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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 29: e939797, 2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The Indonesian Chronic Disease Management Program (PROLANIS) is a government program that aims to improve the health outcomes of patients with chronic diseases, including hypertension. This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the health outcomes of hypertension patients in rural areas who were enrolled in PROLANIS. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study used data from 4 PROLANIS groups in East Java province. The data were collected from participants' 6-month evaluations at 3 time points: before the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019 (T0), during the COVID-19 pandemic in June 2020 (T1), and in December 2020 (T2). Evaluated parameters were body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipid (LDL), high-density lipid (HDL), triglyceride (TG), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS There were 91 patients included in the analyses. Compared to T0, BMI, blood pressure, eGFR, and TC had significantly deteriorated at T1, but LDL, HDL, and TG showed no marked changes. At T2, BMI, DBP, and TC were similar to T0. On the other hand, SBP and eGFR did not improve, while HDL significantly deteriorated. Stratified based on age, worsening of DBP, TC, and LDL at T1 and eGFR at T1 and T2 was only observed in those aged 60 years and older. CONCLUSIONS This preliminary study showed that the health outcomes of hypertension patients in rural areas who were enrolled in PROLANIS were negatively impacted during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the elderly being the most affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Indonesia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Triglycerides , Blood Pressure/physiology , Disease Management , Cholesterol, HDL
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312821

ABSTRACT

Despite the growing popularity of high-intensity anaerobic exercise, little is known about the acute effects of this form of exercise on cardiovascular hemodynamics or autonomic modulation, which might provide insight into the individual assessment of responses to training load. The purpose of this study was to compare blood pressure and autonomic recovery following repeated bouts of acute supramaximal exercise in Black and White women. A convenience sample of twelve White and eight Black young, healthy women were recruited for this study and completed two consecutive bouts of supramaximal exercise on the cycle ergometer with 30 min of recovery in between. Brachial and central aortic blood pressures were assessed by tonometry (SphygmoCor Xcel) at rest and 15-min and 30-min following each exercise bout. Central aortic blood pressure was estimated using brachial pressure waveforms and customized software. Autonomic modulation was measured in a subset of ten participants by heart-rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity. Brachial mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in Blacks compared to Whites across time (race effect, p = 0.043 and p = 0.049, respectively). Very-low-frequency and low-frequency bands of heart rate variability, which are associated with sympathovagal balance and vasomotor tone, were 22.5% and 24.9% lower, respectively, in Blacks compared to Whites (race effect, p = 0.045 and p = 0.006, respectively). In conclusion, the preliminary findings of racial differences in blood pressure and autonomic recovery following supramaximal exercise warrant further investigations of tailored exercise prescriptions for Blacks and Whites.


Subject(s)
Arterial Pressure , Hemodynamics , Humans , Female , Blood Pressure/physiology , Race Factors , Hemodynamics/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(6): 107140, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291491

