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1.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 52, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus-induced disease 19 (COVID-19) infects more than three hundred and sixty million patients worldwide, and people with severe symptoms frequently die of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent studies indicated that excessive neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contributed to immunothrombosis, thereby leading to extensive intravascular coagulopathy and multiple organ dysfunction. Thus, understanding the mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced NET formation would be helpful to reduce thrombosis and prevent ARDS in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We incubated SARS-CoV-2 with neutrophils in the presence or absence of platelets to observe NET formation. We further isolated extracellular vesicles from COVID-19 patients' sera (COVID-19-EVs) to examine their ability to induce NET formation. RESULTS: We demonstrated that antagonistic mAbs against anti-CLEC5A mAb and anti-TLR2 mAb can inhibit COVID-19-EVs-induced NET formation, and generated clec5a-/-/tlr2-/- mice to confirm the critical roles of CLEC5A and TLR2 in SARS-CoV-2-induced lung inflammation in vivo. We found that virus-free extracellular COVID-19 EVs induced robust NET formation via Syk-coupled C-type lectin member 5A (CLEC5A) and TLR2. Blockade of CLEC5A inhibited COVID-19 EVs-induced NETosis, and simultaneous blockade of CLEC5A and TLR2 further suppressed SARS-CoV-2-induced NETosis in vitro. Moreover, thromboinflammation was attenuated dramatically in clec5a-/-/tlr2-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2-activated platelets produce EVs to enhance thromboinflammation via CLEC5A and TLR2, and highlight the importance of CLEC5A and TLR2 as therapeutic targets to reduce the risk of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lectins, C-Type , Neutrophils , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Animals , Blood Platelets/immunology , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/immunology , Mice , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , Receptors, Cell Surface , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/virology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology
2.
Pathol Res Pract ; 231: 153782, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655042

ABSTRACT

The novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19 outbreak, spread rapidly and infected more than 140 million people with more than three million victims worldwide. The SARS-CoV-2 causes destructive changes in the immunological and hematological system of the host. These alterations appear to play a critical role in disease pathology and the emerging of clinical manifestations. In this review, we aimed to discuss the effect of COVID-19 on the count, function and morphology of immune and blood cells and the role of these changes in the pathophysiology of the disease. Knowledge of these changes may help with better management and treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/virology , Erythrocytes/virology , Granulocytes/virology , Monocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cell Count , Cell Shape , Humans
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580687

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is associated with a broad spectrum of presentations, but alveolar capillary microthrombi have been described as a common finding in COVID-19 patients, appearing as a consequence of a severe endothelial injury with endothelial cell membrane disruption. These observations clearly point to the identification of a COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, which may contribute to thrombosis, multi-organ damage, and cause of severity and fatality. One significant finding that emerges in prothrombotic abnormalities observed in COVID-19 patients is that the coagulation alterations are mainly mediated by the activation of platelets and intrinsically related to viral-mediated endothelial inflammation. Beyond the well-known role in hemostasis, the ability of platelets to also release various potent cytokines and chemokines has elevated these small cells from simple cell fragments to crucial modulators in the blood, including their inflammatory functions, that have a large influence on the immune response during infectious disease. Indeed, platelets are involved in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury also by promoting NET formation and affecting vascular permeability. Specifically, the deposition by activated platelets of the chemokine platelet factor 4 at sites of inflammation promotes adhesion of neutrophils on endothelial cells and thrombogenesis, and it seems deeply involved in the phenomenon of vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. Importantly, the hyperactivated platelet phenotype along with evidence of cytokine storm, high levels of P-selectin, D-dimer, and, on the other hand, decreased levels of fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and thrombocytopenia may be considered suitable biomarkers that distinguish the late stage of COVID-19 progression in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/physiology , COVID-19/blood , Thrombosis/pathology , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hemostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Phenotype , Platelet Activation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombocytopenia/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/virology
4.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6304189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early identification of patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at an increased risk of progression may promote more individualized treatment schemes and optimize the use of medical resources. This study is aimed at investigating the utility of the C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for early risk stratification of patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 557 patients with COVID-19 with confirmed outcomes (discharged or deceased) admitted to the West Court of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, between January 29, 2020 and April 8, 2020. Patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 465) were divided into stable (n = 409) and progressive (n = 56) groups according to whether they progressed to critical illness or death during hospitalization. To predict disease progression, the CRP/Alb ratio was evaluated on admission. RESULTS: The levels of new biomarkers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, CRP/Alb ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index, were higher in patients with progressive disease than in those with stable disease. Correlation analysis showed that the CRP/Alb ratio had the strongest positive correlation with the sequential organ failure assessment score and length of hospital stay in survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), D-dimer levels, and the CRP/Alb ratio were risk factors for disease progression. To predict clinical progression, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Alb, CRP, CRP/Alb ratio, SpO2, and D-dimer were 0.769, 0.838, 0.866, 0.107, and 0.748, respectively. Moreover, patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) had a markedly higher rate of clinical deterioration (log - rank p < 0.001). A higher CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) was also closely associated with higher rates of hospital mortality, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and a longer hospital stay. CONCLUSION: The CRP/Alb ratio can predict the risk of progression to critical disease or death early, providing a promising prognostic biomarker for risk stratification and clinical management of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
5.
Platelets ; 33(1): 48-53, 2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541393

