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2.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 132(5): 1297-1309, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794427

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can increase arterial stiffness 3-4 wk following infection, even among young, healthy adults. However, the long-term impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiovascular health and the duration of recovery remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate potential long-lasting effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on markers of arterial stiffness among young adults during the 6 mo following infection. Assessments were performed at months 1, 2, 3, 4, and ∼6 following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Doppler ultrasound was used to measure carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and carotid stiffness, and arterial tonometry was used to measure central blood pressures and aortic augmentation index at a heart rate of 75 beats·min-1 (AIx@HR75). Vascular (VCAM-1) and intracellular (ICAM-1) adhesion molecules were analyzed as circulating markers of arterial stiffness. From months 1-6, a significant reduction in cfPWV was observed (month 1: 5.70 ± 0.73 m·s-1; month 6: 4.88 ± 0.65 m·s-1; P < 0.05) without any change in carotid stiffness measures. Reductions in systolic blood pressure (month 1: 123 ± 8 mmHg; month 6: 112 ± 11 mmHg) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; month 1: 97 ± 6 mmHg; month 6: 86 ± 7 mmHg) were observed (P < 0.05), although AIx@HR75 did not change over time. The month 1-6 change in cfPWV and MAP were correlated (r = 0.894; P < 0.001). A reduction in VCAM-1 was observed at month 3 compared with month 1 (month 1: 5,575 ± 2,242 pg·mL-1; month 3: 4,636 ± 1,621 pg·mL-1; P < 0.05) without a change in ICAM-1. A reduction in cfPWV was related with MAP, and some indicators of arterial stiffness remain elevated for several months following SARS-CoV-2 infection, possibly contributing to prolonged recovery and increased cardiovascular health risks.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We sought to investigate potential long-lasting effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on markers of arterial stiffness among young adults for 6 mo following infection. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly reduced while carotid stiffness measures remained unaltered over the 6-mo period. These findings suggest several months of recovery from infection may be necessary for young adults to improve various markers of arterial stiffness, possibly contributing to cardiovascular health and recovery among those infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Stiffness , Blood Pressure/physiology , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Pulse Wave Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Young Adult
3.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 22(4): 311-325, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773006

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular disorders worldwide, affecting 1.13 billion people, or 14% of the global population. Hypertension is the single biggest risk factor for cerebrovascular dysfunction. According to the American Heart Association, high blood pressure (BP), especially in middle-aged individuals (~ 40 to 60 years old), is associated with an increased risk of dementia, later in life. Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease are the two leading causes of dementia, accounting for around 80% of the total cases and usually combining mixed pathologies from both. Little is known regarding how hypertension affects cognitive function, so the impact of its treatment on cognitive impairment has been difficult to assess. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is essential for BP regulation and overactivity of this system has been established to precede the development and maintenance of hypertension. Angiotensin II (Ang-II), the main peptide within this system, induces vasoconstriction and impairs neuro-vascular coupling by acting on brain Ang-II type 1 receptors (AT1R). In this review, we systemically analyzed the association between RAS and biological mechanisms of cognitive impairment, from the perspective of AT1R located in the central nervous system. Additionally, the possible contribution of brain AT1R to global cognition decline in COVID-19 cases will be discussed as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Hypertension , Adult , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Middle Aged , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System
4.
Neurol Sci ; 43(6): 3479-3487, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) represents a frequent but under-recognized phenomenon in Parkinson's disease (PD). During COVID-19 pandemic, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have become pivotal in the management of chronic diseases like PD, not only to assess motor impairment, but also for vital signs monitoring. This pilot study aimed to propose a real-time remote home-monitoring system and protocol for PD patients with OH. METHODS: Vital parameters were acquired by wireless devices and transmitted to an ICT platform, providing data and smart notifications to the healthcare provider through an interactive web portal. Eight patients with idiopathic PD and OH underwent 5-day monitoring. Data about OH episodes, therapeutic interventions, impact on daily activities, and patient satisfaction were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The proposed solution allowed the identification of 65 OH episodes and subsequent medical interventions. Thirty-five episodes were asymptomatic, especially in the postprandial and in the afternoon recordings. Systolic-blood-pressure (SBP) and diastolic-blood-pressure (DBP) were significantly lower in symptomatic episodes, while the pressure drops resulted significantly higher in presence of symptoms. High usability and patient satisfaction scores were observed. CONCLUSION: The proposed home-monitoring system and protocol have proved to provide useful information and to allow prompt interventions in the management of PD patients with OH during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypotension, Orthostatic , Parkinson Disease , Telemedicine , Blood Pressure/physiology , Humans , Hypotension, Orthostatic/diagnosis , Hypotension, Orthostatic/epidemiology , Hypotension, Orthostatic/etiology , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Pilot Projects
5.
Hypertens Res ; 45(5): 911-914, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740437

