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1.
Brain Res ; 1780: 147804, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654119

ABSTRACT

The socio-economic impact of diseases associated with cognitive impairment is increasing. According to the Alzheimer's Society there are over 850,000 people with dementia in the UK, costing the UK £26 billion in 2013. Therefore, research into treatment of those conditions is vital. Research into the cerebral endothelial glycocalyx (CeGC) could offer effective treatments. The CeGC, consisting of proteoglycans, glycoproteins and glycolipids, is a dynamic structure covering the luminal side oftheendothelial cells of capillaries throughout the body. The CeGC is thicker in cerebral micro vessels, suggesting specialisation for its function as part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent research evidences that the CeGC is vital in protecting fragile parenchymal tissue and effective functioning of the BBB, as one particularly important CeGC function is to act as a protective barrier and permeability regulator. CeGC degradation is one of the factors which can lead to an increase in BBB permeability. It occurs naturally in aging, nevertheless, premature degradationhas beenevidencedin multipleconditions linked to cognitive impairment, such as inflammation,brain edema, cerebral malaria, Alzheimer's and recently Covid-19. Increasing knowledge of the mechanisms of CeGC damage has led to research into preventative techniques showing that CeGC is a possible diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target. However, the evidence is relatively new, inconsistent and demonstrated mainly in experimental models. This review evaluates the current knowledge of the CeGC, its structure, functions, damage and repair mechanisms and the impact of its degeneration on cognitive impairment in multiple conditions, highlighting the CeGC as a possible diagnostic marker and a potential target for therapeutic treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Microvessels/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Glycocalyx/pathology , Humans , Microvessels/pathology
2.
J Gen Virol ; 102(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490495

ABSTRACT

The highly pathogenic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a severe respiratory virus. Recent reports indicate additional central nervous system (CNS) involvement. In this study, human DPP4 transgenic mice were infected with MERS-CoV, and viral antigens were first detected in the midbrain-hindbrain 4 days post-infection, suggesting the virus may enter the brainstem via peripheral nerves. Neurons and astrocytes throughout the brain were infected, followed by damage of the blood brain barrier (BBB), as well as microglial activation and inflammatory cell infiltration, which may be caused by complement activation based on the observation of deposition of complement activation product C3 and high expression of C3a receptor (C3aR) and C5a receptor (C5aR1) in neurons and glial cells. It may be concluded that these effects were mediated by complement activation in the brain, because of their reduction resulted from the treatment with mouse C5aR1-specific mAb. Such mAb significantly reduced nucleoprotein expression, suppressed microglial activation and decreased activation of caspase-3 in neurons and p38 phosphorylation in the brain. Collectively, these results suggest that MERS-CoV infection of CNS triggers complement activation, leading to inflammation-mediated damage of brain tissue, and regulating of complement activation could be a promising intervention and adjunctive treatment for CNS injury by MERS-CoV and other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Brain/pathology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/blood supply , Brain/immunology , Brain/virology , Complement Activation/drug effects , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia/immunology , Microglia/pathology
3.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(11): 1522-1533, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500484

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can damage cerebral small vessels and cause neurological symptoms. Here we describe structural changes in cerebral small vessels of patients with COVID-19 and elucidate potential mechanisms underlying the vascular pathology. In brains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected individuals and animal models, we found an increased number of empty basement membrane tubes, so-called string vessels representing remnants of lost capillaries. We obtained evidence that brain endothelial cells are infected and that the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro) cleaves NEMO, the essential modulator of nuclear factor-κB. By ablating NEMO, Mpro induces the death of human brain endothelial cells and the occurrence of string vessels in mice. Deletion of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 3, a mediator of regulated cell death, blocks the vessel rarefaction and disruption of the blood-brain barrier due to NEMO ablation. Importantly, a pharmacological inhibitor of RIPK signaling prevented the Mpro-induced microvascular pathology. Our data suggest RIPK as a potential therapeutic target to treat the neuropathology of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Microvessels/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Microvessels/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
4.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(11): 1522-1533, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483143

