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2.
Br J Nurs ; 32(11): 522-525, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233550

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (2019) has determined that patient safety is a global public health challenge. In UK clinical areas, policies and procedures are in place for the safe prescribing and delivery of blood and blood product transfusions, yet patient safety incidences continue. Undergraduate nurse education and training may provide the underlying knowledge to practitioners, while postgraduate standalone training sessions support skill development. However, over time, without regular experience, competence will diminish. Nursing students may have little exposure to transfusion practice and COVID-19 may have exacerbated this challenge with a reduction in placement availability. The use of simulation to support theory with follow-up and ongoing drop-in training sessions may help to inform practitioners and improve patient safety in the management and delivery of blood and blood product transfusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Nurses , Humans , Blood Transfusion , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/methods , Patient Safety , Clinical Competence
5.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 18(1): 96, 2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248625

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted all surgical specialties significantly and exerted additional pressures on the overburdened United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service. Healthcare professionals in the UK have had to adapt their practice. In particular, surgeons have faced organisational and technical challenges treating patients who carried higher risks, were more urgent and could not wait for prehabilitation or optimisation before their intervention. Furthermore, there were implications for blood transfusion with uncertain patterns of demand, reductions in donations and loss of crucial staff because of sickness and public health restrictions. Previous guidelines have attempted to address the control of bleeding and its consequences after cardiothoracic surgery, but there have been no targeted recommendations in light of the recent COVID-19 challenges. In this context, and with a focus on the perioperative period, an expert multidisciplinary Task Force reviewed the impact of bleeding in cardiothoracic surgery, explored different aspects of patient blood management with a focus on the use of haemostats as adjuncts to conventional surgical techniques and proposed best practice recommendations in the UK.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Specialties, Surgical , Humans , State Medicine , Blood Transfusion , United Kingdom
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(2): e230426, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287695
7.
Transfusion ; 63(5): 918-924, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Convalescent COVID-19 plasma (CCP) was developed and used worldwide as a treatment option by supplying passive immunity. Adult studies suggest administering high-titer CCP early in the disease course of patients who are expected to be antibody-negative; however, pediatric experience is limited. We created a multi-institutional registry to characterize pediatric patients (<18 years) who received CCP and to assess the safety of this intervention. METHODS: A REDCap survey was distributed. The registry collected de-identified data including demographic information (age, gender, and underlying conditions), COVID-19 disease features and concurrent treatments, CCP transfusion and safety events, and therapy response. RESULTS: Ninety-five children received CCP: 90 inpatients and 5 outpatients, with a median age of 10.2 years (range 0-17.9). They were predominantly Latino/Hispanic and White. The most frequent underlying medical conditions were chronic respiratory disease, immunosuppression, obesity, and genetic syndromes. CCP was primarily given as a treatment (95%) rather than prophylaxis (5%). Median total plasma dose administered and transfusion rates were 5.0 ml/kg and 2.6 ml/kg/h, respectively. The transfusions were well-tolerated, with 3 in 115 transfusions reporting mild reactions. No serious adverse events were reported. Severity scores decreased significantly 7 days after CCP transfusion or at discharge. Eighty-five patients (94.4%) survived to hospital discharge. All five outpatients survived to 60 days. CONCLUSIONS: CCP was found to be safe and well-tolerated in children. CCP was frequently given concurrently with other COVID-19-directed treatments with improvement in clinical severity scores ≥7 days after CCP, but efficacy could not be evaluated in this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Blood Transfusion
8.
J Healthc Qual ; 45(2): 117-123, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262880

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Blood availability was uncertain during the COVID-19 pandemic, yet transfusion remained a common and sometimes necessary procedure. Substantial work on optimizing transfusion practices is centered in tertiary hospitals as high utilizers of blood while the care delivered in smaller community hospitals comprises more than half the nation's transfusions. Improving transfusion practices in community hospitals represents a substantial opportunity to enhance patient safety and the availability of blood resources. Clinical specialists developed a dashboard to retrospectively examine transfusion events including an evidence-based analysis of the patient's clinical situation at the time of transfusion to more accurately identify how appropriately blood was used. The compiled data were discussed and shared with transfusing providers. It was hypothesized that the data provided and communication strategies used would educate providers to current evidence-based practice, leading to more appropriate transfusion with an overall reduction in packed red blood cell utilization. There was an 11% increase in transfusion appropriateness (p = <.001) and a 14% decrease in the units transfused (p = .004). Improvement in transfusion practices demonstrates a significant impact on patient safety and the availability of blood resources. Although absolute opportunity may be less in a community hospital, fewer resources are needed to achieve meaningful change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Blood Transfusion
9.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2022(1): 96-104, 2022 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241879