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy is an evident complication of COVID-19 with predominance of a prothrombotic state. Platelet activation plays a key role. The terms "hyper-reactivity" and "hyperactivity" used in recent literature may not be clear or sufficient to explain the pathological events involved in COVID-related thrombosis (CRT). Inflammation may play a bigger role compared to thrombosis in COVID-related mortality because a smaller percentage of patients with COVID-19 die due to direct effects of thrombosis. Not all COVID-19 patients have thrombocytopenia and a few show thrombocytosis. We believe the platelet pathology is more complex than just activation or hyper-activation, particularly due to the platelets' role in inflammation. Understanding the pathology and consequences of platelets' role may help optimize management strategies and diminish CRT-associated morbidity and mortality. In this viewpoint report, we examine the published evidence of platelet hyper-reactivity in COVID-19 with a focused analysis of the key pathologies, diverse alterations, disease outcomes, and therapeutic targets. We believe that COVID-19 is a disease of inflammation and pathologic platelets, and based on the complexity and diverse pathologies, we propose the term "thrombocytopathy" as a more reflective term of the platelets' involvement in COVID-19. In our opinion, thrombocytopathy is the unpredictable pathologic alterations of platelets in function, morphology and number, caused by different factors with a variety of presentations.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Abciximab/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Platelet Activation/drug effects , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Treatment Outcome
7.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 49(5): 307-324, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528104

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections are associated with greater risk of both arterial and venous thromboembolic events.Pathophysiology and Clinical implications: This has been attributed to a florid proinflammatory state resulting in microvascular dysfunction, activation of platelets and procoagulant systems as well as possible direct endothelial injury. The associated morbidity and mortality of these events has prompted much speculation and varied anticoagulation and fibrinolytic strategies based on multiple criteria including disease severity and biomarkers. No clear definitive benefit has been established with these approaches, which have frequently led to greater bleeding complications without significant mortality benefit.Overview: In this review, we outline the burden of these thromboembolic events in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) as well as the hypothesized contributory biological mechanisms. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the major clinical studies on the topic, and end with a summary of major societal guideline recommendations on anticoagulation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
8.
Vox Sang ; 115(3): 146-151, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging viruses like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Nipah virus (NiV) have been identified to pose a potential threat to transfusion safety. In this study, the ability of the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets and THERAFLEX MB-Plasma pathogen inactivation systems to inactivate these viruses in platelet concentrates and plasma, respectively, was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood products were spiked with SARS-CoV, CCHFV or NiV, and then treated with increasing doses of UVC light (THERAFLEX UV-Platelets) or with methylene blue (MB) plus increasing doses of visible light (MB/light; THERAFLEX MB-Plasma). Samples were taken before and after treatment with each illumination dose and tested for residual infectivity. RESULTS: Treatment with half to three-fourths of the full UVC dose (0·2 J/cm2 ) reduced the infectivity of SARS-CoV (≥3·4 log), CCHFV (≥2·2 log) and NiV (≥4·3 log) to the limit of detection (LOD) in platelet concentrates, and treatment with MB and a fourth of the full light dose (120 J/cm2 ) decreased that of SARS-CoV (≥3·1 log), CCHFV (≥3·2 log) and NiV (≥2·7 log) to the LOD in plasma. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that both THERAFLEX UV-Platelets (UVC) and THERAFLEX MB-Plasma (MB/light) effectively reduce the infectivity of SARS-CoV, CCHFV and NiV in platelet concentrates and plasma, respectively.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo/radiation effects , Light , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , Nipah Virus/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation , Blood Platelets/virology , Blood Transfusion , Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo/drug effects , Humans , Nipah Virus/drug effects , Plasma/virology , /drug effects
9.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 379-385, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483188

