glycoprotein that is found in diverse human organs. Another way through which SARS-CoV-2 could possibly attach to the host's cells is by means of the histo-blood group antigens. In this work, we have reviewed the mechanisms by which some viruses bind to the histo-blood group antigens, which could be related to the susceptibility of the individual and are dependent on the histo-blood group.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility/blood , Genome, Viral/genetics , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346499

ABSTRACT

Glycosylation is a complex post-translational modification that conveys functional diversity to glycoconjugates. Cell surface glycosylation mediates several biological activities such as induction of the intracellular signaling pathway and pathogen recognition. Red blood cell (RBC) membrane N-glycans determine blood type and influence cell lifespan. Although several proteomic studies have been carried out, the glycosylation of RBC membrane proteins has not been systematically investigated. This work aims at exploring the human RBC N-glycome by high-sensitivity MALDI-MS techniques to outline a fingerprint of RBC N-glycans. To this purpose, the MALDI-TOF spectra of healthy subjects harboring different blood groups were acquired. Results showed the predominant occurrence of neutral and sialylated complex N-glycans with bisected N-acetylglucosamine and core- and/or antennary fucosylation. In the higher mass region, these species presented with multiple N-acetyllactosamine repeating units. Amongst the detected glycoforms, the presence of glycans bearing ABO(H) antigens allowed us to define a distinctive spectrum for each blood group. For the first time, advanced glycomic techniques have been applied to a comprehensive exploration of human RBC N-glycosylation, providing a new tool for the early detection of distinct glycome changes associated with disease conditions as well as for understanding the molecular recognition of pathogens.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Glycomics , Polysaccharides/analysis , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Glycosylation , Humans , Proteomics , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
16.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 159(1): 27-30, 2022 07 08.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, identifying which risk factors are associated with the most serious forms of the disease is important. Blood group A has been presented in various studies as a poor prognostic factor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether patients with blood group A were associated with more important comorbidities, measured by the Charlson Index, which may explain their worse clinical evolution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective and consecutive study examined 100 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted in March 2020. A multivariate linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of blood group A with the Charlson Index. RESULTS: Patients in group A had a higher Charlson Index (P=.037), rate of lymphopenia (P=.039) and thrombopenia (P=.014), and hospital mortality (P=.044). Blood group A was an independent factor associated with the Charlson Index (B 0.582, 95% CI 0.02-1.14, P=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Group A was independently associated with greater comorbidity, associated with an increase of 0.582 points in the Charlson Index compared to other blood groups. It was also associated with lower hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 264: 41-48, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300750

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of ABO and Rh blood groups on morbidity among SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnancies. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: 78 centers of the Spanish Obstetric Emergency Group. POPULATION: Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 tested with polymerase-chain-reaction between 26-February and 5-November 2020. A cohort of 1278 SARS-CoV-2(+) pregnant women was analyzed and a concurrent comparison group of 1453 SARS-COV-2(-) patients was established. METHODS: Data were collected from medical charts. SARS-COV-2(+) was compared with SARS-COV-2(-) for differences in distribution of blood groups. We performed multivariate analysis, controlling for maternal age and ethnicity, to evaluate association of ABO and Rh blood groups with maternal and perinatal outcomes in SARS-CoV-2(+) patients with adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Medical morbidity: Symptomatic COVID-19 and medical complications. Obstetric outcomes: caesarean delivery, preterm deliveries, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), hemorrhagic events, pre-eclampsia, maternal and neonatal mortality, stillbirth. RESULTS: Differences were noted between blood types and Rh for age and ethnicity comparing SARS-CoV-2(+) and SARS-CoV-2(-) groups (p < 0.05). Among the SARS-CoV-2(+) cohort, the odds of symptomatic COVID-19 and obstetric hemorrhagic event were higher in Rh+ vs Rh- mothers (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.14, p = 0.037, and aOR 8.72, 95% CI 1.20-63.57, p = 0.033, respectively), and PPROM were higher among blood type A vs non-A mothers (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.01-4.18, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: In SARS-CoV-2(+) pregnant women, Rh- status was associated with a lower risk of symptomatic COVID-19, while Rh+ and blood group A were associated with obstetric hemorrhage and PPROM, respectively.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Multivariate Analysis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
19.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(5): 103188, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the first case of COVID-19 was reported in Wuhan, China. Its causative virus, is a novel strain of RNA viruses with high mortality rate. There is no definitive treatment, but among available approaches the use of recovered patients' plasma containing specific antibodies can enhance the immune response against coronavirus. However, the dearth of eligible donors and also ABO incompatibility in plasma transfusion, have limited this therapeutic method. Therefore, it is highly desirable to introduce a simple procedure that allows efficient reduction or even removal of natural ABO antibodies. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate a RBC-mediated adsorption technique that reduces the titer of the mentioned antibodies in plasma. METHODS/MATERIALS: This experimental study was conducted in Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. The pre- and post-incubation antibody titers of 168 plasma samples were determined. For incubation, each plasma sample was exposed (60 min) to different percentages of RBCs at room temperature or 4 °C. RESULTS: The results evidenced that both the concentration of RBCs and temperature had significant decreasing effects on antibody titer (P < 0.001) and all concentrations significantly reduced titer. Compared to RT, 4 °C further reduced the antibody titer. Overall, the best incubation condition for reducing antibody titer in all blood groups was 4 °C and 2% RBCs concentration. CONCLUSION: The presented adsorption procedure is able to produce universal plasma (we call it Ubiquitous Convalescent Plasma) with a non-immunogenic level of ABO mismatch antibodies which can be used for COVID-19 patients with any type of blood group with desirable simplicity, feasibility, and efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunosorbent Techniques , Isoantibodies/blood , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2 , ABO Blood-Group System/immunology , Adsorption , Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19/blood , Cold Temperature , Convalescence , Erythrocyte Count , Erythrocytes/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Isoantibodies/immunology
20.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 99(8): 1023-1031, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237475

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes the respiratory syndrome COVID-19 and is responsible for the current pandemic. The S protein of SARS-CoV-2-mediating virus binding to target cells and subsequent viral uptake is extensively glycosylated. Here we focus on how glycosylation of both SARS-CoV-2 and target cells crucially impacts SARS-CoV-2 infection at different levels: (1) virus binding and entry to host cells, with glycosaminoglycans of host cells acting as a necessary co-factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection by interacting with the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, (2) innate and adaptive immune response where glycosylation plays both a protective role and contributes to immune evasion by masking of viral polypeptide epitopes and may add to the cytokine cascade via non-fucosylated IgG, and (3) therapy and vaccination where a monoclonal antibody-neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 was shown to interact also with a distinct glycan epitope on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These evidences highlight the importance of ensuring that glycans are considered when tackling this disease, particularly in the development of vaccines, therapeutic strategies and serological testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Blood Group Antigens/immunology , Blood Group Antigens/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Exocytosis , Glycosylation , Humans , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
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