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1.
J Mol Recognit ; 34(10): e2918, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270481

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19 has caused a worldwide pandemic. The fatal virus has affected the health of human beings as well as the socio-economic situation all over the world. To date, no concrete medicinal solution has been proposed to combat the viral infection, calling for an urgent, strategic, and cost-effective drug development approach that may be achievable by applying targeted computational and virtual screening protocols. Immunity is the body's natural defense against disease-causing pathogens, which can be boosted by consuming plant-based or natural food products. Active constituents derived from natural sources also scavenge the free radicals and have anti-inflammatory activities. Herbs and spices have been used for various medicinal purposes. In this study, 2,96 365 natural and synthetic derivatives (ligands) belonging to 102 classes of compounds were obtained from PubChem and assessed on Lipinski's parameters for their potential bioavailability. Out of all the derivatives, 3254 obeyed Lipinski's rule and were virtually screened. The 115 top derivatives were docked against SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-HKV1 main proteases (Mpro s) as receptors using AutoDock Vina, AutoDock, and iGEMDOCK 2.1. The lowest binding energy was exhibited by ligands 2 and 6 against all the four Mpro s. The molecular dynamic simulation was also performed with ligand 6 using the GROMACS package. Good bioactivity scores, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity profile and drug-like pharmacokinetic parameters were also obtained. Hydroxychloroquine was used as the control drug.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
2.
Neurobiol Dis ; 146: 105131, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872391

ABSTRACT

As researchers across the globe have focused their attention on understanding SARS-CoV-2, the picture that is emerging is that of a virus that has serious effects on the vasculature in multiple organ systems including the cerebral vasculature. Observed effects on the central nervous system include neurological symptoms (headache, nausea, dizziness), fatal microclot formation and in rare cases encephalitis. However, our understanding of how the virus causes these mild to severe neurological symptoms and how the cerebral vasculature is impacted remains unclear. Thus, the results presented in this report explored whether deleterious outcomes from the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein on primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMVECs) could be observed. The spike protein, which plays a key role in receptor recognition, is formed by the S1 subunit containing a receptor binding domain (RBD) and the S2 subunit. First, using postmortem brain tissue, we show that the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 or ACE2 (a known binding target for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein), is ubiquitously expressed throughout various vessel calibers in the frontal cortex. Moreover, ACE2 expression was upregulated in cases of hypertension and dementia. ACE2 was also detectable in primary hBMVECs maintained under cell culture conditions. Analysis of cell viability revealed that neither the S1, S2 or a truncated form of the S1 containing only the RBD had minimal effects on hBMVEC viability within a 48 h exposure window. Introduction of spike proteins to invitro models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) showed significant changes to barrier properties. Key to our findings is the demonstration that S1 promotes loss of barrier integrity in an advanced 3D microfluidic model of the human BBB, a platform that more closely resembles the physiological conditions at this CNS interface. Evidence provided suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins trigger a pro-inflammatory response on brain endothelial cells that may contribute to an altered state of BBB function. Together, these results are the first to show the direct impact that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein could have on brain endothelial cells; thereby offering a plausible explanation for the neurological consequences seen in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Capillary Permeability/physiology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects , COVID-19 , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Cell Adhesion Molecules/drug effects , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dementia/metabolism , Electric Impedance , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Frontal Lobe/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Intercellular Junctions/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Matrix Metalloproteinases/drug effects , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Domains , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Protein Subunits/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology
3.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(1): 106-117, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746880

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus that is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects not only peripheral organs such as the lungs and blood vessels, but also the central nervous system (CNS)-as seen by effects on smell, taste, seizures, stroke, neuropathological findings and possibly, loss of control of respiration resulting in silent hypoxemia. COVID-19 induces an inflammatory response and, in severe cases, a cytokine storm that can damage the CNS. Antimalarials have unique properties that distinguish them from other anti-inflammatory drugs. (A) They are very lipophilic, which enhances their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Hence, they have the potential to act not only in the periphery but also in the CNS, and could be a useful addition to our limited armamentarium against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (B) They are non-selective inhibitors of phospholipase A2 isoforms, including cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). The latter is not only activated by cytokines but itself generates arachidonic acid, which is metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Free radicals are produced in this process, which can lead to oxidative damage to the CNS. There are at least 4 ways that antimalarials could be useful in combating COVID-19. (1) They inhibit PLA2. (2) They are basic molecules capable of affecting the pH of lysosomes and inhibiting the activity of lysosomal enzymes. (3) They may affect the expression and Fe2+/H+ symporter activity of iron transporters such as divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), hence reducing iron accumulation in tissues and iron-catalysed free radical formation. (4) They could affect viral replication. The latter may be related to their effect on inhibition of PLA2 isoforms. Inhibition of cPLA2 impairs an early step of coronavirus replication in cell culture. In addition, a secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) isoform, PLA2G2D, has been shown to be essential for the lethality of SARS-CoV in mice. It is important to take note of what ongoing clinical trials on chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can eventually tell us about the use of antimalarials and other anti-inflammatory agents, not only for the treatment of COVID-19, but also for neurovascular disorders such as stroke and vascular dementia.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antimalarials/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
4.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(15): 2137-2144, 2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636269
5.
Encephale ; 46(3): 169-172, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-322038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has caused approximately 2,350,000 infections worldwide and killed more than 160,000 individuals. In Sainte-Anne Hospital (GHU PARIS Psychiatrie & Neuroscience, Paris, France) we have observed a lower incidence of symptomatic forms of COVID-19 among patients than among our clinical staff. This observation led us to hypothesize that psychotropic drugs could have a prophylactic action against SARS-CoV-2 and protect patients from the symptomatic and virulent forms of this infection, since several of these psychotropic drugs have documented antiviral properties. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a phenothiazine derivative, is also known for its antiviral activity via the inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Recentin vitro studies have reported that CPZ exhibits anti-MERS-CoV and anti-SARS-CoV-1 activity. METHODS: In this context, the ReCoVery study aims to repurpose CPZ, a molecule with an excellent tolerance profile and a very high biodistribution in the saliva, lungs and brain. We hypothesize that CPZ could reduce the unfavorable course of COVID-19 infection among patients requiring respiratory support without the need for ICU care, and that it could also reduce the contagiousness of SARS-CoV-2. For this purpose, we plan a pilot, multicenter, randomized, single blind, controlled, phase III therapeutic trial (standard treatment vs. CPZ+standard treatment). CONCLUSION: This repurposing of CPZ for its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity could offer an alternative, rapid strategy to alleviate infection severity. This repurposing strategy also avoids numerous developmental and experimental steps, and could save precious time to rapidly establish an anti-COVID-19 therapy with well-known, limited and easily managed side effects.


Subject(s)
Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/pathology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects , COVID-19 , Clathrin-Coated Vesicles/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/pathology , Dyspnea/psychology , Endocytosis/drug effects , France/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Mortality , Pandemics , Patient Outcome Assessment , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
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