ABSTRACT

In 2019 first reports about a new human coronavirus emerged, which causes common cold symptoms as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome. The virus was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and severe thrombotic events including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and microthrombi emerged as additional symptoms. Heart failure, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and stroke have also been observed. As main mediator of thrombus formation, platelets became one of the key aspects in SARS-CoV-2 research. Platelets may also directly interact with SARS-CoV-2 and have been shown to carry the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Platelets can also facilitate the virus uptake by secretion of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase furin. Cleavage of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by furin enhances binding capabilities and virus entry into various cell types. In COVID-19 patients, platelet count differs between mild and serious infections. Patients with mild symptoms have a slightly increased platelet count, whereas thrombocytopenia is a hallmark of severe COVID-19 infections. Low platelet count can be attributed to platelet apoptosis and the incorporation of platelets into microthrombi (peripheral consumption) and severe thrombotic events. The observed excessive formation of thrombi is due to hyperactivation of platelets caused by the infection. Various factors have been suggested in the activation of platelets in COVID-19, such as hypoxia, vessel damage, inflammatory factors, NETosis, SARS-CoV-2 interaction, autoimmune reactions, and autocrine activation. COVID-19 does alter chemokine and cytokine plasma concentrations. Platelet chemokine profiles are altered in COVID-19 and contribute to the described chemokine storms observed in severely ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/physiology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Platelet Activation/immunology , Platelet Activation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology
10.
Biomolecules ; 11(11)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480577

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 contains certain molecules that are related to the presence of immunothrombosis. Here, we review the pathogen and damage-associated molecular patterns. We also study the imbalance of different molecules participating in immunothrombosis, such as tissue factor, factors of the contact system, histones, and the role of cells, such as endothelial cells, platelets, and neutrophil extracellular traps. Regarding the pathogenetic mechanism, we discuss clinical trials, case-control studies, comparative and translational studies, and observational studies of regulatory or inhibitory molecules, more specifically, extracellular DNA and RNA, histones, sensors for RNA and DNA, as well as heparin and heparinoids. Overall, it appears that a network of cells and molecules identified in this axis is simultaneously but differentially affecting patients at different stages of COVID-19, and this is characterized by endothelial damage, microthrombosis, and inflammation.