ABSTRACT

The serologic evaluation of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) confirms the clinical diagnosis, helps distinguish the type of AIHA, and identifies whether any underlying alloantibodies are present that might complicate the selection of the safest blood for any needed transfusion. The spectrum of testing is generally dependent on the amount and class (immunoglobulin G or M) of autoantibody as well as the resources and methodologies where testing is performed. The approach may range from routine pretransfusion testing, including the direct antiglobulin test, to advanced techniques such as adsorptions, elution, and red cell genotyping. When transfusion is needed, the selection of the optimal unit of red blood cells is based on urgency and whether time allows for the completion of sophisticated serologic and molecular testing methods. From the start of when AIHA is suspected until the completion of testing, communication among the clinical team and medical laboratory scientists in the transfusion service and immunohematology reference laboratory is critical as testing can take several hours and the need for transfusion may be urgent. The frequent exchange of information including the patient's transfusion history and clinical status, the progress of testing, and any available results is invaluable for timely diagnosis, ongoing management of the patient, and the safety of transfusion if required before testing is complete.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Humans , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/therapy , Blood Transfusion/methods , Erythrocytes , Isoantibodies , Autoantibodies
10.
Biologicals ; 79: 27-30, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2220468

ABSTRACT

This document provides a commentary and further elaboration on the conclusions reached during a recent international workshop on plasma protein therapies organized by the Working Party for Global Safety of the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). The workshop addressed the profound deficiency in access to safe plasma protein therapies that persists in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We provide additional factual economic and technological information that highlights why local production of small-scale virus-inactivated concentrates of clotting factors and immune globulins from domestic recovered plasma through stepwise introduction of available validated technologies is a pragmatic approach to gradually improve the care of patients with bleeding disorders and immune deficiencies in LMIC while supporting progress toward fractionation of plasma. This strategy is in line with a recent WHO guidance. We stress that the active involvement of international blood donor and blood transfusion organizations, patient organizations, governments and industry will be essential in supporting stepwise and sustainable improvements in access to safe, effective, and quality assured plasma protein therapies.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins , Developing Countries , Blood Coagulation Factors , Blood Transfusion , Humans , Plasma
11.
Transfusion ; 60(5): 908-911, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first coronavirus (COVID-19) case was reported in United States in the state of Washington, approximately 3 months after the outbreak in Wuhan, China. Three weeks later, the US federal government declared the pandemic a national emergency. The number of confirmed COVID-19 positive cases increased rather rapidly and changed routine daily activities of the community. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This brief report describes the response from the hospital, the regional blood center, and the hospital-based transfusion services to the events that took place in the community during the initial phases of the pandemic. RESULTS: In Washington State, the first week of March started with four confirmed cases and ended with 150; by the end of the second week of March there were more than 700 cases of confirmed COVID-19. During the first week, blood donations dropped significantly. Blood units provided from blood centers of nonaffected areas of the country helped keep inventory stable and allow for routine hospital operations. The hospital-based transfusion service began prospective triaging of blood orders to monitor and prioritize blood usage. In the second week, blood donations recovered, and the hospital postponed elective procedures to ensure staff and personal protective equipment were appropriate for the care of critical patients. CONCLUSION: As community activities are disrupted and hospital activities switch from routine operations to pandemic focused and urgent care oriented, the blood supply and usage requires a number of transformations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Transfusion , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Hospital Planning , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