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study factors associated with systolic blood pressure(SBP) control for patients post-discharge from an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack(TIA) during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-pandemic periods within the Veterans Health Administration(VHA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed retrospective data from patients discharged from Emergency Departments or inpatient admissions after an ischemic stroke or TIA. Cohorts consisted of 2,816 patients during March-September 2020 and 11,900 during the same months in 2017-2019. Outcomes included primary care or neurology clinic visits, recorded blood pressure readings and average blood pressure control in the 90-days post-discharge. Random effect logit models were used to compare clinical characteristics of the cohorts and relationships between patient characteristics and outcomes. RESULTS: The majority (73%) of patients with recorded readings during the COVID-19 period had a mean post-discharge SBP within goal (<140 mmHg); this was slightly lower than the pre-COVID-19 period (78%; p=0.001). Only 38% of the COVID-19 cohort had a recorded SBP in the 90-days post-discharge compared with 83% of patients during the pre-pandemic period (p=0.001). During the pandemic period, 29% did not have follow-up primary care or neurologist visits, and 33% had a phone or video visit without a recorded SBP reading. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with an acute cerebrovascular event during the initial COVID-19 period were less likely to have outpatient visits or blood pressure measurements than during the pre-pandemic period; patients with uncontrolled SBP should be targeted for follow-up hypertension management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Blood Pressure/physiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Aftercare , Patient Discharge , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy
4.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0283331, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) is associated with severe COVID-19 infection; however, it remains unknown if the level of blood pressure (BP) predicts mortality. We tested whether the initial BP in the emergency department of hospitalized patients portends mortality in COVID-19 positive(+) patients. METHODS: Data from COVID-19(+) and negative (-) hospitalized patients at Stony Brook University Hospital from March to July 2020 were included. The initial mean arterial BPs (MABPs) were categorized into tertiles (T) of MABP (65-85 [T1], 86-97 [T2] and ≥98 [T3] mmHg). Differences were evaluated using univariable (t-tests, chi-squared) tests. Multivariable (MV) logistic regression analyses were computed to assess links between MABP and mortality in hypertensive COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: 1549 adults were diagnosed with COVID-19 (+) and 2577 tested negative (-). Mortality of COVID-19(+) was 4.4-fold greater than COVID-19(-) patients. Though HTN prevalance did not differ between COVID-19 groups, the presenting systolic BP, diastolic BP, and MABP were lower in the COVID-19(+) vs (-) cohort. When subjects were categorized into tertiles of MABP, T2 tertile of MABP had the lowest mortality and the T1 tertile of MABP had greatest mortality compared to T2; however, no difference in mortality was noted across tertiles of MABP in COVID-19 (-). MV analysis of COVID-19 (+) subjects exposed death as a risk factor for T1 MABP. Next, the mortality of those with a historic diagnosis of hypertension or normotension were studied. On MV analysis, T1 MABP, gender, age, and first respiratory rate correlated with mortality while lymphocyte count inversely correlated with death in hypertensive COVID-19 (+) patients while neither T1 nor T3 categories of MABP predicted death in non-hypertensives. CONCLUSIONS: Low-normal admitting MABP in COVID-19 (+) subjects with a historical diagnosis of HTN is associated with mortality and may assist in identifying those at greatest mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Humans , Arterial Pressure , COVID-19/complications , Blood Pressure/physiology , Risk Factors
5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(6): e027296, 2023 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268328

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted traditional health care; one fallout was a drastic decrease in blood pressure (BP) assessment. We analyzed the pandemic's impact on our existing remote hypertension management program's effectiveness and adaptability. Methods and Results This retrospective observational analysis evaluated BP control in an entirely remote management program before and during the pandemic. A team of pharmacists, nurse practitioners, physicians, and nonlicensed navigators used an evidence-based clinical algorithm to optimize hypertensive treatment. The algorithm was adapted during the pandemic to simplify BP control. Overall, 1256 patients (605 enrolled in the 6 months before the pandemic shutdown in March 2020 and 651 in the 6 months after) were a median age of 63 years old, 57% female, and 38.2% non-White. Among enrolled patients with sustained hypertension, 51.1% reached BP goals. Within this group, rates of achieving goal BP improved to 94.6% during the pandemic from 75.8% prepandemic (P<0.0001). Mean baseline home BP was 141.7/81.9 mm Hg during the pandemic and 139.8/82.2 prepandemic, and fell ≈16/9 mm Hg in both periods (P<0.0001). Maintenance during the pandemic was achieved earlier (median 11.8 versus 19.6 weeks, P<0.0001), with more frequent monthly calls (8.2 versus 3.1, P<0.0001) and more monthly home BP recordings per patient (32.4 versus 18.9, P<0.0001), compared with the prepandemic period. Conclusions A remote clinical management program was successfully adapted and delivered significant improvements in BP control and increased home BP monitoring despite a nationally observed disruption of traditional hypertension care. Such programs have the potential to transform hypertension management and care delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Blood Pressure/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods
6.
Blood Press ; 32(1): 2161998, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212397