Subject(s)
Alarmins , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Blood Coagulation , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , DNA/metabolism , Extracellular Traps , Heparin/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Thrombin/metabolism , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Thrombosis/complications
12.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(8): 595-599, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the hematological changes, the platelet indices in particular, in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared to healthy pregnant women. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study conducted at the Al Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, in Baghdad, Iraq, involving 100 pregnant women, 50 with positive viral DNA for COVID-19 (case group), and 50 with negative results (control group); both groups were subjected to a thorough hematological evaluation. RESULTS: Among the main hematological variables analyzed, the platelet indices, namely the mean platelet volume (MPV) and the platelet distribution width (PDW), showed statistically significant differences (MPV: 10.87 ± 66.92 fL for the case group versus 9.84 ± 1.2 fL for the control group; PDW: 14.82 ± 3.18 fL for the case group versus 13.3 ± 2.16 fL for the controls). The criterion value of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for PDW at a cutoff point of > 11.8 fL showed a weak diagnostic marker, while the MPV at a cutoff value of > 10.17 fL showed a good diagnostic marker. CONCLUSION: The MPV and PDW are significantly affected by the this viral infection, even in asymptomatic confirmed cases, and we recommend that both parameters be included in the diagnostic panel of this infection.


OBJETIVO: Descrever as alterações hematológicas, em particular os índices plaquetários em gestantes com doença coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) em comparação com gestantes saudáveis. MéTODOS: Estudo caso-controle retrospectivo realizado no Hospital Universitário Al Yarmouk, em Bagdá, Iraque envolvendo 100 gestantes, 50 com DNA viral positivo para COVID-19 (grupo caso) e 50 com resultados negativos (grupo controle); ambos os grupos foram submetidos a uma avaliação hematológica completa. RESULTADOS: Entre as principais variáveis hematológicas analisadas, os índices plaquetários, nomeadamente o volume plaquetário médio (VPM) e a largura de distribuição plaquetária (PDW), apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (VPM: 10,87 ± 66,92 fL para o grupo caso versus 9,84 ± 1.2 fL para o o grupo controle; PDW: 14,82 ± 3,18 fL para o grupo caso versus 13,3 ± 2,16 fL para os controles). O valor de critério da curva de característica de operação do receptor (ROC) para PDW em um ponto de corte de> 11,8 fL mostrou um marcador diagnóstico fraco, enquanto o do VPM em um valor de corte de> 10,17 fL mostrou um bom marcador de diagnóstico. CONCLUSãO: O MPV e PDW são significativamente afetados por esta infecção viral, mesmo em casos confirmados assintomáticos, e recomendamos que ambos os parâmetros sejam incluídos no painel de diagnóstico desta infecção.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Mean Platelet Volume , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 708-714, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406170

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with a high incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic events. Currently, there are no clinical or laboratory markers that predict thrombotic risk. Circulating immature platelets are hyper-reactive platelets, which are associated with arterial thrombotic events. The aim of this study was to assess whether the proportion of circulating immature platelets is associated with disease severity in Covid-19 patients. Patients admitted with Covid-19 disease were prospectively assessed. Immature platelet count (IPC) and immature platelet fraction (IPF) were measured at admission and at additional time points during the hospital course using the Sysmex XN-3000 auto-analyzer. A total of 136 consecutive patients with Covid-19 were recruited [mean age 60 ± 19 years, 49% woman, 56 (41%) had mild-moderate disease and 80 (59%) had severe disease at presentation]. The median IPF% was higher in patients with severe compared to mild-moderate disease [5.8 (3.9-8.7) vs. 4.2 (2.73-6.45), respectively, p = 0.01]. The maximal IPC value was also higher in patients with severe disease [15 (10.03-21.56), vs 10.9 (IQR 6.79-15.62), respectively, p = 0.001]. Increased IPC was associated with increased length of hospital stay. Patients with severe Covid-19 have higher levels of IPF than patients with mild-moderate disease. IPF may serve as a prognostic marker for disease severity in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Platelet Count , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Time Factors
14.
Scand J Immunol ; 94(5): e13097, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388398

