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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 223, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-COVID-19 syndrome is characterized by diverse symptoms and abnormalities that persist beyond 12 weeks from the onset of acute COVID-19. Severity disease has been associated with more musculoskeletal alterations such as muscle weakness, dyspnea, and distance walking. The aim was to evaluate the impact of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) on body composition and investigate risk factors associated with sarcopenia in post-COVID-19 patients three months after moderate or severe COVID-19 infections. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. 530 patients with PCR-confirmed diagnoses of moderate to severe COVID-19, > 18 years old, oxygen saturation ≤ 93%, PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300, who required hospitalization and were discharged were included. We excluded those who died before the follow-up visit, declined to participate, or could not be contacted. RESULTS: The mean age was 53.79 ± 12.90 years. IMV subjects had lower phase angle and handgrip strength and higher impedance index, frequency of low muscle mass, and low muscle strength than those without IMV. The risk factors of sarcopenia were > 60 years of age, diabetes, obesity, IMV, and prolonged hospital stay. The multivariate model showed that age > 60 years (OR: 4.91, 95% CI: 2.26-10.63), obesity (OR: 3.73, 95% CI: 1.21-11.54), and interaction between prolonged length of hospital stay and IMV (OR: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.21-7.02) were related to a higher risk of sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: Obesity and the interaction between prolonged length of hospital stay and IMV are associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia at 3 months after severe or moderate COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Body Composition , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Strength , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
2.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 49: 474-482, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of hospitalised COVID-19 patients are overweight. There is no consensus in the literature on how lean body mass (LBM) can best be estimated to adequately guide nutritional protein recommendations in hospitalised patients who are not at an ideal weight. We aim to explore which method best agrees with lean body mass as measured by bioelectric impedance (LBMBIA) in this population. METHODS: LBM was calculated by five commonly used methods for 150 hospitalised COVID-19 patients previously included in the BIAC-19 study; total body weight, regression to a BMI of 22.5, regression to BMI 27.5 when BMI>30, and the equations described by Gallagher and the ESPEN ICU guideline. Error-standard plots were used to assess agreement and bias compared to LBMBIA. The actual protein provided to ICU patients during their stay was compared to targets set using LBMBIA and LBM calculated by other methods. RESULTS: All methods to calculate LBM suffered from overestimation, underestimation, fixed- and proportional bias and wide limits of agreement compared to LBMBIA. Bias was inconsistent across sex and BMI subgroups. Twenty-eight ICU patients received a mean of 51.19 (95%-BCa CI 37.1;64.1) grams of protein daily, accumulating to a mean of 61.6% (95%-BCa CI 43.2;80.8) of TargetBIA during their ICU stay. The percentage received of the target as calculated by the LBMGallagher method for males was the only one to not differ significantly from the percentage received of TargetBIA (mean difference 1.4% (95%-BCa CI -1.3;4.6) p = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: We could not identify a mathematical method for calculating LBM that had an acceptable agreement with LBM as derived from BIA for males and females across all BMI subgroups in our hospitalised COVID-19 population. Consequently, discrepancies when assessing the adequacy of protein provision in ICU patients were found. We strongly advise using baseline LBMBIA to guide protein dosing if possible. In the absence of BIA, using a method that overestimates LBM in all categories may be the only way to minimise underdosing of nutritional protein. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol of the BIAC-19 study, of which this is a post-hoc sub-analysis, is registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (number NL8562).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Body Composition , Electric Impedance , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Overweight
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862790