ABSTRACT

Although the effect of face masks on preventing airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is well studied, no study has evaluated their effect on blood pressure (BP). Therefore, we investigated the effect of surgical masks on BP in 265 treated hypertensive patients. Following the routine mask-on office BP measurement, patients were left alone and randomized to automated office BP measurement, with measurements taken after first wearing a mask for 10 min, then without wearing the mask for 10 min, and vice versa. Among the participants, 115 were women (43.4%), the mean age was 62 ± 12 years, and the mean office BP was 134 ± 15/81 ± 12 mmHg. There was no significant difference between mask-on unattended systolic BP (133 ± 15 mmHg) and mask-off unattended systolic BP (132 ± 15 mmHg) (P = 0.13) or between mask-on unattended diastolic BP (77 ± 13 mmHg) and mask-off unattended diastolic BP (76 ± 13 mmHg) (P = 0.32). Surgical masks had no effect on BP in treated hypertensive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Determination , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 24(3): 224-233, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673151

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is the most common comorbidity in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and increases in-hospital mortality. Day-by-day blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) is associated with clinical outcomes in hypertensive patients. However, little information is available on the association of BPV with the outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension. This study aimed to demonstrate whether day-by-day in-hospital BPV had prognostic significance in these patients. The authors included 702 COVID-19 patients with hypertension from Huoshenshan Hospital (Wuhan, China), who underwent valid in-hospital BP measurements on at least seven consecutive days. Day-by-day BPV was assessed by standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and variation independent of mean (VIM). Overall, patients with severe COVID-19 and non-survivors had higher BPV than moderate cases and survivors, respectively. Additionally, higher BPV was correlated with greater age and higher levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, high-sensitive cardiac troponin I, and B-type natriuretic peptide. In multivariable Cox regression, SD of systolic BP (SBP) was predictive of mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.30] as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.16). Similar trends were observed for CV and VIM of SBP, but not indices of diastolic BP variability. The authors demonstrated that day-by-day in-hospital SBP variability can independently predict mortality and ARDS in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. And high BPV might be correlated with severe inflammation and myocardial injury. Further studies are needed to clarify whether early reduction of BPV will improve the prognosis of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Prognosis
8.
Hypertens Res ; 45(5): 856-865, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641956