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the subsequent lockdown profoundly affected almost all aspects of daily life including health services worldwide. The established risk factors for increased blood pressure (BP) and hypertension may also demonstrate significant changes during the pandemic. This study aims to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on BP control and BP phenotypes as assessed with 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multi-centre, observational, retrospective and comparative study involving Excellence Centres of the European Society of Hypertension across Europe. Along with clinical data and office BP, ABPM recordings will be collected in adult patients with treated arterial hypertension. There will be two groups in the study: Group 1 will consist of participants who have undergone two ABPM recordings - the second one occurring during the COVID-19 pandemic, i.e. after March 2020, and the first one 9-15 months prior to the second. Participants in Group 2 will have two repeated ABPM recordings - both performed before the pandemic within a similar 9-15 month interval between the recordings. Within each group, we will analyse and compare BP variables and phenotypes (including averaged daytime and night-time BP, BP variability, dipper and non-dipper status, white-coat and masked hypertension) between the two respective ABPM recordings and compare these changes between the two groups. The target sample size will amount to least 590 participants in each of the study groups, which means a total of at least 2360 ABPM recordings overall. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: As a result, we expect to identify the impact of a COVID-19 pandemic on blood pressure control and the quality of medical care in order to develop the strategy to control cardiovascular risk factors during unpredictable global events.


What is the context?A wide range of daily activities, including health care worldwide, were deeply affected by the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and the subsequent lockdown.What is new?Our multicenter study will examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients across Europe by analysing results of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.What is the impact?Optimising strategies for dealing with future unpredictable global situations will depend on understanding how the pandemic affected blood pressure control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure/physiology
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(12)2022 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200502

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of the BNT162b2 vaccine on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP) before and 15 min after two doses that were given 21 days apart. Materials and Methods: This active surveillance study of vaccine safety was conducted on 15 and 16 March (for the first dose) and 5 and 6 April (for the second dose) 2021 in an academic hospital. For both doses, SBP, DBP, MAP, and PP levels were measured before and 15 min after both doses were given to healthcare workers over the age of 18. The results of the study were based on measurements of the mean blood pressure (BP), the mean changes in BP, and the BP trends. Results: In total, 287 individuals received the vaccine. After the first dose, 25% (n = 72) of individuals had a decrease in DBP of at least 10 mmHg (mean DBP decrease: 15 mmHg, 95% CI: 14-17 mmHg), and after the second dose it was 12.5% (mean DBP decrease: 13 mmHg, 95% CI: 12-15 mmHg). After the first dose, 28.6% (n = 82) had a PP that was wider than 40 mmHg. After the first dose, 5.2% and 4.9% of the individuals experienced an increase or decrease in SBP, respectively, of more than 20 mmHg. After the second dose, the SBP of 11% (n = 32) decreased by at least 20 mmHg. Conclusions: Improved understanding of vaccine effects on BP may help address vaccine hesitancy in healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Blood Pressure/physiology , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hypertension , Vaccination
8.
Wiad Lek ; 75(10): 2481-2485, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2156229

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To perform an overall assessment of BP and BP variability using ambulatory measurements in young adults with long COVID syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We enrolled young patients with diagnosed long-COVID syndrome (n = 58, mean age 23.07 ± 1.54 years), compared with an age-matched healthy subjects who had not suffered from COVID-19 (n = 57, mean age 22.9 ± 1.83 years). Patients with long-COVID syndrome had recovered from mild/moderate illness and none had required hospitalization. Ambulatory 24 hours blood pressure (AMBP) parameters (mean BP, daytime BP, nighttime BP, pulse pressure, nocturnal systolic BP dipping, dipper status) were measured in all participants. The variability of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) values was assessed by the following common metrics, including the average real variability (ARV), the coefficient of variation (CV), the standard deviation (SD), and the weighed SD of SBP and DBP. RESULTS: Results: The average values of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, mean BP, daytime and nighttime systolic BP, diastolic BP and pulse pressure were found to be significantly different among patients with long COVID syndrome and control group. Group analyses showed that this difference was in SBP mean values (127.1 ± 6.65 mmHg and 115.93 ± 6.24 mmHg respectively) and DBP mean values (73.31 ± 5.30 mmHg and 68.79 ± 5.5 mmHg respectively) mainly at night. PP values at daytime were almost similar among groups, but PP values at nighttime were higher in patients with long-COVID syndrome (53.8 (52.44- 55.14) mmHg and 47.14 (46.45 - 47.88) mmHg respectively). Nocturnal SBP dipping was better in control group than in patients with long-COVID syndrome ( 5.3 ± 5.68 and 3.1 ± 3.79 mmHg respectively). Only 13 (22.4%) patients with long-COVID syndrome had normal dip-per status while more than half - 38 (66.7%) in healthy subjects. The values of ARV of SBP and DBP over 24-hour, awake, and asleep time frames were found to be greater in patients with long COVID syndrome than healthy controls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Patients with long- COVID syndrome have higher BP mean values of 24-hour ABPM particularly at nightime, significant blood pressure BP variability, which increases the risk of cardiovascular events in future. Nevertheless, the further prospective investigations is warranted to investigate the potential mechanisms and causality associations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Blood Pressure/physiology , Circadian Rhythm , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
9.
J Hum Hypertens ; 36(11): 945-951, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151012