ABSTRACT

The home confinement derived from the COVID-19 pandemic has led to drastic changes in people's habits. This situation has influenced their eating, rest, physical activity and socialization patterns, triggering changes in their mental stability. It was demonstrated that physical activity is beneficial for people's physical and mental health. By its moderate volume and requiring little space or material, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) could prove to be a valid alternative in a situation of confinement. The aim of the present study was to observe the impact of an 8-week HIIT protocol on the body composition and the depressive symptoms of adults in strict home confinement. A total of 21 healthy adults, both male and female, (35.4 ± 5.6 years old; 70.50 ± 12.1 kg; 171 ± 10 cm) were divided into an experimental group (EG, n = 11) who carried out an 8-week Tabata protocol, based upon calisthenic exercises with their own weight in their homes, and a control group (CG, n = 10) who did not carry out any systematic physical activity over the same period. Following the intervention, the EG experienced a significant reduction in percentage (t = 3.86, d = 0.57, p < 0.05) and in kg (t = 4.62, d = 0.29, p < 0.05) of body fat mass (BFM) and body fat mass index (BFMI) (t = 4.61, d = 0.31, p < 0.05), as well as a reduction in depressive symptoms (t = 6.48, d = 1.3, p < 0.05). These results indicate that HIIT is a potential public health tool that could possibly be prescribed to the population in case of future situations of home confinement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , High-Intensity Interval Training , Adult , Body Composition , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression , Female , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Humans , Male , Obesity , Pandemics
5.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(5): 943-950, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) and metabolic consequences of excess weight are associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19, though their mediating pathway is unclear. METHODS: A prospective cohort study included 435,504 UK Biobank participants. A two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) study used the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative in 1.6 million participants. We examined associations of total adiposity, body composition, fat distribution and metabolic consequences of excess weight, particularly type 2 diabetes, with incidence and severity of COVID-19, assessed by test positivity, hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. RESULTS: BMI and body fat were associated with COVID-19 in the observational and MR analyses but muscle mass was not. The observational study suggested the association with central fat distribution was stronger than for BMI, but there was little evidence from the MR analyses than this was causal. There was evidence that strong associations of metabolic consequences with COVID-19 outcomes in observational but not MR analyses. Type 2 diabetes was strongly associated with COVID-19 in observational but not MR analyses. In adjusted models, the observational analysis showed that the association of BMI with COVID-19 diminished, while central fat distribution and metabolic consequences of excess weight remained strongly associated. In contrast, MR showed the reverse, with only BMI retaining a direct effect on COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Excess total adiposity is probably casually associated with severe COVID-19. Mendelian randomisation data do not support causality for the observed associations of central fat distribution or metabolic consequences of excess adiposity with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adipose Tissue , Adiposity/genetics , Body Composition/genetics , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/genetics , Prospective Studies
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6443, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799564

ABSTRACT

As most COVID-19 patients only receive thoracic CT scans, but body composition, which is relevant to detect sarcopenia, is determined in abdominal scans, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between thoracic and abdominal CT body composition parameters in a cohort of COVID-19 patients. This retrospective study included n = 46 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients who received CT scans of the thorax and abdomen due to severe disease progression. The subcutaneous fat area (SF), the skeletal muscle area (SMA), and the muscle radiodensity attenuation (MRA) were measured at the level of the twelfth thoracic (T12) and the third lumbar (L3) vertebra. Necessity of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), length of stay, or time to death (TTD) were noted. For statistics correlation, multivariable linear, logistic, and Cox regression analyses were employed. Correlation was excellent for the SF (r = 0.96) between T12 and L3, and good for the respective SMA (r = 0.80) and MRA (r = 0.82) values. With adjustment (adj.) for sex, age, and body-mass-index the variability of SF (adj. r2 = 0.93; adj. mean difference = 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-1.45]), of the SMA (adj. r2 = 0.76; 2.59 [95% CI 1.92-3.26]), and of the MRA (adj. r2 = 0.67; 0.67 [95% CI 0.45-0.88]) at L3 was well explained by the respective values at T12. There was no relevant influence of the SF, MRA, or SMA on the clinical outcome. If only thoracic CT scans are available, CT body composition values at T12 can be used to predict abdominal fat and muscle parameters, by which sarcopenia and obesity can be assessed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Abdomen , Body Composition , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Sarcopenia/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(6): 1749-1752, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793448

