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1.
Shock ; 57(1): 1-6, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms of hypoxemia and treatment strategies for type H and type L acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been elucidated. MAIN TEXT: SARS-CoV-2 mainly targets the lungs and blood, leading to ARDS, and systemic thrombosis or bleeding. Angiotensin II-induced coagulopathy, SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperfibrin(ogen)olysis, and pulmonary and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation due to immunothrombosis contribute to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Type H ARDS is associated with hypoxemia due to diffuse alveolar damage-induced high right-to-left shunts. Immunothrombosis occurs at the site of infection due to innate immune inflammatory and coagulofibrinolytic responses to SARS-CoV-2, resulting in microvascular occlusion with hypoperfusion of the lungs. Lung immunothrombosis in type L ARDS results from neutrophil extracellular traps containing platelets and fibrin in the lung microvasculature, leading to hypoxemia due to impaired blood flow and a high ventilation/perfusion (VA/Q) ratio. COVID-19-associated ARDS is more vascular centric than the other types of ARDS. D-dimer levels have been monitored for the progression of microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. Early anticoagulation therapy in critical patients with high D-dimer levels may improve prognosis, including the prevention and/or alleviation of ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Right-to-left shunts and high VA/Q ratios caused by lung microvascular thrombosis contribute to hypoxemia in type H and L ARDS, respectively. D-dimer monitoring-based anticoagulation therapy may prevent the progression to and/or worsening of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hemostasis/physiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinolysis , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Microvessels/physiopathology , Phenotype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116210

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients are prone to thrombotic complications that may increase morbidity and mortality. These complications are thought to be driven by endothelial activation and tissue damage promoted by the systemic hyperinflammation associated with COVID-19. However, the exact mechanisms contributing to these complications are still unknown. To identify additional mechanisms contributing to the aberrant clotting observed in COVID-19 patients, we analyzed platelets from COVID-19 patients compared to those from controls using mass spectrometry. We identified increased serum amyloid A (SAA) levels, an acute-phase protein, on COVID-19 patients' platelets. In addition, using an in vitro adhesion assay, we showed that healthy platelets adhered more strongly to wells coated with COVID-19 patient serum than to wells coated with control serum. Furthermore, inhibitors of integrin aIIbß3 receptors, a mediator of platelet-SAA binding, reduced platelet adhesion to recombinant SAA and to wells coated with COVID-19 patient serum. Our results suggest that SAA may contribute to the increased platelet adhesion observed in serum from COVID-19 patients. Thus, reducing SAA levels by decreasing inflammation or inhibiting SAA platelet-binding activity might be a valid approach to abrogate COVID-19-associated thrombotic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Platelet Adhesiveness , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Integrins/metabolism , Tissue Adhesions
3.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(10): 1430-1439, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110947

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has cast a shadow over transfusion medicine based on the blood donation system. However, managing alloimmune platelet transfusion refractoriness (allo-PTR) has already been difficult. As a first step toward resolving this issue using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived platelet products (iPSC-PLTs), a clinical trial of autologous products (iPLAT1) was conducted in a patient with allo-PTR caused by anti-HPA-1a antibodies who had no compatible donor, and safety was confirmed. To produce iPSC-PLTs, a master cell bank (MCB) of expandable megakaryocyte lines (imMKCLs) is established from iPSCs. From this MCB, iPSC-PLTs are manufactured using a newly developed turbulent-type bioreactor and various compounds. Their quality, safety, and efficacy are confirmed by extensive preclinical studies. Based on the findings of the iPLAT1 study, a clinical trial of allo-transfusion of HLA homozygous iPSC-PLTs is currently ongoing and HLA class I-deficient O-type universal iPSC-PLTs are also being developed. iPSC-PLTs are expected to solve various problems, including allo-PTR in platelet transfusion, and greatly contribute to the advancement of transfusion medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Thrombocytopenia , Humans , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Pandemics , Platelet Transfusion
4.
Hamostaseologie ; 42(S 01): S14-S23, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087355