ABSTRACT

Out-of-office blood pressure (BP) measurement is considered an integral component of the diagnostic algorithm and management of hypertension. In the era of digitalization, a great deal of wearable BP measuring devices has been developed. These digital blood pressure monitors allow frequent BP measurements with minimal annoyance to the patient while they do promise radical changes regarding the diagnostic accuracy, as the importance of making an accurate diagnosis of hypertension has become evident. By increasing the number of BP measurements in different conditions, these monitors allow accurate identification of different clinical phenotypes, such as masked hypertension and pathological BP variability, that seem to have a negative impact on cardiovascular prognosis. Frequent measurements of BP and the incorporation of new features in BP variability, both enable well-rounded interpretation of BP data in the context of real-life settings. This article is a review of all different technologies and wearable BP monitoring devices.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Wearable Electronic Devices , Humans , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Blood Pressure/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Blood Pressure Determination , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy
10.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 323(6): H1206-H1211, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108360

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 may affect cardiac autonomic function; however, the limited findings in young adults with COVID-19 have been equivocal. Notably, symptomology and time since diagnosis appear to influence vascular health following COVID-19, but this has not been explored in the context of cardiac autonomic regulation. Therefore, we hypothesized that young adults who had persistent symptoms following COVID-19 would have lower heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) compared with those who had COVID-19 but were asymptomatic at testing and controls who never had COVID-19. Furthermore, we hypothesized that there would be relationships between cardiac autonomic function measures and time since diagnosis. We studied 27 adults who had COVID-19 and were either asymptomatic (ASYM; n = 15, 6 females); 21 ± 4 yr; 8.4 ± 4.0 wk from diagnosis) or symptomatic (SYM; n = 12, 9 females); 24 ± 3 yr; 12.3 ± 6.2 wk from diagnosis) at testing, and 20 adults who reported never having COVID-19 (24 ± 4 yr, 11 females). Heart rate and beat-to-beat blood pressure were continuously recorded during 5 min of rest to assess HRV and cardiac BRS. HRV [root mean square of successive differences between normal heartbeats (RMSSD); control, 73 ± 50 ms; ASYM, 71 ± 47 ms; and SYM, 84 ± 45 ms; P = 0.774] and cardiac BRS (overall gain; control, 22.3 ± 10.1 ms/mmHg; ASYM, 22.7 ± 12.2 ms/mmHg; and SYM, 24.3 ± 10.8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.871) were not different between groups. However, we found correlations with time since diagnosis for HRV (e.g., RMSSD, r = 0.460, P = 0.016) and cardiac BRS (overall gain, r = 0.470, P = 0.014). These data suggest a transient impact of COVID-19 on cardiac autonomic function that appears mild and unrelated to persistent symptoms in young adults.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The potential role of persistent COVID-19 symptoms on cardiac autonomic function in young adults was investigated. We observed no differences in heart rate variability or cardiac baroreflex sensitivity between controls who never had COVID-19 and those who had COVID-19, regardless of symptomology. However, there were significant relationships between measures of cardiac autonomic function and time since diagnosis, suggesting that COVID-19-related changes in cardiac autonomic function are transient in young, otherwise healthy adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Young Adult , Humans , Autonomic Nervous System , Baroreflex/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Heart , Blood Pressure/physiology