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Czeck, MA, Roelofs, EJ, Evanoff, NG, and Dengel, DR. No Changes in body composition in NCAA Division I Collegiate Football Players due to COVID-19 restrictions. J Strength Cond Res 36(6): 1749-1752, 2022-The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions on body composition, assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), between the 2020 postseason (pre-COVID-19 restrictions) and the 2021 postseason (post-COVID-19 restrictions) in collegiate football players (n = 50). In addition, a subset of athletes (n = 23) was used to explore body composition variables across 4 postseason time points. Body composition variables assessed were total and regional body fat percent, total mass, lean mass, fat mass, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and visceral adipose tissue mass. Paired t-tests were used to determine differences between the 2020 postseason and the 2021 postseason in body composition variables. Analysis of variance with Tukey HSD post hoc tests assessed significant differences in total and regional body composition across 4 years while adjusting for multiple comparisons. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between postseason 2020 and postseason 2021 for all measures of body composition. In a subset of athletes, body composition was analyzed over a 4-year period of time. There were no significant differences between all 4 time points for all measures of body composition. In conclusion, body composition variables in this study's subjects were not affected because of coronavirus disease 2019 restrictions or over 4 years of their collegiate football career.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Body Composition , COVID-19 , Football , Absorptiometry, Photon , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Bone Density , COVID-19/prevention & control , Football/physiology , Humans
8.
J Phys Act Health ; 19(5): 351-357, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of mobility restrictions (MRs) during the COVID-19 epidemic on physical activity, body composition, and exercise tolerance in patients with obesity. METHODS: We analyzed data of obesity patients participating in a 6-month weight loss program in February 2020, and after, when the epidemic was considered to have had some effect on outdoor activity in Osaka, Japan (MR group). MR group patients were compared to patients with obesity attending the program in 2018 and 2019 (non-MR group) who had a similar number of months as MR group. Changes in physical activity, body composition, and exercise tolerance (O2 consumption; VO2) owing to the weight loss program were analyzed between both groups using analysis of covariance and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Decreases in body fat were significantly higher in MR group than in non-MR group. However, increases in physical activity, VO2 at anaerobic threshold, and peak VO2 were significantly lower in MR group; however, increases in peak VO2 owing to the weight loss program were less likely to be achieved in MR group (odds ratio, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.81). CONCLUSION: MR during the COVID-19 epidemic may have affected the exercise tolerance of patients with obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Tolerance , Body Composition , Exercise , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Oxygen Consumption , Retrospective Studies
9.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 5452488, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770039