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased thromboembolic complications. Long-term alteration in the coagulation system after acute COVID-19 infection is still a subject of research. Furthermore, the effect of sera from convalescent subjects on platelets is not known. In this study, we investigated platelet phenotype, coagulation, and fibrinolysis in COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) donors and analyzed convalescent sera-induced effects on platelets. We investigated CCP donors who had a history of mild COVID-19 infection and donors who did not have COVID-19 were used as controls. We analyzed phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, CD62p expression, and glycoprotein VI (GPVI) shedding both in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and after incubation of washed healthy platelets with donors' sera using flow cytometry. Coagulation and fibrinolysis systems were assessed with thromboelastometry. Forty-seven CCP donors (22 males, 25 females; mean age (±SD): 41.4 ± 13.7 years) with a history of mild COVID-19 infection were included. Median duration after acute COVID-19 infection was 97 days (range, 34-401). We did not find an increased PS externalization, CD62p expression, or GPVI shedding in platelets from CCP donors. Sera from CCP donors did not induce PS externalization or GPVI shedding in healthy platelets. Sera-induced CD62p expression was slightly, albeit statistically significantly, lower in CCP donors than in plasma donors without a history of COVID-19. One patient showed increased maximum clot firmness and prolonged lysis time in thromboelastometry. Our findings suggest that procoagulant platelet phenotype is not present after mild COVID-19. Furthermore, CCP sera do not affect the activation status of platelets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Phosphatidylserines/metabolism , Phosphatidylserines/pharmacology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Phenotype
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 861251, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080128

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is characterised by a broad spectrum of clinical and pathological features. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immune responses to viral infections. Here, we analysed the phenotype and activity of NK cells in the blood of COVID-19 patients using flow cytometry, single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq), and a cytotoxic killing assay. In the plasma of patients, we quantified the main cytokines and chemokines. Our cohort comprises COVID-19 patients hospitalised in a low-care ward unit (WARD), patients with severe COVID-19 disease symptoms hospitalised in intensive care units (ICU), and post-COVID-19 patients, who were discharged from hospital six weeks earlier. NK cells from hospitalised COVID-19 patients displayed an activated phenotype with substantial differences between WARD and ICU patients and the timing when samples were taken post-onset of symptoms. While NK cells from COVID-19 patients at an early stage of infection showed increased expression of the cytotoxic molecules perforin and granzyme A and B, NK cells from patients at later stages of COVID-19 presented enhanced levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α which were measured ex vivo in the absence of usual in vitro stimulation. These activated NK cells were phenotyped as CD49a+CD69a+CD107a+ cells, and their emergence in patients correlated to the number of neutrophils, and plasma IL-15, a key cytokine in NK cell activation. Despite lower amounts of cytotoxic molecules in NK cells of patients with severe symptoms, majority of COVID-19 patients displayed a normal cytotoxic killing of Raji tumour target cells. In vitro stimulation of patients blood cells by IL-12+IL-18 revealed a defective IFN-γ production in NK cells of ICU patients only, indicative of an exhausted phenotype. ScRNA-seq revealed, predominantly in patients with severe COVID-19 disease symptoms, the emergence of an NK cell subset with a platelet gene signature that we identified by flow and imaging cytometry as aggregates of NK cells with CD42a+CD62P+ activated platelets. Post-COVID-19 patients show slow recovery of NK cell frequencies and phenotype. Our study points to substantial changes in NK cell phenotype during COVID-19 disease and forms a basis to explore the contribution of platelet-NK cell aggregates to antiviral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and disease pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Granzymes/metabolism , Perforin/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Integrin alpha1/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural , Cytokines/metabolism , Chemokines/metabolism , Interleukin-12/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , RNA/metabolism
6.
Life Sci ; 307: 120866, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049614