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can damage cerebral small vessels and cause neurological symptoms. Here we describe structural changes in cerebral small vessels of patients with COVID-19 and elucidate potential mechanisms underlying the vascular pathology. In brains of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected individuals and animal models, we found an increased number of empty basement membrane tubes, so-called string vessels representing remnants of lost capillaries. We obtained evidence that brain endothelial cells are infected and that the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro) cleaves NEMO, the essential modulator of nuclear factor-κB. By ablating NEMO, Mpro induces the death of human brain endothelial cells and the occurrence of string vessels in mice. Deletion of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 3, a mediator of regulated cell death, blocks the vessel rarefaction and disruption of the blood-brain barrier due to NEMO ablation. Importantly, a pharmacological inhibitor of RIPK signaling prevented the Mpro-induced microvascular pathology. Our data suggest RIPK as a potential therapeutic target to treat the neuropathology of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Microvessels/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Microvessels/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 337, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402050

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to show a capacity for invading the brains of humans and model animals. However, it remains unclear whether and how SARS-CoV-2 crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Herein, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was occasionally detected in the vascular wall and perivascular space, as well as in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) in the infected K18-hACE2 transgenic mice. Moreover, the permeability of the infected vessel was increased. Furthermore, disintegrity of BBB was discovered in the infected hamsters by administration of Evans blue. Interestingly, the expression of claudin5, ZO-1, occludin and the ultrastructure of tight junctions (TJs) showed unchanged, whereas, the basement membrane was disrupted in the infected animals. Using an in vitro BBB model that comprises primary BMECs with astrocytes, SARS-CoV-2 was found to infect and cross through the BMECs. Consistent with in vivo experiments, the expression of MMP9 was increased and collagen IV was decreased while the markers for TJs were not altered in the SARS-CoV-2-infected BMECs. Besides, inflammatory responses including vasculitis, glial activation, and upregulated inflammatory factors occurred after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, our results provide evidence supporting that SARS-CoV-2 can cross the BBB in a transcellular pathway accompanied with basement membrane disrupted without obvious alteration of TJs.


Subject(s)
Basement Membrane/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tight Junctions/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Basement Membrane/pathology , Basement Membrane/virology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tight Junctions/genetics , Tight Junctions/pathology , Tight Junctions/virology , Vero Cells
6.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(1): 36-47, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388231

ABSTRACT

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important physiological barrier that separates the central nervous system (CNS) from the peripheral circulation, which contains inflammatory mediators and immune cells. The BBB regulates cellular and molecular exchange between the blood vessels and brain parenchyma. Normal functioning of the BBB is crucial for the homeostasis and proper function of the brain. It has been demonstrated that peripheral inflammation can disrupt the BBB by various pathways, resulting in different CNS diseases. Recently, clinical research also showed CNS complications following SARS-CoV-2 infection and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy, which both lead to a cytokine storm in the circulation. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the BBB disruption induced by peripheral inflammation will provide an important basis for protecting the CNS in the context of exacerbated peripheral inflammatory diseases. In the present review, we first summarize the physiological properties of the BBB that makes the CNS an immune-privileged organ. We then discuss the relevance of peripheral inflammation-induced BBB disruption to various CNS diseases. Finally, we elaborate various factors and mechanisms of peripheral inflammation that disrupt the BBB.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/immunology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/immunology
7.
Brain ; 144(12): 3576-3588, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358432

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and is associated with both acute and chronic disorders affecting the nervous system. Acute neurological disorders affecting patients with COVID-19 range widely from anosmia, stroke, encephalopathy/encephalitis, and seizures to Guillain-Barré syndrome. Chronic neurological sequelae are less well defined although exercise intolerance, dysautonomia, pain, as well as neurocognitive and psychiatric dysfunctions are commonly reported. Molecular analyses of CSF and neuropathological studies highlight both vascular and immunologic perturbations. Low levels of viral RNA have been detected in the brains of few acutely ill individuals. Potential pathogenic mechanisms in the acute phase include coagulopathies with associated cerebral hypoxic-ischaemic injury, blood-brain barrier abnormalities with endotheliopathy and possibly viral neuroinvasion accompanied by neuro-immune responses. Established diagnostic tools are limited by a lack of clearly defined COVID-19 specific neurological syndromes. Future interventions will require delineation of specific neurological syndromes, diagnostic algorithm development and uncovering the underlying disease mechanisms that will guide effective therapies.