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Inflammation is strongly associated with the severity and mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). Dietary factors have a crucial role in preventing chronic and systemic inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) scores and body composition parameters in COVID-19-infected patients compared to noninfected controls. Methods: A total of 133 COVID-19-infected patients and 322 noninfected controls were selected and enrolled from the Cohort Study of Employees of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. E-DII score was calculated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and body composition was measured using In-Body 770 equipment. Logistic regression models were utilized to estimate the odds ratio (OR). Results: In the control group, the mean E-DII score was significantly lower than the case group (-2.05 vs. -0.30, P ≤ 0.001), indicating that the diet of COVID-19-infected subjects was more proinflammatory than the controls. For every 1 unit increase in E-DII score, the odds of infection with COVID-19 was nearly triple (OR: 2.86, CI: 2.30, 3.35, P ≤ 0.001). Moreover, for each unit increase in body mass index (BMI), the odds of infection to COVID-19 increased by 7% (OR: 1.07, CI: 1.01, 1.13, P = 0.02). No significant difference was observed for other anthropometric parameters. Conclusion: The findings revealed that obese people and those consuming a more proinflammatory diet were more susceptible to coronavirus infection. Therefore, maintaining ideal body weight and consuming a more anti-inflammatory diet can decrease the probability of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Body Composition , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Diet , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Iran/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Radiol Med ; 127(4): 440-448, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between body composition measures in children with COVID-19 and severity of the disease course and clinical outcome. METHODS: A retrospective study of children (< 19 years) with COVID-19 admitted to the hospital who underwent CT of the chest and/or abdomen was conducted. Data compiled from electronic medical records included demographics, body mass index (BMI), length of stay, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation and death. Waist circumference and perimeters for skeletal muscle mass (abdominal, psoas and paraspinal muscles) were measured on an axial CT image at the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra or first lumbar vertebra using FIJI software. RESULTS: Fifty-seven subjects were identified (54% male, median age 15.6 years, 61% Hispanic, 23% African-American). 25% (14/57) were admitted to the ICU and 21% (12/57) needed intubation. 9% (5/57) died. Waist circumference ranged between 53.2 and 138.4 cm (mean 86.58 ± 18.74 cm) and skeletal muscle mass ranged between 0.6 and 6.8 cm2 (mean 3.5 ± 1.19 cm2). Lower skeletal muscle mass had a univariate association with ICU admission (odds ratio (OR) 0.4; 95%CI 0.17-0.76; p = 0.01) and mortality (OR 0.22; 95%CI 0.04-0.69; p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed similar association after controlling for comorbidities (adjusted OR 0.46; 95%CI 0.19-0.95; p = 0.04 and adjusted OR 0.31; 95%CI 0.06-0.95; p = 0.04, respectively). There was no association between BMI or waist circumference with ICU stay, mechanical ventilation or mortality. CONCLUSION: Lower skeletal muscle mass is associated with an adverse clinical course and outcome in children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
12.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 98, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frailty, determined by the Canadian Study of Health and Aging-Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), is strongly associated with clinical outcomes including mortality in patients with COVID-19. However, the relationship between frailty and other recognised prognostic factors including age, nutritional status, obesity, sarcopenia and systemic inflammation is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between frailty and other prognostic domains, in patients admitted with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients who presented to our institutions between 1st April 2020-6th July 2020 with confirmed COVID-19 were assessed for inclusion. Data collected included general demographic details, clinicopathological variables, CFS admission assessment, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), CT-BC measurements and markers of systemic inflammation. RESULTS: 106 patients met the study inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were aged ≥ 70 years (67%), male (53%) and frail (scoring > 3 on the CFS, 72%). The majority of patients were not malnourished (MUST 0, 58%), had ≥ 1 co-morbidity (87%), were sarcopenic (low SMI, 80%) and had systemic inflammation (mGPS ≥ 1, 81%, NLR > 5, 55%). On multivariate binary logistics regression analysis, age (p < 0.01), COPD (p < 0.05) and NLR (p < 0.05) remained independently associated with frailty. On univariate binary logistics regression, NLR (p < 0.05) was significantly associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: Frailty was independently associated with age, co-morbidity, and systemic inflammation. The basis of the relationship between frailty and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 requires further study. Trial registration Registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04484545).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Body Composition , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada , Comorbidity , Female , Frailty/diagnostic imaging , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/diagnostic imaging , Inflammation/epidemiology , Male , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 48: 356-360, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The BOD POD (COSMED USA Inc., Concord, CA) is a common instrument used to assess body composition by employing air displacement plethysmography and whole-body densitometry to determine body volume. This instrument requires isothermal conditions during testing; therefore, the introduction of outside isothermal air can impact testing results. With the COVID-19 pandemic introducing face mask mandates, it is unknown whether the use of a face mask during BOD POD testing may lead to erroneous measurement by introducing isothermal air. Thus, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of wearing a surgical face mask compared to not wearing a surgical face mask on body composition assessment among adults. METHODS: During testing, female subjects were required to wear a swimsuit or form-fitting lycra shorts and a sports bra and male subjects were required to wear form-fitting lycra shorts. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) level one surgical face masks (bacterial and particulate filtration efficiency of 95%) and standard swim caps were provided by researchers. Variables of interest included percent body fat, body fat, percent lean body mass, and lean body mass. Participants (n = 33) completed one test wearing a mask and one test without a mask back-to-back with conditions held constant. Dependent-sample sign tests, Bland-Altman Plots, and Passing-Bablok regression analyses were used to test mask-on versus mask-off differences and agreement between variables of interest. RESULTS: There were no significant median differences in any body composition results between face mask use and non-face mask use using dependent-sample sign tests. Bland-Altman Plots demonstrated acceptable agreement between mask usage and non-mask usage. No significant differences were seen in the slopes of the variables using Passing-Bablok regression. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that wearing a face mask does not appreciably impact body composition results. Therefore, ASTM level 1 disposable surgical face mask does not introduce a significant amount of isothermal air during BOD POD testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Adult , Body Composition , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Plethysmography/methods
14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 186(1): 9-23, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Indirect evidence suggests that the effects of testosterone on fat mass in men are dependent on aromatization to estradiol (E2). However, no controlled study has assessed the effects of E2 in the absence of testosterone. DESIGN: Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial with the hypothesis that men randomized to E2 would reduce their fat mass. METHODS: Seventy-eight participants receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to 0.9 mg of 0.1% E2 gel per day, or matched placebo. Dual x-ray absorptiometry body composition was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The primary outcome was total fat mass. RESULTS: Serum E2 increased in the estradiol group over 6 months compared to placebo, and mean-adjusted difference (MAD) was 207 pmol/L (95% CI: 123-292), P < 0.001. E2 treatment changed total fat mass, MAD 1007 g (95% CI: 124-1891), but not significantly, so P = 0.09. There were other consistent non-significant trends toward increased proportional fat mass, MAD 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0-1.6), P= 0.15; gynoid fat, MAD 147 g (95% CI: 2-293), P = 0.08; visceral fat, 53 g (95% CI: 1-105) P = 0.13; and subcutaneous fat, MAD 65 g (95% CI: 5-125), P = 0.11. Android fat increased, MAD 164 g (95% CI: 41-286), P = 0.04. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, we provide suggestive evidence that E2 acting in the absence of testosterone, may increase total and regional fat mass in men. Given the premature closure of clinical trials due to the COVID pandemic, this potentially important observation should encourage additional studies to confirm or refute whether E2 promotes fat expansion in the absence of testosterone.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Estradiol/pharmacology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Aged , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Australia , Body Composition/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643610