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is associated with the dynamic changes in coagulation parameters. Coagulopathy is considered as a major extra-pulmonary risk factor for severity and mortality of COVID-19; patients with elevated levels of coagulation biomarkers have poorer in-hospital outcomes. Oxidative stress, alterations in the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, development of the cytokine storm and inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) enzyme malfunction and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance are among other mechanisms suggested to be involved in the coagulopathy induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The activity and function of coagulation factors are reported to have a circadian component. Melatonin, a multipotential neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland exclusively at night, regulates the cytokine system and the coagulation cascade in infections such as those caused by coronaviruses. Herein, we review the mechanisms and beneficial effects of melatonin against coagulopathy induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/pharmacology , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 15(8): 727-745, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978157

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is associated to an increased risk of thrombosis, as a result of a complex process that involves the activation of vascular and circulating cells, the release of soluble inflammatory and thrombotic mediators and blood clotting activation. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the pathophysiological role of platelets, neutrophils, and the endothelium, and of their interactions, in the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 patients, and the current and future therapeutic approaches targeting these cell types. EXPERT OPINION: Virus-induced platelet, neutrophil, and endothelial cell changes are crucial triggers of the thrombotic complications and of the adverse evolution of COVID-19. Both the direct interaction with the virus and the associated cytokine storm concur to trigger cell activation in a classical thromboinflammatory vicious circle. Although heparin has proven to be an effective prophylactic and therapeutic weapon for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19-associated thrombosis, it acts downstream of the cascade of events triggered by SARS-CoV-2. The identification of specific molecular targets interrupting the thromboinflammatory cascade upstream, and more specifically acting either on the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with blood and vascular cells or on the specific signaling mechanisms associated with their COVID-19-associated activation, might theoretically offer greater protection with potentially lesser side effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium/metabolism , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism
8.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(10): 1683-1692, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Activated platelets have been implicated in the proinflammatory and prothrombotic phenotype of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While it is increasingly recognized that lipids have important structural and signaling roles in platelets, the lipidomic landscape of platelets during infection has remained unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the platelet lipidome of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: We performed untargeted lipidomics in platelets of 25 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and 23 noninfectious controls with similar age and sex characteristics, and with comparable comorbidities. RESULTS: Twenty-five percent of the 1,650 annotated lipids were significantly different between the groups. The significantly altered part of the platelet lipidome mostly comprised lipids that were less abundant in patients with COVID-19 (20.4% down, 4.6% up, 75% unchanged). Platelets from COVID-19 patients showed decreased levels of membrane plasmalogens, and a distinct decrease of long-chain, unsaturated triacylglycerols. Conversely, platelets from patients with COVID-19 displayed class-wide higher abundances of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate and its biosynthetic precursor lysophosphatidylglycerol. Levels of these classes positively correlated with ex vivo platelet reactivity-as measured by P-selectin expression after PAR1 activation-irrespective of disease state. CONCLUSION: Taken together, this investigation provides the first exploration of the profound impact of infection on the human platelet lipidome, and reveals associations between the lipid composition of platelets and their reactivity. These results warrant further lipidomic research in other infections and disease states involving platelet pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , COVID-19 , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Humans , Lipidomics , P-Selectin/metabolism , Plasmalogens/metabolism , Platelet Activation , Receptor, PAR-1/metabolism , Triglycerides/metabolism
9.
Cells ; 11(12)2022 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896812

ABSTRACT

Platelets are among the most abundant cells in the mammalian circulation. Classical platelet functions in hemostasis and wound healing have been intensively explored and are generally accepted. During the past decades, the research focus broadened towards their participation in immune-modulatory events, including pro-inflammatory and, more recently, inflammatory resolution processes. Platelets are equipped with a variety of abilities enabling active participation in immunological processes. Toll-like receptors mediate the recognition of pathogens, while the release of granule contents and microvesicles promotes direct pathogen defense and an interaction with leukocytes. Platelets communicate and physically interact with neutrophils, monocytes and a subset of lymphocytes via soluble mediators and surface adhesion receptors. This interaction promotes leukocyte recruitment, migration and extravasation, as well as the initiation of effector functions, such as the release of extracellular traps by neutrophils. Platelet-derived prostaglandin E2, C-type lectin-like receptor 2 and transforming growth factor ß modulate inflammatory resolution processes by promoting the synthesis of pro-resolving mediators while reducing pro-inflammatory ones. Furthermore, platelets promote the differentiation of CD4+ T cells in T helper and regulatory T cells, which affects macrophage polarization. These abilities make platelets key players in inflammatory diseases such as pneumonia and the acute respiratory distress syndrome, including the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019. This review focuses on recent findings in platelet-mediated immunity during acute inflammation.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , COVID-19 , Animals , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Hemostasis , Inflammation/metabolism , Mammals , Neutrophils
10.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 61(3): 103459, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852173