Subject(s)
Brain/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Neuroimmunomodulation/physiology , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging
8.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323123

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke is the second cause of mortality and the first cause of long-term disability constituting a serious socioeconomic burden worldwide. Approved treatments include thrombectomy and rtPA intravenous administration, which, despite their efficacy in some cases, are not suitable for a great proportion of patients. Glial cell-related therapies are progressively overcoming inefficient neuron-centered approaches in the preclinical phase. Exploiting the ability of microglia to naturally switch between detrimental and protective phenotypes represents a promising therapeutic treatment, in a similar way to what happens with astrocytes. However, the duality present in many of the roles of these cells upon ischemia poses a notorious difficulty in disentangling the precise pathways to target. Still, promoting M2/A2 microglia/astrocyte protective phenotypes and inhibiting M1/A1 neurotoxic profiles is globally rendering promising results in different in vivo models of stroke. On the other hand, described oligodendrogenesis after brain ischemia seems to be strictly beneficial, although these cells are the less studied players in the stroke paradigm and negative effects could be described for oligodendrocytes in the next years. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the precise role of mentioned glial cell types in the main pathological events of ischemic stroke, including inflammation, blood brain barrier integrity, excitotoxicity, reactive oxygen species management, metabolic support, and neurogenesis, among others, with a special attention to tested therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , Neuroglia/physiology , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Humans , Neurogenesis , Oxidative Stress
9.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1594-1610.e11, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281436

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can cause severe neurological symptoms, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. Here, we interrogated the brain stems and olfactory bulbs in postmortem patients who had COVID-19 using imaging mass cytometry to understand the local immune response at a spatially resolved, high-dimensional, single-cell level and compared their immune map to non-COVID respiratory failure, multiple sclerosis, and control patients. We observed substantial immune activation in the central nervous system with pronounced neuropathology (astrocytosis, axonal damage, and blood-brain-barrier leakage) and detected viral antigen in ACE2-receptor-positive cells enriched in the vascular compartment. Microglial nodules and the perivascular compartment represented COVID-19-specific, microanatomic-immune niches with context-specific cellular interactions enriched for activated CD8+ T cells. Altered brain T-cell-microglial interactions were linked to clinical measures of systemic inflammation and disturbed hemostasis. This study identifies profound neuroinflammation with activation of innate and adaptive immune cells as correlates of COVID-19 neuropathology, with implications for potential therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Brain/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Microglia/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Communication , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/pathology , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Proteins/metabolism , Inflammation , Lymphocyte Activation , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/immunology , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
10.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 939-963, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169006