11.
Hypertension ; 79(12): 2733-2742, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic may have negatively affected medical care for and self-management of chronic hypertension. We sought to examine the impact of the pandemic on blood pressure (BP) among individuals with hypertension. METHODS: Using an interrupted time series analysis, we compared the level and trend (slope) of BP outcomes before the public health emergency declaration (prepandemic period: August 2018 through January 2020) versus after the stay-at-home orders (pandemic period: April 2020 through November 2020) among adults with hypertension followed at 3 large health systems (n=137 593). Outcomes include systolic and diastolic BP recorded in electronic health records and the proportion of individuals with BP <140/90 mm Hg. RESULTS: The number of BP measurements substantially dropped early in the pandemic and then gradually increased. During the pandemic period, systolic and diastolic BP increased by 1.79 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.57-2.01; P<0.001) and 1.30 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.18-1.42; P<0.001), respectively, compared with the prepandemic period. Similarly, the proportion of patients with controlled BP decreased by 3.43 percentage points (95% CI, -3.97 to -2.90; P<0.001). A trend showing increasing control in the prepandemic period (+3.19 percentage points per year [95% CI, +2.96 to +3.42]; P<0.001) flattened during the pandemic period (+0.27 percentage points per year [95% CI, -0.81 to -1.37]; P=0.62). CONCLUSIONS: The first 8 months of the pandemic were associated with worsening BP outcomes among individuals with hypertension. Opportunities to ensure ongoing access to health care with telemedicine and home BP monitoring may mitigate adverse impacts on BP control for future disasters/emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , Blood Pressure/physiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Time Factors , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
12.
Acta Clin Croat ; 61(Suppl 1): 23-27, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091289

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of newly verified or worsened existing hypertension in patients who had coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). To be categorized as a COVID-19 patient, a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test at a single point in time was required. The patients' age, history, laboratory values and antihypertensive therapy of patients were recorded. In one year, 32 of 199 patients studied had either newly verified (15) or worsened existing (17) arterial hypertension. Among those patients, the median time from a verified infection to the onset of symptoms was 3 months. When the patients were divided into groups, 4 were in the acute, 11 in the sub-acute, 8 in the chronic and 9 in the "long COVID" group. Compared to the rest of the study population, patients presenting with arterial hypertension had significantly higher systolic (median 141 mmHg vs 130 mmHg, p<0.001) and diastolic (median 93 mmHg vs 80 mmHg, p<0.001) blood pressure and were significantly younger (median 51 vs 59 years, p 0.032). Arterial hypertension following COVID-19, either newly verified or worsened existing, is a relatively common occurrence (16% of our patient pool), indicating that more effort should be directed at evaluating the blood pressure values of patients following COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Hypertension , Humans , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure/physiology
13.
Physiol Rep ; 10(18): e15423, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056504