ABSTRACT

Platelets are at the crossroads between thrombosis and inflammation. When activated, platelets can shed bioactive extracellular vesicles [pEVs] that share the hemostatic potential of their parent cells and act as bioactive shuttles of their granular contents. In a viral infection, platelets are activated, and pEVs are generated with occasional virion integration. Both platelets and pEVs are engaged in a bidirectional interaction with neutrophils and other cells of the immune system and the hemostatic pathways. Severe COVID-19 infection is characterized by a stormy thromboinflammatory response with platelets and their EVs at the center stage of this reaction. This review sheds light on the interactions of platelets, pEVS and SARS-CoV-2 infection and prognostic and potential therapeutic role of pEVs. The review also describes the role of pEVs in the rare adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccine-induced thrombosis thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Vesicles , Hemostatics , Thrombosis , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Hemostatics/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Med Genomics ; 15(1): 83, 2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793939

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases the risk of cardiovascular occlusive/thrombotic events and is linked to poor outcomes. The underlying pathophysiological processes are complex, and remain poorly understood. To this end, platelets play important roles in regulating the cardiovascular system, including via contributions to coagulation and inflammation. There is ample evidence that circulating platelets are activated in COVID-19 patients, which is a primary driver of the observed thrombotic outcome. However, the comprehensive molecular basis of platelet activation in COVID-19 disease remains elusive, which warrants more investigation. Hence, we employed gene co-expression network analysis combined with pathways enrichment analysis to further investigate the aforementioned issues. Our study revealed three important gene clusters/modules that were closely related to COVID-19. These cluster of genes successfully identify COVID-19 cases, relative to healthy in a separate validation data set using machine learning, thereby validating our findings. Furthermore, enrichment analysis showed that these three modules were mostly related to platelet metabolism, protein translation, mitochondrial activity, and oxidative phosphorylation, as well as regulation of megakaryocyte differentiation, and apoptosis, suggesting a hyperactivation status of platelets in COVID-19. We identified the three hub genes from each of three key modules according to their intramodular connectivity value ranking, namely: COPE, CDC37, CAPNS1, AURKAIP1, LAMTOR2, GABARAP MT-ND1, MT-ND5, and MTRNR2L12. Collectively, our results offer a new and interesting insight into platelet involvement in COVID-19 disease at the molecular level, which might aid in defining new targets for treatment of COVID-19-induced thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , COVID-19 , Apoptosis , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans
12.
Blood Adv ; 6(17): 5085-5099, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789100

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 highlights a hypercoagulability state with high risk of life-threatening thromboembolic complications. However, the mechanisms of hypercoagulability and their link to hyperinflammation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate functions and mechanisms of platelet activation and platelet-monocyte interactions in inflammatory amplification during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We used a combination of immunophenotyping, single-cell analysis, functional assays, and pharmacological approaches to gain insights on mechanisms. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 exhibited increased platelet-monocyte aggregates formation. We identified a subset of inflammatory monocytes presenting high CD16 and low HLA-DR expression as the subset mainly interacting with platelets during severe COVID-19. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis indicated enhanced fibrinogen receptor Mac-1 in monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19. Monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19 displayed increased platelet binding and hyperresponsiveness to P-selectin and fibrinogen with respect to tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß secretion. Platelets were able to orchestrate monocyte responses driving tissue factor (TF) expression, inflammatory activation, and inflammatory cytokines secretion in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Platelet-monocyte interactions ex vivo and in SARS-CoV-2 infection model in vitro reciprocally activated monocytes and platelets, inducing the heightened secretion of a wide panel of inflammatory mediators. We identified platelet adhesion as a primary signaling mechanism inducing mediator secretion and TF expression, whereas TF signaling played major roles in amplifying inflammation by inducing proinflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß. Our data identify platelet-induced TF expression and activity at the crossroad of coagulation and inflammation in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboinflammation , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
13.
Platelets ; 33(2): 192-199, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788407