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a health crisis. It remains unclear how anxiety affects blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular risk among older patients with hypertension. In this study, we extracted longitudinal data on home BP monitored via a smartphone-based application in 3724 elderly patients with hypertension from a clinical trial (60-80 years; 240 in Wuhan and 3484 in non-Wuhan areas) to examine changes in morning BP during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Anxiety was evaluated using Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 item scores. Changes in morning systolic BP (SBP) were analyzed for five 30-day periods during the pandemic (October 21, 2019 to March 21, 2020), including the pre-epidemic, incubation, developing, outbreak, and plateau periods. Data on cardiovascular events were prospectively collected for one year. A total of 262 individuals (7.0%) reported an increased level of anxiety, and 3462 individuals (93.0%) did not. Patients with anxiety showed higher morning SBP than patients without anxiety, and the between-group differences in SBP change were +1.2 mmHg and +1.7 mmHg during the outbreak and plateau periods (P < 0.05), respectively. The seasonal BP variation in winter among patients with anxiety was suppressed during the pandemic. Anxious patients had higher rates of uncontrolled BP. During the 1-year follow-up period, patients with anxiety had an increased risk of cardiovascular events with a hazard ratio of 2.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.58; P = 0.03). In summary, COVID-19-related anxiety was associated with a short-term increase in morning SBP among older patients and led to a greater risk of cardiovascular events. (ClinicalTrials. gov number, NCT03015311).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics
9.
Ann Neurol ; 91(3): 367-379, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe cerebrovascular, neuropathic, and autonomic features of post-acute sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 ((COVID-19) PASC). METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated consecutive patients with chronic fatigue, brain fog, and orthostatic intolerance consistent with PASC. Controls included patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and healthy participants. Analyzed data included surveys and autonomic (Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing, sudomotor, and tilt tests), cerebrovascular (cerebral blood flow velocity [CBFv] monitoring in middle cerebral artery), respiratory (capnography monitoring), and neuropathic (skin biopsies for assessment of small fiber neuropathy) testing and inflammatory/autoimmune markers. RESULTS: Nine patients with PASC were evaluated 0.8 ± 0.3 years after a mild COVID-19 infection, and were treated as home observations. Autonomic, pain, brain fog, fatigue, and dyspnea surveys were abnormal in PASC and POTS (n = 10), compared with controls (n = 15). Tilt table test reproduced the majority of PASC symptoms. Orthostatic CBFv declined in PASC (-20.0 ± 13.4%) and POTS (-20.3 ± 15.1%), compared with controls (-3.0 ± 7.5%, p = 0.001) and was independent of end-tidal carbon dioxide in PASC, but caused by hyperventilation in POTS. Reduced orthostatic CBFv in PASC included both subjects without (n = 6) and with (n = 3) orthostatic tachycardia. Dysautonomia was frequent (100% in both PASC and POTS) but was milder in PASC (p = 0.002). PASC and POTS cohorts diverged in frequency of small fiber neuropathy (89% vs 60%) but not in inflammatory markers (67% vs 70%). Supine and orthostatic hypocapnia was observed in PASC. INTERPRETATION: PASC following mild COVID-19 infection is associated with multisystem involvement including: (1) cerebrovascular dysregulation with persistent cerebral arteriolar vasoconstriction; (2) small fiber neuropathy and related dysautonomia; (3) respiratory dysregulation; and (4) chronic inflammation. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:367-379.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Fatigue/blood , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Orthostatic Intolerance/blood , Orthostatic Intolerance/diagnosis , Orthostatic Intolerance/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
10.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 298: 103844, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Use of high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and prone positioning is common in patients with COVID-19-induced acute respiratory failure. Few data clarify the hemodynamic effects of these interventions in this specific condition. We performed a physiologic study to assess the hemodynamic effects of PEEP and prone position during COVID-19 respiratory failure. METHODS: Nine adult patients mechanically ventilated due to COVID-19 infection and fulfilling moderate-to-severe ARDS criteria were studied. Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, cardiac output, oxygen consumption, systemic and pulmonary pressures were recorded through pulmonary arterial catheterization at PEEP of 15 and 5 cmH2O, and after prone positioning. Recruitability was assessed through the recruitment-to-inflation ratio. RESULTS: High PEEP improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio in all patients (p = 0.004), and significantly decreased pulmonary shunt fraction (p = 0.012), regardless of lung recruitability. PEEP-induced increases in PaO2/FiO2 changes were strictly correlated with shunt fraction reduction (rho=-0.82, p = 0.01). From low to high PEEP, cardiac output decreased by 18 % (p = 0.05) and central venous pressure increased by 17 % (p = 0.015). As compared to supine position with low PEEP, prone positioning significantly decreased pulmonary shunt fraction (p = 0.03), increased PaO2/FiO2 (p = 0.03) and mixed venous oxygen saturation (p = 0.016), without affecting cardiac output. PaO2/FiO2 was improved by prone position also when compared to high PEEP (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS due to COVID-19, PEEP and prone position improve arterial oxygenation. Changes in cardiac output contribute to the effects of PEEP but not of prone position, which appears the most effective intervention to improve oxygenation with no hemodynamic side effects.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Rate/physiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prone Position , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prone Position/physiology
12.
Hypertens Res ; 45(4): 675-685, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585865