14.
AORN J ; 115(5): P11-P13, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157693
15.
Turk J Pediatr ; 64(5): 869-875, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pedipacks prevent wastage of blood components but they are not used efficiently in pediatric clinics. METHODS: Red cell concentrate (RCC) and platelet concentrate volumes transfused in the last eight months in the pediatric clinics were screened. To calculate the wastage of blood components, the number of transfused pedipacks, whole unit RCC, and platelet units were screened from transfusion laboratory digital records to show the number of whole RCC units or platelets units used instead of pedipacks. The study results were shared with physicians and transfusion laboratory staff and they were trained on the subject in meetings. Two years later, the transfusion laboratory records were assessed again to evaluate pedipack usage. A google questionnaire was also submitted to the transfusion laboratories of other hospitals to assess the use of pedipacks. RESULTS: RCC and platelets were used in 82.9% of the transfusions, and 31.2% of RCC and 18.4 % of platelets were transfused to patients ≤12 months. During the study period, 569 pedipacks and 117 random donor or apheresis platelets separated into satellite packs would be required. But only 48 pedipacks of RCCs and 24 units of random donor platelets/apheresis platelets separated into satellite packs were used. After two years, in RCC transfusions of 0-12 month-old patients, the transfusion laboratory release of pedipacks increased to 67.9% from 13.5%. Other centers were not also using pedipacks efficiently. The main reasons were unawareness of the subject, the blood bank delivering two units of pedipacks even when only one unit was ordered and the risk of not using the second pedipack before the expiry date, and the short expiry date of irradiated pedipacks. CONCLUSIONS: By increasing awareness of the subject, the collaboration of the clinic and laboratory and solving bureaucratic problems, rational use of blood components can be achieved.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Kidney Neoplasms , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Blood Transfusion , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Blood Platelets
16.
Vox Sang ; 117(11): 1332-1344, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Under the ISBT, the Working Party (WP) for Red Cell Immunogenetics and Blood Group Terminology is charged with ratifying blood group systems, antigens and alleles. This report presents the outcomes from four WP business meetings, one located in Basel in 2019 and three held as virtual meetings during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As in previous meetings, matters pertaining to blood group antigen nomenclature were discussed. New blood group systems and antigens were approved and named according to the serologic, genetic, biochemical and cell biological evidence presented. RESULTS: Seven new blood group systems, KANNO (defined numerically as ISBT 037), SID (038), CTL2 (039), PEL (040), MAM (041), EMM (042) and ABCC1 (043) were ratified. Two (039 and 043) were de novo discoveries, and the remainder comprised reported antigens where the causal genes were previously unknown. A further 15 blood group antigens were added to the existing blood group systems: MNS (002), RH (004), LU (005), DI (010), SC (013), GE (020), KN (022), JMH (026) and RHAG (030). CONCLUSION: The ISBT now recognizes 378 antigens, of which 345 are clustered within 43 blood group systems while 33 still have an unknown genetic basis. The ongoing discovery of new blood group systems and antigens underscores the diverse and complex biology of the red cell membrane. The WP continues to update the blood group antigen tables and the allele nomenclature tables. These can be found on the ISBT website (http://www.isbtweb.org/working-parties/red-cell-immunogenetics-and-blood-group-terminology/).


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Erythrocytes , Humans , Blood Group Antigens/genetics , Blood Transfusion , Immunogenetics , Pandemics , Erythrocytes/immunology
17.
BMJ Open Ophthalmol ; 7(Suppl 2): A1, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118873