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to examine how physical performance has changed after 15 weeks (109 days) long-term absence of organized training in youth soccer players imposed by the stay at home orders. A total of sixty-eight young male soccer players from different age categories (U15, U16, U17 and U19) voluntarily participated in the prospective cohort study. Body fat percentage (BF%), counter-movement jump (CMJ), 30 m sprint, change-of-direction (COD) and yo-yo intermittent recovery test level-1 (YYIRTL-1) were evaluated twice (before and after the detraining period). Subsequently, 2 × 2 repeated measures ANOVA was used to investigate group and time differences in repeated measurements. A significance level of p < 0.05 was implemented. CV and SWC values were calculated to test the reliability of the tests performed at different times. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS statistics software (v.25, IBM, New York, NY, USA). Significant increments in BF%, 30 m sprint, and COD (left and right), and also significant decrements in CMJ and YYIRTL-1, were found after the detraining period. A long-term detraining period due to the stay at home orders has a detrimental effect on body composition, neuromuscular performances, and aerobic capacity in youth soccer players.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , COVID-19 , Soccer , Adolescent , Body Composition , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 13(1): 159-168, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low skeletal muscle mass (LSMM) and visceral fat areas can be assessed by cross-sectional images. These parameters are associated with several clinically relevant factors in various disorders with predictive and prognostic implications. Our aim was to establish the effect of computed tomography (CT)-defined LSMM and fat areas on unfavourable outcomes and in-hospital mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients based on a large patient sample. METHODS: MEDLINE library, Cochrane, and Scopus databases were screened for the associations between CT-defined LSMM as well as fat areas and in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients up to September 2021. In total, six studies were suitable for the analysis and included into the present analysis. RESULTS: The included studies comprised 1059 patients, 591 men (55.8%) and 468 women (44.2%), with a mean age of 60.1 years ranging from 48 to 66 years. The pooled prevalence of LSMM was 33.6%. The pooled odds ratio for the effect of LSMM on in-hospital mortality in univariate analysis was 5.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-31.83]. It was 2.73 (95% CI 0.54-13.70) in multivariate analysis. The pooled odds ratio of high visceral fat area on unfavourable outcome in univariate analysis was 2.65 (95% CI 1.57-4.47). CONCLUSIONS: Computed tomography-defined LSMM and high visceral fat area have a relevant association with in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients and should be included as relevant prognostic biomarkers into clinical routine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Body Composition , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 46(4): 817-824, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different pathogens can cause community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); however, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has re-emphasized the vital role of respiratory viruses as a cause of CAP. The aim was to explore differences in metabolic profile, body composition, physical capacity, and inflammation between patients hospitalized with CAP caused by different etiology. METHODS: A prospective study of Danish patients hospitalized with CAP caused by SARS-CoV-2, influenza, or bacteria. Fat (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical activity and capacity were assessed using questionnaires and handgrip strength. Plasma (p)-glucose, p-lipids, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), p-adiponectin, and cytokines were measured. RESULTS: Among 164 patients with CAP, etiology did not affect admission levels of glucose, HbA1c, adiponectin, or lipids. Overall, 15.2% had known diabetes, 6.1% had undiagnosed diabetes, 51.3% had pre-diabetes, 81% had hyperglycemia, and 60% had low HDL-cholesterol, with no difference between groups. Body mass index, FM, and FFM were similar between groups, with 73% of the patients being characterized with abdominal obesity, although waist circumference was lower in patients with COVID-19. Physical capacity was similar between groups. More than 80% had low handgrip strength and low physical activity levels. Compared to patients with influenza, patients with COVID-19 had increased levels of interferon (IFN)-γ (mean difference (MD) 4.14; 95% CI 1.36-12.58; p = 0.008), interleukin (IL)-4 (MD 1.82; 95% CI 1.12-2.97; p = 0.012), IL-5 (MD 2.22; 95% CI 1.09-4.52; p = 0.024), and IL-6 (MD 2.41; 95% CI 1.02-5.68; p = 0.044) and increased IFN-γ (MD 6.10; 95% CI 2.53-14.71; p < 0.001) and IL-10 (MD 2.68; 95% CI 1.53-4.69; p < 0.001) compared to patients with bacterial CAP, but no difference in IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-8, IL-18, IL-12p70, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin. CONCLUSION: Despite higher inflammatory response in patients with COVID-19, metabolic profile, body composition, and physical capacity were similar to patients with influenza and bacterial CAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia , Bacteria , Body Composition , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Strength , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Metabolome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597185