ABSTRACT

To prevent further spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the Japanese government announced a state of emergency, resulting in major stress for the population. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between changes in daily stress and blood pressure (BP) in Japanese patients. We retrospectively investigated 748 patients with chronic disease who were treated by the Sagamihara Physicians Association to determine changes in stress during the COVID-19 state of emergency from 7 April to 31 May 2020. During the state of emergency, office BP significantly increased from 136.5 ± 17.5/78.2 ± 12.0 to 138.6 ± 18.6/79.0 ± 12.2 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively). In contrast, home BP significantly decreased from 128.2 ± 10.3/75.8 ± 8.8 to 126.9 ± 10.2/75.2 ± 9.0 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively), and the ratio of white coat hypertension was significantly increased (p < 0.001). Fifty-eight percent of patients worried about adverse effects of hypertension as a condition contributing to the severity and poor prognosis of COVID-19; decreased amounts of exercise and worsened diet compositions were observed in 39% and 17% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, a significant increase in office BP with the white coat phenomenon was observed during the state of emergency, as well as an increase in related stress. To prevent cardiovascular events, general practitioners should pay more attention to BP management during stressful global events, including the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , White Coat Hypertension , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Outpatients , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , White Coat Hypertension/epidemiology
13.
Hypertension ; 79(2): 325-334, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476907

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a case-control study in 2015, we revealed the association between increased arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity) and aircraft noise exposure. In June 2020, we evaluated the long-term effects, and the impact of a sudden decline in noise exposure during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown, on blood pressure and pulse wave velocity, comparing 74 participants exposed to long-term day-evening-night aircraft noise level >60 dB and 75 unexposed individuals. During the 5-year follow-up, the prevalence of hypertension increased in the exposed (42% versus 59%, P=0.048) but not in the unexposed group. The decline in noise exposure since April 2020 was accompanied with a significant decrease of noise annoyance, 24-hour systolic (121.2 versus 117.9 mm Hg; P=0.034) and diastolic (75.1 versus 72.0 mm Hg; P=0.003) blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (10.2 versus 8.8 m/s; P=0.001) in the exposed group. Less profound decreases of these parameters were noticed in the unexposed group. Significant between group differences were observed for declines in office and night-time diastolic blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. Importantly, the difference in the reduction of pulse wave velocity between exposed and unexposed participants remained significant after adjustment for covariates (-1.49 versus -0.35 m/s; P=0.017). The observed difference in insomnia prevalence between exposed and unexposed individuals at baseline was no more significant at follow-up. Thus, long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the prevalence of hypertension and accelerate arterial stiffening. However, even short-term noise reduction, as experienced during the COVID-19 lockdown, may reverse those unfavorable effects.