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic syndrome caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a process of inflammation and thrombosis supported by an altered platelet activation state. This platelet activation is peculiar being characterized by the formation of platelet-leukocytes rather than platelet-platelet aggregates and by an increased procoagulant potential supported by elevated levels of TF positive platelets and microvesicles.Therapeutic strategies targeting, beyond systemic inflammation (i.e. with tocilizumab, an anti interleukin-6 receptor), this state of platelet activation might therefore be beneficial. Among the antithrombotic drugs proposed as candidates to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin are showing promising results.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Platelets ; 33(2): 200-207, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788406

ABSTRACT

Evolving evidence demonstrates that platelets have major roles in viral syndromes through previously unrecognized viral sensing and effector functions. Activated platelets and increased platelet-leukocyte aggregates are observed in clinical and experimental viral infections. The mechanisms and outcomes of platelet-leukocyte interactions depend on the interacting leukocyte as well as on the pathogen and pathological conditions. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms involved in platelet interactions with leukocytes and its functions during viral infections. We focus on the contributions of human platelet-leukocyte interactions to pathophysiological and protective responses during viral infections of major global health relevance, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), influenza pneumonia, and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/metabolism , Leukocytes/metabolism , Virus Diseases/blood , Humans
15.
Thromb Res ; 213: 179-194, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768564

ABSTRACT

Platelet-leukocyte crosstalk is commonly manifested by reciprocal links between thrombosis and inflammation. Platelet thrombus acts as a reactive matrix that recruits leukocytes to the injury site where their massive accumulation, activation and migration promote thrombotic events while triggering inflammatory responses. As a life-threatening condition with the associations between inflammation and thrombosis, COVID-19 presents diffuse alveolar damage due to exaggerated macrophage activity and cytokine storms. These events, together with direct intracellular virus invasion lead to pulmonary vascular endothelialitis, cell membranes disruption, severe endothelial injury, and thrombosis. The developing pre-alveolar thrombus provides a hyper-reactive milieu that recruits circulating leukocytes to the injury site where their activation contributes to thrombus stabilization and thrombosis propagation, primarily through the formation of Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET). NET fragments can also circulate and deposit in further distance where they may disseminate intravascular thrombosis in severe cases of disease. Thrombi may also facilitate leukocytes migration into alveoli where their accumulation and activation exacerbate cytokine storms and tissue damage, further complicating the disease. Based on these mechanisms, whether an effective anti-inflammatory protocol can prevent thrombotic events, or on the other hand; efficient antiplatelet or anticoagulant regimens may be associated with reduced cytokine storms and tissue damage, is now of interests for several ongoing researches. Thus shedding more light on platelet-leukocyte crosstalk, the review presented here discusses the detailed mechanisms by which platelets may contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, especially in severe cases where their interaction with leukocytes can intensify both inflammatory state and thrombosis in a reciprocal manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukocytes/metabolism , Prognosis , Thrombosis/pathology
16.
Blood ; 139(10): 1564-1574, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736325