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) first discovered in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. SARS-CoV-2 has infected several millions of people, resulting in a huge socioeconomic cost and over 2.5 million deaths worldwide. Though the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not fully understood, data have consistently shown that SARS-CoV-2 mainly affects the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Nevertheless, accumulating evidence has implicated the central nervous system in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Unfortunately, however, the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 induced impairment of the central nervous system are not completely known. Here, we review the literature on possible neuropathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 induced cerebral damage. The results suggest that downregulation of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with increased activity of the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and cathepsin L in SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion may result in upregulation of proinflammatory mediators and reactive species that trigger neuroinflammatory response and blood brain barrier disruption. Furthermore, dysregulation of hormone and neurotransmitter signalling may constitute a fundamental mechanism involved in the neuropathogenic sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The viral RNA or antigenic peptides also activate or interact with molecular signalling pathways mediated by pattern recognition receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), nuclear factor kappa B, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, complement cascades, and cell suicide molecules. Potential molecular targets and therapeutics of SARS-CoV-2 induced neurologic damage are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/immunology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/physiology
11.
J Infect Dis ; 223(4): 600-609, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations are common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known about pathophysiological mechanisms. In this single-center study, we examined neurological manifestations in 58 patients, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and neuroimaging findings. METHODS: The study included 58 patients with COVID-19 and neurological manifestations in whom severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction screening and on CSF analysis were performed. Clinical, laboratory, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Patients were mostly men (66%), with a median age of 62 years. Encephalopathy was frequent (81%), followed by pyramidal dysfunction (16%), seizures (10%), and headaches (5%). CSF protein and albumin levels were increased in 38% and 23%, respectively. A total of 40% of patients displayed an elevated albumin quotient, suggesting impaired blood-brain barrier integrity. CSF-specific immunoglobulin G oligoclonal band was found in 5 patients (11%), suggesting an intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin G, and 26 patients (55%) presented identical oligoclonal bands in serum and CSF. Four patients (7%) had a positive CSF SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Leptomeningeal enhancement was present on brain MR images in 20 patients (38%). CONCLUSIONS: Brain MR imaging abnormalities, especially leptomeningeal enhancement, and increased inflammatory markers in CSF are frequent in patients with neurological manifestations related to COVID-19, whereas SARS-CoV-2 detection in CSF remained scanty.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Blood-Brain Barrier/diagnostic imaging , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , France , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
12.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 49(3): 157-163, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069189

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence of the ability of the novel coronavirus to invade the central nervous system (CNS). But how does a respiratory virus invade the highly protected CNS? Here, we reviewed available literature and case reports to determine CNS involvement in COVID-19, and to identify potential regions of the brain that may be affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its possible route of entry into the brain to identify its pathogenicity. Based on the symptoms, the parietal lobe and the cerebellum are the likely targets of SARS-CoV-2; however, further work is needed to elucidate this. The presence of ACE2, used by SARS-CoV-2 for cell entry, in the brain as well as detection of the virus in the cerebrospinal fluid, further assert that SARS-COV-2 targets the brain, and therefore, medical practitioners should take that into account when dealing with patients suffering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Humans
13.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(1): 54-62, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058685

ABSTRACT

Numerous experimental and clinical studies have proven that the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) has a tropism for the nervous system. The infection of the nervous system by SARS­CoV­2 can occur via the nasal route through trans­synaptic pathways. Coronaviruses can infect neurons and glial cells through angiotensin­converting enzyme 2 receptors or by endocytosis. The infection of the central nervous system accompanied by coronavirus disease 2019-related systemic inflammation leads to the impairment of the blood-brain barrier and triggers a neuroinflammatory response with reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation. In addition, brain stem cells are being damaged, which results in respiratory distress. Apart from typical symptoms of COVID­19 associated with the involvement of the respiratory system, neurological manifestations such as headache, dizziness, myalgia, anosmia, ageusia, encephalopathy, encephalitis, stroke, epileptic seizures, rhabdomyolysis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome are related to SARS­CoV­2 infection. In this review, we focused on the currently known neurological manifestations of COVID­19, which could be considered mainly in asymptomatic patients with COVID­19 and, if noted, may limit the transmission of coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(1): 36-47, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003961

ABSTRACT

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important physiological barrier that separates the central nervous system (CNS) from the peripheral circulation, which contains inflammatory mediators and immune cells. The BBB regulates cellular and molecular exchange between the blood vessels and brain parenchyma. Normal functioning of the BBB is crucial for the homeostasis and proper function of the brain. It has been demonstrated that peripheral inflammation can disrupt the BBB by various pathways, resulting in different CNS diseases. Recently, clinical research also showed CNS complications following SARS-CoV-2 infection and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy, which both lead to a cytokine storm in the circulation. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the BBB disruption induced by peripheral inflammation will provide an important basis for protecting the CNS in the context of exacerbated peripheral inflammatory diseases. In the present review, we first summarize the physiological properties of the BBB that makes the CNS an immune-privileged organ. We then discuss the relevance of peripheral inflammation-induced BBB disruption to various CNS diseases. Finally, we elaborate various factors and mechanisms of peripheral inflammation that disrupt the BBB.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/immunology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/immunology
15.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 17(5): 784-792, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999945