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global pandemic with a daily increasing number of affected individuals. Thrombosis is a severe complication of COVID-19 that leads to a worse clinical course with higher rates of mortality. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that hyperinflammation plays a crucial role in disease progression. This review compiles clinical data of COVID-19 patients who developed thrombotic complications to investigate the possible role of hyperinflammation in inducing hypercoagulation. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, Medline and Scopus to identify relevant clinical studies that investigated thrombotic manifestations and reported inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers in COVID-19 patients. Only 54 studies met our inclusion criteria, the majority of which demonstrated significantly elevated inflammatory markers. In the cohort studies with control, D-dimer was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with thrombosis as compared to the control. Pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis and strokes were frequently reported which could be attributed to the hyperinflammatory response associated with COVID-19 and/or to the direct viral activation of platelets and endothelial cells, two mechanisms that are discussed in this review. It is recommended that all admitted COVID-19 patients should be assessed for hypercoagulation. Furthermore, several studies have suggested that anticoagulation may be beneficial, especially in hospitalized non-ICU patients. Although vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been approved and distributed in several countries, research should continue in the field of prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and its severe complications including thrombosis due to the emergence of new variants against which the efficacy of the vaccines is not yet clear.


Subject(s)
Arteries/pathology , Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Venous Thrombosis/immunology , Animals , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Phenotype , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5425-5431, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363680

ABSTRACT

A rapid outbreak of novel coronavirus, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), has made it a global pandemic. This study focused on the possible association between lymphopenia and computed tomography (CT) scan features and COVID-19 patient mortality. The clinical data of 596 COVID-19 patients were collected from February 2020 to September 2020. The patients' serological survey and CT scan features were retrospectively explored. The median age of the patients was 56.7 ± 16.4 years old. Lung involvement was more than 50% in 214 COVID-19 patients (35.9%). The average blood lymphocyte percentage was 20.35 ± 10.16 (normal range, 20%-50%). Although the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were high in more than 80% of COVID-19 patients; CRP, ESR, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may not indicate the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19. Patients with severe lung involvement and lymphopenia were found to be significantly associated with increased odds of death (odds ratio, 9.24; 95% confidence interval, 4.32-19.78). These results indicated that lymphopenia < 20% along with pulmonary involvement >50% impose a multiplicative effect on the risk of mortality. The in-hospital mortality rate of this group was significantly higher than other COVID-19 hospitalized cases. Furthermore, they meaningfully experienced a prolonged stay in the hospital (p = .00). Lymphocyte count less than 20% and chest CT scan findings with more than 50% involvement might be related to the patient's mortality. These could act as laboratory and clinical indicators of disease severity, mortality, and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/complications , Pneumonia/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Iran , Lung/virology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Lymphopenia/diagnostic imaging , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344351

ABSTRACT

Progressive respiratory failure is seen as a major cause of death in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection. Relatively little is known about the associated morphologic and molecular changes in the circulation of these patients. In particular, platelet and erythrocyte pathology might result in severe vascular issues, and the manifestations may include thrombotic complications. These thrombotic pathologies may be both extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary and may be central to respiratory failure. Previously, we reported the presence of amyloid microclots in the circulation of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we investigate the presence of related circulating biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, and P-selectin. These biomarkers are well-known to interact with, and cause pathology to, platelets and erythrocytes. We also study the structure of platelets and erythrocytes using fluorescence microscopy (using the markers PAC-1 and CD62PE) and scanning electron microscopy. Thromboelastography and viscometry were also used to study coagulation parameters and plasma viscosity. We conclude that structural pathologies found in platelets and erythrocytes, together with spontaneously formed amyloid microclots, may be central to vascular changes observed during COVID-19 progression, including thrombotic microangiopathy, diffuse intravascular coagulation, and large-vessel thrombosis, as well as ground-glass opacities in the lungs. Consequently, this clinical snapshot of COVID-19 strongly suggests that it is also a true vascular disease and considering it as such should form an essential part of a clinical treatment regime.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Erythrocytes/pathology , Ferritins/blood , P-Selectin/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Erythrocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology
18.
Carbohydr Res ; 505: 108326, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213065