ABSTRACT

Cases of de novo immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), including a fatality, following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in previously healthy recipients led to studying its impact in preexisting ITP. In this study, 4 data sources were analyzed: the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) for cases of de novo ITP; a 10-center retrospective study of adults with preexisting ITP receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; and surveys distributed by the Platelet Disorder Support Association (PDSA) and the United Kingdom (UK) ITP Support Association. Seventy-seven de novo ITP cases were identified in VAERS, presenting with median platelet count of 3 [1-9] ×109/L approximately 1 week postvaccination. Of 28 patients with available data, 26 responded to treatment with corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and/or platelet transfusions. Among 117 patients with preexisting ITP who received a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 19 experienced an ITP exacerbation (any of: ≥50% decline in platelet count, nadir platelet count <30 × 109/L with >20% decrease from baseline, and/or use of rescue therapy) following the first dose and 14 of 70 after a second dose. Splenectomized persons and those who received 5 or more prior lines of therapy were at highest risk of ITP exacerbation. Fifteen patients received and responded to rescue treatment. In surveys of both 57 PDSA and 43 UK patients with ITP, prior splenectomy was associated with worsened thrombocytopenia. ITP may worsen in preexisting ITP or be identified de novo post-SARS-CoV2 vaccination; both situations responded well to treatment. Proactive monitoring of patients with known ITP, especially those postsplenectomy and with more refractory disease, is indicated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Platelets/immunology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Splenectomy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715402

ABSTRACT

Platelets, which are small anuclear cell fragments, play important roles in thrombosis and hemostasis, but also actively release factors that can both suppress and induce viral infections. Platelet-released factors include sCD40L, microvesicles (MVs), and alpha granules that have the capacity to exert either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects depending on the virus. These factors are prime targets for use in extracellular vesicle (EV)-based therapy due to their ability to reduce viral infections and exert anti-inflammatory effects. While there are some studies regarding platelet microvesicle-based (PMV-based) therapy, there is still much to learn about PMVs before such therapy can be used. This review provides the background necessary to understand the roles of platelet-released factors, how these factors might be useful in PMV-based therapy, and a critical discussion of current knowledge of platelets and their role in viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors/metabolism , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Animals , Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism , Humans , Platelet Activation/physiology
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 776861, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701723

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular dysfunction and disease are common and frequently fatal complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Indeed, from early on during the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic it was recognized that cardiac complications may occur, even in patients with no underlying cardiac disorders, as part of the acute infection, and that these were associated with more severe disease and increased morbidity and mortality. The most common cardiac complication is acute cardiac injury, defined by significant elevation of cardiac troponins. The potential mechanisms of cardiovascular complications include direct viral myocardial injury, systemic inflammation induced by the virus, sepsis, arrhythmia, myocardial oxygen supply-demand mismatch, electrolyte abnormalities, and hypercoagulability. This review is focused on the prevalence, risk factors and clinical course of COVID-19-related myocardial injury, as well as on current data with regard to disease pathogenesis, specifically the interaction of platelets with the vascular endothelium. The latter section includes consideration of the role of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in triggering development of a generalized endotheliitis that, in turn, drives intense activation of platelets. Most prominently, SARS-CoV-2-induced endotheliitis involves interaction of the viral spike protein with endothelial angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) together with alternative mechanisms that involve the nucleocapsid and viroporin. In addition, the mechanisms by which activated platelets intensify endothelial activation and dysfunction, seemingly driven by release of the platelet-derived calcium-binding proteins, SA100A8 and SA100A9, are described. These events create a SARS-CoV-2-driven cycle of intravascular inflammation and coagulation, which contributes significantly to a poor clinical outcome in patients with severe disease.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Platelet Activation/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Myocardium/pathology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685790

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, causes mild to moderate disease in most patients but carries a risk of morbidity and mortality. Seriously affected individuals manifest disorders of hemostasis and a cytokine storm, but it is not understood how these manifestations of severe COVID-19 are linked. Here, we showed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein engaged the CD42b receptor to activate platelets via 2 distinct signaling pathways and promoted platelet-monocyte communication through the engagement of P selectin/PGSL-1 and CD40L/CD40, which led to proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes. These results explain why hypercoagulation, monocyte activation, and a cytokine storm are correlated in patients severely affected by COVID-19 and suggest a potential target for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/physiology , COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , CD40 Antigens/blood , CD40 Ligand/blood , Cell Communication , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , HEK293 Cells , Humans , P-Selectin/blood
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