Subject(s)
Aircraft , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19 , Environmental Exposure , Noise, Transportation/adverse effects , Noise/adverse effects , Quarantine , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Aged , Arteriosclerosis/epidemiology , Arteriosclerosis/etiology , Female , Harm Reduction , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Pulse Wave Analysis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Urban Health
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0258018, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data of critically ill COVID-19 patients are being evaluated worldwide, not only to understand the various aspects of the disease and to refine treatment strategies but also to improve clinical decision-making. For clinical decision-making in particular, prognostic factors of a lethal course of the disease would be highly relevant. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the first 59 adult critically ill Covid-19 patients treated in one of the intensive care units of the University Medical Center Regensburg, Germany. Using uni- and multivariable regression models, we extracted a set of parameters that allowed for prognosing in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Within the cohort, 19 patients died (mortality 32.2%). Blood pH value, mean arterial pressure, base excess, troponin, and procalcitonin were identified as highly significant prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. However, no significant differences were found for other parameters expected to be relevant prognostic factors, like low arterial partial pressure of oxygen or high lactate levels. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, the pH value and the mean arterial pressure turned out to be the most influential prognostic factors for a lethal course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Blood Physiological Phenomena , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e22493, 2020 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Automated texting platforms have emerged as a tool to facilitate communication between patients and health care providers with variable effects on achieving target blood pressure (BP). Understanding differences in the way patients interact with these communication platforms can inform their use and design for hypertension management. OBJECTIVE: Our primary aim was to explore the unique phenotypes of patient interactions with an automated text messaging platform for BP monitoring. Our secondary aim was to estimate associations between interaction phenotypes and BP control. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial for adults with poorly controlled hypertension. A total of 201 patients with established primary care were assigned to the automated texting platform; messages exchanged throughout the 4-month program were analyzed. We used the k-means clustering algorithm to characterize two different interaction phenotypes: program conformity and engagement style. First, we identified unique clusters signifying differences in program conformity based on the frequency over time of error alerts, which were generated to patients when they deviated from the requested text message format (eg, ###/## for BP). Second, we explored overall engagement styles, defined by error alerts and responsiveness to text prompts, unprompted messages, and word count averages. Finally, we applied the chi-square test to identify associations between each interaction phenotype and achieving the target BP. RESULTS: We observed 3 categories of program conformity based on their frequency of error alerts: those who immediately and consistently submitted texts without system errors (perfect users, 51/201), those who did so after an initial learning period (adaptive users, 66/201), and those who consistently submitted messages generating errors to the platform (nonadaptive users, 38/201). Next, we observed 3 categories of engagement style: the enthusiast, who tended to submit unprompted messages with high word counts (17/155); the student, who inconsistently engaged (35/155); and the minimalist, who engaged only when prompted (103/155). Of all 6 phenotypes, we observed a statistically significant association between patients demonstrating the minimalist communication style (high adherence, few unprompted messages, limited information sharing) and achieving target BP (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: We identified unique interaction phenotypes among patients engaging with an automated text message platform for remote BP monitoring. Only the minimalist communication style was associated with achieving target BP. Identifying and understanding interaction phenotypes may be useful for tailoring future automated texting interactions and designing future interventions to achieve better BP control.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/physiology , Hypertension/therapy , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Text Messaging/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Young Adult
17.
J Nephrol ; 34(2): 305-314, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In February 2020 the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection started spreading throughout Italy, hitting the Lombardy region very hard. Despite the high diffusion, only a subset of patients developed severe COVID-19: around 25% of them developed acute kidney injury (AKI) and one-third of them died. Elderly patients and patients with high comorbidities were identified as being at higher risk of severe COVID-19. METHODS: Our prospective observational cohort study includes 392 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Milan (median age 67 years, 75% male). We evaluated the relationship between blood pressure at presentation, presence of AKI at Emergency Department admission and during hospitalization, and total in-hospital mortality (24%). RESULTS: Although 58% of our study patients reported a history of hypertension (HYP) (86% on treatment), 30% presented with low blood pressure levels. Only 5.5% were diagnosed with AKI on admission; 75% of hypertensive patients discontinued therapy during hospitalization (only 20% were on treatment at discharge). Gender and hypertension were strongly associated with AKI at admission (odds ratio 11). Blood pressure was inversely correlated with increased risk of AKI upon admission, regardless of the severity of respiratory distress. Age over 65, history of hypertension, and severity of respiratory distress were the main predictors of AKI, which developed in 34.7% of cases during hospitalization. AKI was associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Hypertension and low blood pressure at presentation were the main predictors of in-hospital mortality, together with age over 65, baseline pulmonary involvement, and severity of illness. CONCLUSIONS: In patients hospitalized for COVID-19, hypertension and low blood pressure at presentation are important risk factors for AKI and mortality. Early reduction of antihypertensive therapy may improve outcomes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate/trends
18.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(5): 1629-1636, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060600