ABSTRACT

Cross-sectional data indicate that acute SARS-CoV-2 infection increases resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and alters hemodynamic responses to orthostasis in young adults. However, the longitudinal impact of contracting SARS-CoV-2 on autonomic function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to longitudinally track MSNA, sympathetic transduction to blood pressure (BP), and hemodynamics over 6 months following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Young adults positive with SARS-CoV-2 reported to the laboratory three times over 6 months (V1:41 ± 17, V2:108 ± 21, V3:173 ± 16 days post-infection). MSNA, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, and heart rate (HR) were measured at rest, during a cold pressor test (CPT), and at 30° head-up tilt (HUT). Basal SBP (p = 0.019) and DBP (p < 0.001) decreased throughout the 6 months, whereas basal MSNA and HR were not different. Basal sympathetic transduction to BP and estimates of baroreflex sensitivity did not change over time. SBP and DBP were lower during CPT (SBP: p = 0.016, DBP: p = 0.007) and HUT at V3 compared with V1 (SBP: p = 0.041, DBP: p = 0.017), with largely no changes in MSNA. There was a trend toward a visit-by-time interaction for burst incidence (p = 0.055) during HUT, wherein at baseline immediately prior to tilting, burst incidence was lower at V3 compared with V1 (p = 0.014), but there were no differences between visits in the 30 HUT position. These results support impairments to cardiovascular health, and potentially autonomic function, which may improve over time. However, the improvements in BP over 6 months recovery from mild SARS-CoV-2 infection are likely not a direct result of changes in sympathetic activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Baroreflex/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Rate/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiology , Young Adult
14.
Neurol Sci ; 43(12): 6627-6638, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a complex network where sympathetic and parasympathetic domains interact inside and outside of the network. Correlation-based network analysis (NA) is a novel approach enabling the quantification of these interactions. The aim of this study is to assess the applicability of NA to assess relationships between autonomic, sensory, respiratory, cerebrovascular, and inflammatory markers on post-acute sequela of COVID-19 (PASC) and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). METHODS: In this retrospective study, datasets from PASC (n = 15), POTS (n = 15), and matched controls (n = 11) were analyzed. Networks were constructed from surveys (autonomic and sensory), autonomic tests (deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, tilt, and sudomotor test) results using heart rate, blood pressure, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv), capnography, skin biopsies for assessment of small fiber neuropathy (SFN), and various inflammatory markers. Networks were characterized by clusters and centrality metrics. RESULTS: Standard analysis showed widespread abnormalities including reduced orthostatic CBFv in 100%/88% (PASC/POTS), SFN 77%/88%, mild-to-moderate dysautonomia 100%/100%, hypocapnia 87%/100%, and elevated inflammatory markers. NA showed different signatures for both disorders with centrality metrics of vascular and inflammatory variables playing prominent roles in differentiating PASC from POTS. CONCLUSIONS: NA is suitable for a relationship analysis between autonomic and nonautonomic components. Our preliminary analyses indicate that NA can expand the value of autonomic testing and provide new insight into the functioning of the ANS and related systems in complex disease processes such as PASC and POTS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome , Small Fiber Neuropathy , Humans , Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome/complications , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Autonomic Nervous System , Heart Rate/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(34): e29721, 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042652

ABSTRACT

Increased aortic stiffness is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It remains controversial whether HIV infected persons have increased aortic stiffness at the time of HIV diagnosis. An explorative, case-control study was performed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a newly diagnosed, antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve cohort with modest baseline cardiovascular risk. We recruited 85 newly diagnosed adults without known CVD from health care facilities in South Africa (43 female; mean age 33). Median CD4 count was 285, IQR 156-393 cells/µL. Twenty two HIV uninfected controls were recruited from the same facilities (8 female; mean age 33). PWV was measured using the Vicorder module (Skidmore Medical, United Kingdom) using a corrective factor of 0.8. The HIV infected group's mean PWV measured 11% higher than controls (5.88 vs 5.28 m/s; P = .02). Median aortic distensibility in HIV infected persons was 18% lower than controls (0.37 vs 0.45 mm Hg-1; P = .009). Multivariate analysis revealed that the difference in PWV between groups remained significant when corrected for age, sex, mean blood pressure and kidney function (mean difference 0.52 m/s; P = .01). Mean blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, HIV infection per se, age and male sex were important associations with increased PWV. Our study provides evidence for increased aortic stiffness in ART naïve adults already demonstrable at the time of HIV diagnosis. The cohort's young age and recent HIV diagnosis makes atherosclerosis a less likely explanation for the difference. Alternative, potentially reversible, explanations that require further research include vasomotor tone abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , HIV Infections , Vascular Stiffness , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Pulse Wave Analysis , Vascular Stiffness/physiology
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023647