ABSTRACT

The viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 has increased the mortality rate and engaged several adverse effects on the affected individuals. Currently available antiviral drugs have found to be unsuccessful in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The demand for efficient antiviral drugs has created a huge burden on physicians and health workers. Plasma therapy seems to be less accomplishable due to insufficient donors to donate plasma and low recovery rate from viral infection. Repurposing of antivirals has been evolved as a suitable strategy in the current treatment and preventive measures. The concept of drug repurposing represents new experimental approaches for effective therapeutic benefits. Besides, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits several complications such as lung damage, blood clot formation, respiratory illness and organ failures in most of the patients. Based on the accumulation of data, sulfated marine polysaccharides have exerted successful inhibition of virus entry, attachment and replication with known or unknown possible mechanisms against deadly animal and human viruses so far. Since the virus entry into the host cells is the key process, the prevention of such entry mechanism makes any antiviral strategy effective. Enveloped viruses are more sensitive to polyanions than non-enveloped viruses. Besides, the viral infection caused by RNA virus types embarks severe oxidative stress in the human body that leads to malfunction of tissues and organs. In this context, polysaccharides play a very significant role in providing shielding effect against the virus due to their polyanionic rich features and a molecular weight that hinders their reactive surface glycoproteins. Significantly the functional groups especially sulfate, sulfate pattern and addition, uronic acids, monosaccharides, glycosidic linkage and high molecular weight have greater influence in the antiviral activity. Moreover, they are very good antioxidants that can reduce the free radical generation and provokes intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, polysaccharides enable a host-virus immune response, activate phagocytosis and stimulate interferon systems. Therefore, polysaccharides can be used as candidate drugs, adjuvants in vaccines or combination with other antivirals, antioxidants and immune-activating nutritional supplements and antiviral materials in healthcare products to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Phaeophyta/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Rhodophyta/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfuric Acid Esters/chemistry , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
19.
Platelets ; 32(3): 325-330, 2021 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092288

ABSTRACT

Platelets play an essential role in maintaining vascular integrity after injury. In addition, platelets contribute to the immune response to pathogens. For instance, they express receptors that mediate binding of viruses, and toll-like receptors that activate the cell in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Platelets can be beneficial and/or detrimental during viral infections. They reduce blood-borne viruses by engulfing the free virus and presenting the virus to neutrophils. However, platelets can also enhance inflammation and tissue injury during viral infections. Here, we discuss the roles of platelets in viral infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Communication/genetics , Cell Communication/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Platelet Activation/immunology , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity
20.
PLoS Biol ; 19(2): e3001109, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088651

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected over 30 million globally to date. Although high rates of venous thromboembolism and evidence of COVID-19-induced endothelial dysfunction have been reported, the precise aetiology of the increased thrombotic risk associated with COVID-19 infection remains to be fully elucidated. Therefore, we assessed clinical platelet parameters and circulating platelet activity in patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19. An assessment of clinical blood parameters in patients with severe COVID-19 disease (requiring intensive care), patients with nonsevere disease (not requiring intensive care), general medical in-patients without COVID-19, and healthy donors was undertaken. Platelet function and activity were also assessed by secretion and specific marker analysis. We demonstrated that routine clinical blood parameters including increased mean platelet volume (MPV) and decreased platelet:neutrophil ratio are associated with disease severity in COVID-19 upon hospitalisation and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Strikingly, agonist-induced ADP release was 30- to 90-fold higher in COVID-19 patients compared with hospitalised controls and circulating levels of platelet factor 4 (PF4), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), and thrombopoietin (TPO) were also significantly elevated in COVID-19. This study shows that distinct differences exist in routine full blood count and other clinical laboratory parameters between patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19. Moreover, we have determined all COVID-19 patients possess hyperactive circulating platelets. These data suggest abnormal platelet reactivity may contribute to hypercoagulability in COVID-19 and confirms the role that platelets/clotting has in determining the severity of the disease and the complexity of the recovery path.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Aged , Blood Coagulation , Blood Platelets/cytology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hemostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Male , Mean Platelet Volume , Middle Aged , P-Selectin/blood , Phenotype , Platelet Factor 4/blood , Platelet Function Tests , Thrombopoietin/blood
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