ABSTRACT

A pericyte-centered theory suggesting that embolisms occurring within the microvasculature of a neurovascular unit that can result in either parenchymal hemorrhage or intravascular congestion is presented here. Dysfunctional microvascular pericytes are characterized by their location in the neurovascular unit, either on the arteriole or venule side. Pathophysiological and pathological changes caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) include pulmonary hypertension, edema, focal hemorrhage, microvascular congestion, and thrombosis. In this paper, the application of the pericytes-centered hypothesis to COVID-19 has been presented by proposing the concept of a pulmonary neurovascular unit (pNVU). The application of this concept implies that human lungs contain approximately 300 million pNVUs. This concept of existing local regulation of microvascular blood flow is supported by the observation of pathophysiology in pulmonary embolism and in acute high-altitude illness. The autonomic control seen in these three disease states matches blood flow with oxygen supply in each pNVU to maintain physiological blood oxygen saturation level. This paper illustrates how the malfunction of microvascular pericytes may cause focal hemorrhage, edema or microvascular congestion and thrombosis. A bypass existing in each pNVU would autonomically deviate blood flow from a COVID-19-affected pNVU to other healthy pNVUs. This action would prevent systemically applied medicines from reaching the therapeutic threshold in COVID-19-affected pNVUs. While testing this hypothesis with experimental evidence is urgently needed, supporting therapy aimed at improving microcirculation or rebuilding the physiological function of microvascular pericytes is recommended as a potentially effective treatment of COVID 19.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Neurovascular Coupling/physiology , Pericytes/metabolism , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Microcirculation/physiology , Microvessels/metabolism , Microvessels/pathology , Pericytes/pathology
16.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(2): 520-535, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797979

ABSTRACT

The main discussion above of the novel pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has focused substantially on the immediate risks and impact on the respiratory system; however, the effects induced to the central nervous system are currently unknown. Some authors have suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infection can dramatically affect brain function and exacerbate neurodegenerative diseases in patients, but the mechanisms have not been entirely described. In this review, we gather information from past and actual studies on coronaviruses that informed neurological dysfunction and brain damage. Then, we analyzed and described the possible mechanisms causative of brain injury after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We proposed that potential routes of SARS-CoV-2 neuro-invasion are determinant factors in the process. We considered that the hematogenous route of infection can directly affect the brain microvascular endothelium cells that integrate the blood-brain barrier and be fundamental in initiation of brain damage. Additionally, activation of the inflammatory response against the infection represents a critical step on injury induction of the brain tissue. Consequently, the virus' ability to infect brain cells and induce the inflammatory response can promote or increase the risk to acquire central nervous system diseases. Here, we contribute to the understanding of the neurological conditions found in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and its association with the blood-brain barrier integrity.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Inflammation/virology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology
17.
Neurol Sci ; 41(10): 2657-2669, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680556

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses are opportunistic pathogens that infect the upper respiratory tract in humans and cause severe illnesses, especially in vulnerable populations. Some viruses have neuroinvasive properties and activate the immune response in the brain. These immune events may be neuroprotective or they may cause long-term damage similar to what is seen in some neurodegenerative diseases. The new "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the Respiratory viruses causing highly acute lethal pneumonia coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with clinical similarities to those reported in "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus"(SARS-CoV) and the "Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus"(MERS-CoV) including neurological manifestation. To examine the possible neurological damage induced by SARS-CoV-2, it is necessary to understand the immune reactions to viral infection in the brain, and their short- and long-term consequences. Considering the similarities between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which will be discussed, cooperative homological and phylogenetical studies lead us to question if SARS-CoV-2 can have similar neuroinvasive capacities and neuroinflammatiory events that may lead to the same short- and long-term neuropathologies that SARS-CoV had shown in human and animal models. To explain the neurological manifestation caused by SARS-CoV-2, we will present a literature review of 765 COVID-19 patients, in which 18% had neurological symptoms and complications, including encephalopathy, encephalitis and cerebrovascular pathologies, acute myelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Clinical studies describe anosmia or partial loss of the sense of smell as the most frequent symptom in COVID19 patients, suggesting that olfactory dysfunction and the initial ultrarapid immune responses could be a prognostic factor.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Vagus Nerve/virology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vagus Nerve/pathology
18.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(9): 1217-1228, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680347