ABSTRACT

To assess imaging data in COVID-19 patients and its association with clinical course and survival and 86 consecutive patients (52 males, 34 females, mean age = 58.8 year) with documented COVID-19 infection were included. Seventy-eight patients (91%) were in severe stage of the disease. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Mean LVEF was 48.1% and mean estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) was 27.9 mmHg. LV diastolic dysfunction was mildly abnormal in 49 patients (57.6%) and moderately abnormal in 7 cases (8.2%). Pericardial effusion was present in 5/86 (minimal in size in 3 cases and mild- moderate in 2). In 32/86 cases (37.2%), the severity of infection progressed from "severe" to "critical". Eleven patients (12.8%) died. sPAP and computed tomography score were associated with disease progression (P value = 0.002, 0.002 respectively). Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) was significantly higher in patients with no disease progression compared with those who deteriorated (P value = 0.005). Pericardial effusion (minimal, mild or moderate) was detected more often in progressive disease (P = 0.03). sPAP was significantly lower among survivors (P value = 0.007). Echocardiographic findings (including systolic PAP, TAPSE and pericardial effusion), total CT score may have prognostic and therapeutic implication in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Pericardial Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pericardial Effusion/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
19.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(2): 238-244, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045705

ABSTRACT

Arterial hypertension represented one of the most common comorbidities in patients with COVID-19. However, the impact of hypertension on outcome in COVID-19 patients is not clear. Close connections between inflammation and blood pressure (BP) have been described, and inflammation plays a key role in the outcome for patients with COVID-19. Whether hypertension impairs the relationship between inflammation, BP, and outcomes in this context is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the interactions between inflammation and hypertension status on BP and clinical outcome in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We designed a retrospective study in 129 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at Toulouse University Hospital. The hospital outcome was admission to the intensive care unit or death. The inflammatory markers were blood C-reactive protein level (CRP), neutrophil to lymphocyte, and platelet to lymphocyte ratios. We identified strong correlations between CRP (P < .01) and the other inflammatory markers recorded on admission (P < .001) with mean BP within 3 days after admission in normotensive patients, whereas these correlations were absent in patients with hypertension. Also, we observed after multivariate adjustment (P < .05) that CRP level predicted a worse prognosis in hypertensive patients (relative risk 2.52; 95% confidence intervals [1.03- 6.17]; P = .04), whereas CRP was not predictive of outcome in patients without hypertension. In conclusion, the study revealed that in COVID-19 patients, hypertension impairs the relationship between inflammation and BP and interacts with inflammation to affect prognosis. These findings provide insights that could explain the relationship between hypertension and outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hypertension/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Pressure/drug effects , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Am J Hypertens ; 34(4): 367-376, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as the entry receptor for coronaviruses into human cells, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since hypertension (HT) is a leading comorbidity in non-survivors of COVID-19, we tested for association between ACE2 gene and HT in interaction with specific pre-existing conditions known to be associated with COVID-19 severity. METHODS: Genetic analysis of ACE2 gene was conducted in French-Canadian (FC) and British populations. RESULTS: In FC individuals, the T allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2074192 of ACE2 gene was a risk factor for HT in adult obese males [odds ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.83)] and even more so in obese males who smoked (OR = 1.67, CI: 1.24-2.55), but not in lean males, non-smoker males or females. The T allele was significantly associated with severity of HT and with earlier penetrance of HT in obese smoking males. Significant interaction between the T allele and obesity was present in both sexes. The association of ACE2 (rs233575) genotype with blood pressure was also seen in adolescents but the interaction with obesity was present only in females. Several variants in ACE2 gene were found to be associated with HT in obese, smoking males in British individuals of the UK Biobank. In addition, we observed more severe outcomes to COVID-19 in association with ACE2 risk alleles in obese, smoking males. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that ACE2 variants are associated with earlier penetrance and more severe HT and with more severe outcomes of COVID-19 in obese smoking males.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Obesity , Adolescent , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Canada/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/etiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology
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