ABSTRACT

Mild left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been considered as one of the possible structural, physiological adaptations to regular, intensive physical activity. However, it may also appear as one of the subclinical complications of hypertension. In athletes, the differential diagnosis between these two entities may be complicated as regular physical activity may potentially mask the presence of arterial hypertension. We sought to determine the relation between LVH in middle-age athletes and the presence of hypertension. The study included 71 healthy, male long-time amateur athletes (mean age 41 ± 6 years, 83% endurance and 17% power sports) without known hypertension or any other cardiovascular diseases and with normal self-measured and office blood pressure. All subjects underwent resting electrocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiography, maximal exercise test on a treadmill and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. LVH was diagnosed as left ventricular wall diameter >11 mm. Hypertension was defined as mean 24 h systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 80 mmHg. Exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) to exercise was defined as SBP ≥ 210 mmHg. LVH (range > 11 to 14 mm) was found in 20 subjects (28%) and hypertension was diagnosed in 33 subjects (46%). Athletes with LVH were more likely to have hypertension than those without LVH (70% vs. 37%, p = 0.01). EBPR to exercise was found equally common in athletes with and without LVH (35% vs. 29%, p = 0.68), but more often in subjects with hypertension (51% vs. 13%, p < 0.001). Presence of LVH and hypertension was equally common in the studied endurance and power sport athletes (p = 0.66 and p = 0.79, respectively). In comparison to athletes without LVH, those with LVH had larger left atrial size (26 ± 6 vs. 21 ± 4 cm2, p < 0.001) and a tendency for lower left ventricular diastolic function (E/A 1.2 ± 0.4 vs. 1.5 ± 0.4, p = 0.05) and a larger ascending aorta diameter (34 ± 3 vs. 32 ± 3, p = 0.05), but a similar left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (51 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4, p = 0.71). The presence of mild left ventricular hypertrophy in middle-age male amateur athletes with normal home and office blood pressure may be considered as a potential sign of masked hypertension. It should not be overlooked as an element of a physiological adaptation to exercise and may warrant further medical evaluation with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Masked Hypertension , Adult , Athletes , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/adverse effects , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Male , Masked Hypertension/complications , Middle Aged
17.
J Hypertens ; 40(9): 1702-1712, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring combined with case management leads to BP reductions in individuals with hypertension. However, its benefits are less clear in older (age ≥ 65 years) adults. METHODS: Twelve-month, open-label, randomized trial of community-dwelling older adults comparing the combination of home BP telemonitoring (HBPM) and pharmacist-led case management, vs. enhanced usual care with HBPM alone. The primary outcome was the proportion achieving systolic BP targets on 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Changes in HBPM were also examined. Logistic and linear regressions were used for analyses, adjusted for baseline BP. RESULTS: Enrollment was stopped early due to coronavirus disease 2019. Participants randomized to intervention (n = 61) and control (n = 59) groups were mostly female (77%), with mean age 79.5 years. The adjusted odds ratio for ABPM BP target achievement was 1.48 (95% confidence interval 0.87-2.52, P = 0.15). At 12 months, the mean difference in BP changes between intervention and control groups was -1.6/-1.1 for ABPM (P-value 0.26 for systolic BP and 0.10 for diastolic BP), and -4.9/-3.1 for HBPM (P-value 0.04 for systolic BP and 0.01 for diastolic BP), favoring the intervention. Intervention group participants had hypotension (systolic BP < 110) more frequently (21% vs. 5%, P = 0.009), but no differences in orthostatic symptoms, syncope, non-mechanical falls, or emergency department visits. CONCLUSIONS: Home BP telemonitoring and pharmacist case management did not improve achievement of target range ambulatory BP, but did reduce home BP. It did not result in major adverse consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Case Management , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Independent Living , Male
18.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 30: 7-12, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how English maternity units implemented self-monitoring of blood pressure (SMBP) in pregnancy in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Mixed methods including surveys, anonymised patient data and in-depth interviews with women. SETTING: Maternity units across England. PARTICIPANTS: 45 maternity units completed a survey about the implementation of SMBP (supported by the provision of guidance and blood pressure monitors) during the pandemic, 166 women completed a survey about their experiences of SMBP, and 23 women took part in in-depth interviews. Clinical data from 627 women undertaking SMBP were available from 13 maternity units. RESULTS: SMBP was predominantly used to provide additional BP monitoring for hypertensive or high-risk pregnant women. Overall maternity units and women were positive about its use in terms of reducing the need for additional face-to-face contacts and giving women more control and insight into their own BP. However, there were challenges in setting up SMBP services rapidly and embedding them within existing care pathways, particularly around interpreting readings and managing the provision of monitors. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of maternity units in England commenced a SMBP service for hypertensive or high-risk women from March 2020. There is a need for further research into appropriate care pathways, including guidance around white coat or masked hypertension and the use of SMBP postnatally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Pre-Eclampsia , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory/methods , Pandemics , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology
19.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964044