ABSTRACT

NHSBT run a Serum Eyedrops programme for the UK, providing Autologous (AutoSE) and Allogenic (AlloSE) eyedrops for patients affected by severe dry eyes. The service is based within the Eye & Tissue Bank in Liverpool.In February 2020 (pre-pandemic within the UK) there were 1052 patients on the programme. 34% received AutoSE and 66% AlloSE. Due to a recent change in central funding, referrals for AlloSE had increased, creating a waiting list; in March 2020 the list had 72 patients.In March 2020 government guidelines were introduced to reduce the spread of COVID-19. These measures presented a number of challenges for NHSBT and our ability to maintain the supply of Serum Eyedrops: i) Many AutoSE patients could not attend donation appointments, as they were clinically vulnerable and needed to shield. This issue was addressed by temporarily providing them with AlloSE. This was done with agreement between patients and consultants. As a result, the proportion of patients receiving AlloSE increased to 82%.ii) There was a reduced supply of AlloSE donations due to a general reduced attendance at blood donation centres. To deal with this, additional donor centres were recruited to collect AlloSE. In addition, the postponing of much elective surgery during the pandemic meant the demand for blood for transfusion reduced, enabling us to build up stock in anticipation of blood stocks reducing as the pandemic developed.iii) Our service was also impacted by reduced staffing levels, due to staff needing to shield or self-isolate, and the need to implement workplace safety measures. To address these problems, a new laboratory was created, allowing staff to dispense eyedrops and adhere to social distancing. It was also possible to re-allocate staff from other areas within the Eye Bank due to a reduction in demand for other grafts during the pandemic.iv) There were initial concerns over the safety of blood and blood products as to whether the transmission of COVID-19 was possible through blood. Following a stringent risk assessment by NHSBT clinicians, and implementation of additional safeguards around blood donation, it was agreed that provision of AlloSE was safe and could continue.Despite all the challenges created by the pandemic, the measures we implemented enabled us to maintain our SE service for existing patients, provide treatment for new referrals and accommodate a significant increase (25% in the 12 months following the beginning of the pandemic) in the number of patients requiring treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ophthalmic Solutions/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion , Serum , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
Vox Sang ; 116(2): 155-166, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus, first identified in China at the end of 2019 and has now caused a worldwide pandemic. In this review, we provide an overview of the implications of SARS-CoV-2 for blood safety and sufficiency. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We searched the PubMed database, the preprint sites bioRxiv and medRxiv, the websites of the World Health Organization, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the US Communicable Diseases Center and monitored ProMed updates. RESULTS: An estimated 15%-46% of SARS-CoV-2 infections are asymptomatic. The reported mean incubation period is 3 to 7 days with a range of 1-14 days. The blood phase of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be brief and low level, with RNAaemia detectable in only a small proportion of patients, typically associated with more severe disease and not demonstrated to be infectious virus. An asymptomatic blood phase has not been demonstrated. Given these characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the absence of reported transfusion transmission (TT), the TT risk is currently theoretical. To mitigate any potential TT risk, but more importantly to prevent respiratory transmission in donor centres, blood centres can implement donor deferral policies based on travel, disease status or potential risk of exposure. CONCLUSION: The TT risk of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be low. The biggest risk to blood services in the current COVID-19 pandemic is to maintain the sufficiency of the blood supply while minimizing respiratory transmission of SARS-CoV-19 to donors and staff while donating blood.


Subject(s)
Blood Safety , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Blood Transfusion , Geography , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety Management , World Health Organization
20.
Transfusion ; 62(11): 2271-2281, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the transfusion medicine community has experienced unprecedented blood supply shortages since March 2020. As such, numerous changes to everyday practice have occurred with a specific emphasis on blood conservation. We sought to determine the strategies used to mitigate blood shortages and promote blood conservation during the pandemic. METHODS: An anonymous, 37-question survey was developed using Research Electronic Data Capture and distributed via e-mail to transfusion medicine specialists across the US obtained via publicly available databases. RESULTS: Amongst surveyed [41.1% response rate (51/124 institutions)], 98.0% experienced a product shortage, with the greatest number reporting red blood cell (RBC) shortages (92.0%). This led to 35.3% of institutions altering the composition and/or number of blood product suppliers, including a 100% increase in the number of institutions acquiring blood from organizations that connect hospital transfusion services with blood collection centers (e.g., Blood Buy) compared to before March 2020. Prospective triaging of blood products was the most common blood conservation strategy (68.1%), though 35.4% altered their RBC exchange or transfusion program for patients receiving chronic RBC transfusion/exchange. As a result of these changes, 78.6% of institutions reported that these changes resulted in a reduction in blood product usage, and 38.1% reported a decrease in product wastage. CONCLUSIONS: Most hospitals experienced the effects of the supply shortage, and many of them implemented blood conserving measures. Conservation strategies were associated with decreased blood utilization and waste, and future studies could evaluate whether these changes persist.


Subject(s)
Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures , COVID-19 , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Blood Transfusion , Hospitals
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