ABSTRACT

Beta-3 adrenergic receptor activation via exercise or CL316,243 (CL) induces white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, improves glucose tolerance, and reduces visceral adiposity. Our aim was to determine if sex or adipose tissue depot differences exist in response to CL. Daily CL injections were administered to diet-induced obese male and female mice for two weeks, creating four groups: male control, male CL, female control, and female CL. These groups were compared to determine the main and interaction effects of sex (S), CL treatment (T), and WAT depot (D). Glucose tolerance, body composition, and energy intake and expenditure were assessed, along with perigonadal (PGAT) and subcutaneous (SQAT) WAT gene and protein expression. CL consistently improved glucose tolerance and body composition. Female PGAT had greater protein expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), while SQAT (S, p < 0.001) was more responsive to CL in increasing UCP1 (S×T, p = 0.011) and the mitochondrial biogenesis induction protein, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) (S×T, p = 0.026). Females also displayed greater mitochondrial OXPHOS (S, p < 0.05) and adiponectin protein content (S, p < 0.05). On the other hand, male SQAT was more responsive to CL in increasing protein levels of PGC1α (S×T, p = 0.046) and adiponectin (S, p < 0.05). In both depots and in both sexes, CL significantly increased estrogen receptor beta (ERß) and glucose-related protein 75 (GRP75) protein content (T, p < 0.05). Thus, CL improves systemic and adipose tissue-specific metabolism in both sexes; however, sex differences exist in the WAT-specific effects of CL. Furthermore, across sexes and depots, CL affects estrogen signaling by upregulating ERß.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , PPAR gamma/genetics , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha/genetics , Uncoupling Protein 1/genetics , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adipose Tissue, Brown/growth & development , Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism , Animals , Body Composition/genetics , Dioxoles/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism/genetics , Estrogen Receptor beta/genetics , Estrogens/genetics , Estrogens/metabolism , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Humans , Male , Mice , Mitochondria/genetics , Mitochondria/metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/genetics , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/metabolism , Sex Characteristics
19.
Mod Rheumatol ; 32(2): 452-454, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566040

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on body composition among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A total 102 patients with RA were enrolled. We examined muscle mass, fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) values using bioelectrical impedance analysis between November 2019 and January 2020 (for the first measurement) and September 2020 and January 2021 (for the second measurement). RESULTS: The muscle mass was significantly decreased from a median of 34.6 kg at the first measurement to a median of 33.9 kg at the second measurement (p = 0.002). The FFMI was significantly decreased from a median of 15.3 at the first measurement to a median of 14.8 at the second measurement (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals that muscle mass and FFMI decreased among patients with RA during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Body Composition/physiology , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electric Impedance , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur J Radiol ; 145: 109943, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536526

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: We aim to review the methods, current research evidence, and future directions in body composition analysis (BCA) with CT imaging. RECENT FINDINGS: CT images can be used to evaluate muscle tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation methods are still the gold standards. The segmentation of skeletal muscle tissue and VAT and SAT compartments is most often performed at the level of the 3rd lumbar vertebra. A decreased amount of CT-determined skeletal muscle mass is a marker of impaired survival in many patient populations, including patients with most types of cancer, some surgical patients, and those admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients with increased VAT are more susceptible to impaired survival / worse outcomes; however, those patients who are critically ill or admitted to the ICU or who will undergo surgery appear to be exceptions. The independent significance of SAT is less well established. Recently, the roles of the CT-determined decrease of muscle mass and increased VAT area and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume have been shown to predict a more debilitating course of illness in patients suffering from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) infection. SUMMARY: The field of CT-based body composition analysis is rapidly evolving and shows great potential for clinical implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Body Composition , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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