ABSTRACT

While there is abounding literature on virus-induced pathology in general and coronavirus in particular, recent evidence accumulates showing distinct and deleterious brain affection. As the respiratory tract connects to the brain without protection of the blood-brain barrier, SARS-CoV-2 might in the early invasive phase attack the cardiorespiratory centres located in the medulla/pons areas, giving rise to disturbances of respiration and cardiac problems. Furthermore, brainstem regions are at risk to lose their functional integrity. Therefore, long-term neurological as well as psychiatric symptomatology and eventual respective disorders cannot be excluded as evidenced from influenza-A triggered post-encephalitic Parkinsonism and HIV-1 triggered AIDS-dementia complex. From the available evidences for coronavirus-induced brain pathology, this review concludes a number of unmet needs for further research strategies like human postmortem brain analyses. SARS-CoV-2 mirroring experimental animal brain studies, characterization of time-dependent and region-dependent spreading behaviours of coronaviruses, enlightening of pathological mechanisms after coronavirus infection using long-term animal models and clinical observations of patients having had COVID-19 infection are calling to develop both protective strategies and drug discoveries to avoid early and late coronavirus-induced functional brain disturbances, symptoms and eventually disorders. To fight SARS-CoV-2, it is an urgent need to enforce clinical, molecular biological, neurochemical and genetic research including brain-related studies on a worldwide harmonized basis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , Brain/virology , COVID-19 , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/trends , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
19.
J Neurol ; 267(8): 2179-2184, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-377965

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by the novel betacoronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic threat. The potential involvement of COVID-19 in central nervous system (CNS) has attracted considerable attention due to neurological manifestations presented throughout the disease process. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 is structurally similar to SARS-CoV, and both bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to enter human cells. Thus, cells expressing ACE2, such as neurons and glial cells may act as targets and are thus vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we have reviewed the neurological characteristics of COVID-19 and summarized possible mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 invasion of the CNS. COVID-19 patients have presented with a number of different neurological symptoms such as headache, dizziness, hyposmia, and hypogeusia during the course of illness. It has also been reported recently that some cases of COVID-19 have presented with concurrent acute cerebrovascular disease (acute ischemic stroke, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage), meningitis/encephalitis, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, and acute Guillain-Barré syndrome. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in a cerebrospinal fluid specimen of a patient with COVID-19 have provided direct evidence to support the theory of neurotropic involvement of SARS-CoV-2. However, the underlying neurotropic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 are yet to be established. SARS-CoV-2 may affect CNS through two direct mechanisms (hematogenous dissemination or neuronal retrograde dissemination) or via indirect routes. The underlying mechanisms require further elucidation in the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dizziness/diagnosis , Dizziness/epidemiology , Dizziness/metabolism , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/metabolism , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/metabolism , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Neurovirol ; 26(3): 324-329, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276266

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported at the end of 2019 in China for the first time and has rapidly spread throughout the world as a pandemic. Since COVID-19 causes mild to severe acute respiratory syndrome, most studies in this field have only focused on different aspects of pathogenesis in the respiratory system. However, evidence suggests that COVID-19 may affect the central nervous system (CNS). Given the outbreak of COVID-19, it seems necessary to perform investigations on the possible neurological complications in patients who suffered from COVID-19. Here, we reviewed the evidence of the neuroinvasive potential of coronaviruses and discussed the possible pathogenic processes in CNS infection by COVID-19 to provide a precise insight for future studies.


Subject(s)
Ataxia/epidemiology , Brain Edema/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Ataxia/complications , Ataxia/diagnosis , Ataxia/virology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , Brain Edema/complications , Brain Edema/diagnosis , Brain Edema/virology , COVID-19 , Central Nervous System/pathology , Central Nervous System/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Encephalitis, Viral/complications , Encephalitis, Viral/diagnosis , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/virology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission
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