ABSTRACT

Currently, in terms of reducing the infection risk of the COVID-19 virus spreading all over the world, the development of touchless blood pressure (BP) measurement has potential benefits. The pulse transit time (PTT) has a high relation with BP, which can be measured by electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG). The ballistocardiogram (BCG) reflects the mechanical vibration (or displacement) caused by the heart contraction/relaxation (or heart beating), which can be measured from multiple degrees of the body. The goal of this study is to develop a cuffless and touchless BP-measurement method based on a commercial weight scale combined with a PPG sensor when measuring body weight. The proposed method was that the PTTBCG-PPGT was extracted from the BCG signal measured by a weight scale, and the PPG signal was measured from the PPG probe placed at the toe. Four PTT models were used to estimate BP. The reference method was the PTTECG-PPGF extracted from the ECG signal and PPG signal measured from the PPG probe placed at the finger. The standard BP was measured by an electronic blood pressure monitor. Twenty subjects were recruited in this study. By the proposed method, the root-mean-square error (ERMS) of estimated systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are 6.7 ± 1.60 mmHg and 4.8 ± 1.47 mmHg, respectively. The correlation coefficients, r2, of the proposed model for the SBP and DBP are 0.606 ± 0.142 and 0.284 ± 0.166, respectively. The results show that the proposed method can serve for cuffless and touchless BP measurement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photoplethysmography , BCG Vaccine , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Weight , Humans , Photoplethysmography/methods , Pulse Wave Analysis
20.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 62(4S): S41-S46.e1, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the United States and is costing the health care system billions of dollars annually. A health program that combines education, empowerment, and monitoring has shown to improve clinical outcomes and decrease overall health care costs. OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation and effectiveness of a self-measured blood pressure (SMBP) program in a community pharmacy. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: An independent community pharmacy located within rural Southeast Missouri. On-site community pharmacists provide medication therapy management, adherence monitoring, immunizations, and reimbursed clinical services. PRACTICE INNOVATION: Patients were eligible if they were older than 18 years of age and fell into one of the following categories: self-reported a new hypertension diagnosis, self-reported a desire to SMBP, were referred by a provider, or had a medication change within the 3 months before enrollment. The program consisted of 4 patient sessions. The first session obtained an initial blood pressure and provided patient education and behavior counseling. Follow-up sessions obtained average SMBP readings and reinforced previously learned concepts. EVALUATION METHODS: Implementation was evaluated using time and patient satisfaction. Effectiveness was evaluated using number and type of clinical problems identified, BP measurements, and test scores. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients enrolled and completed the study. The program took 63 minutes (SD ± 18) of staff time per patient for recruitment, sessions, reminder calls, and documentation. All patients received education and monitoring and 11 additional clinical problems were documented. Systolic BP decreased an average of 17 mm Hg (P = 0.002), and diastolic BP decreased an average of 12 mm Hg (P < 0.001). Patient confidence scores increased by 14%, and 7 more patients correctly answered the post-test knowledge question. All patients reported overall satisfaction with the program as "satisfied" or "very satisfied." CONCLUSION: This standardized SMBP program effectively improved hypertension control and patient confidence in managing BP.


Subject(s)
Community Pharmacy Services , Hypertension , Pharmacies , Blood Pressure/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pharmacists , Pilot Projects , United States
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