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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11151, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915282

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of COVID-19 is based on detection of SARS-CoV-2 in oro-/nasopharyngel swabs, but due to discomfort and minor risk during the swab procedure, detection of SARS-CoV-2 has been investigated in other biological matrixes. In this proof-of-concept study, individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection performed a daily air sample for five days. Air samples were obtained through a non-invasive electrostatic air sampler. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was determined with qRT-PCR. The association of positive samples with different exposures was evaluated through mixed-effect models. We obtained 665 air samples from 111 included participants with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, 52 individuals (46.8%) had at least one positive air sample, and 129 (19.4%) air samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Participants with symptoms or a symptom duration ≤ four days had significantly higher odds of having a positive air sample. Cycle threshold values were significantly lower in samples obtained ≤ 4 days from symptom onset. Neither variant of SARS-CoV-2 nor method of air sampling were associated with a positive air sample. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 is detectable in human breath by electrostatic air sampling with the highest detection rate closest to symptom onset. We suggest further evaluation of the air sampling technique to increase sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , COVID-19 , Body Fluids/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMJ ; 377: o1098, 2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832408
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(26): 3243-3246, 2021 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747172

ABSTRACT

The hygroscopicity of respiratory aerosol determines their particle size distribution and regulates solute concentrations to which entrained microorganisms are exposed. Here, we report the hygroscopicity of simulated lung fluid (SLF) particles. While the response of aqueous particles follow simple mixing rules based on composition, we observe phase hysteresis with increasing and decreasing relative humidity (RH) and clear uptake of water prior to deliquescence. These results indicate that RH history may control the state of respiratory aerosol in the environment and influence the viability of microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , Wettability , Body Fluids/chemistry , Humans , Humidity , Lung/chemistry , Particle Size , Water/chemistry
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 107: 108624, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720132

ABSTRACT

Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the human central nervous system, and they play an important role in the regulation of neuronal physiology. In neurological disorders, astrocyte disintegration leads to the release of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) from tissue into the bloodstream. Elevated serum levels of GFAP can serve as blood biomarkers, and a useful prognostic tool to facilitate the early diagnosis of several neurological diseases ranging from stroke to neurodegenerative disorders. This systematic review synthesizes studies published between January 2012 and September 2021 that used GFAP as a potential blood biomarker to detect neurological disorders. The following electronic databases were accessed: MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science. In all the databases, the following search strategy was used: ¨GFAP¨ OR ¨glial fibrillary acidic protein¨ AND ¨neurological¨ OR ¨neurodegenerative¨ AND ¨plasma¨ OR ¨serum¨. The initial search identified 1152 articles. After the exclusion criteria were applied, 48 publications that reported GFAP levels in neurological disorders were identified. A total of16 different neurological disorders that have plasmatic GFAP levels as a possible biomarker for the disease were described in the articles, being: multiple sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, COVID-19, epileptic seizures, Wilson Disease, diabetic ketoacidosis, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, major depressive disorder, glioblastoma, spinal cord injury, asthma, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and Friedreich's ataxia. Our review shows an association between GFAP levels and the disease being studied, suggesting that elevated GFAP levels are a potentially valuable diagnostic biomarker in the evaluation of different neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Nervous System Diseases , Biomarkers , Body Fluids/metabolism , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Prognosis
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(3): 1071-1072, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715918
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704472

ABSTRACT

Rapid and precise diagnostic methods are required to control emerging infectious diseases effectively. Human body fluids are attractive clinical samples for discovering diagnostic targets because they reflect the clinical statuses of patients and most of them can be obtained with minimally invasive sampling processes. Body fluids are good reservoirs for infectious parasites, bacteria, and viruses. Therefore, recent clinical proteomics methods have focused on body fluids when aiming to discover human- or pathogen-originated diagnostic markers. Cutting-edge liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics has been applied in this regard; it is considered one of the most sensitive and specific proteomics approaches. Here, the clinical characteristics of each body fluid, recent tandem mass spectroscopy (MS/MS) data-acquisition methods, and applications of body fluids for proteomics regarding infectious diseases (including the coronavirus disease of 2019 [COVID-19]), are summarized and discussed.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Proteomics/methods , Body Fluids , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(3)2022 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686946

ABSTRACT

Early-stage disease diagnosis is of particular importance for effective patient identification as well as their treatment. Lack of patient compliance for the existing diagnostic methods, however, limits prompt diagnosis, rendering the development of non-invasive diagnostic tools mandatory. One of the most promising non-invasive diagnostic methods that has also attracted great research interest during the last years is breath analysis; the method detects gas-analytes such as exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and inorganic gases that are considered to be important biomarkers for various disease-types. The diagnostic ability of gas-pattern detection using analytical techniques and especially sensors has been widely discussed in the literature; however, the incorporation of novel nanomaterials in sensor-development has also proved to enhance sensor performance, for both selective and cross-reactive applications. The aim of the first part of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the main categories of sensors studied for disease diagnosis applications via the detection of exhaled gas-analytes and to highlight the role of nanomaterials. The second and most novel part of this review concentrates on the remarkable applicability of breath analysis in differential diagnosis, phenotyping, and the staging of several disease-types, which are currently amongst the most pressing challenges in the field.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , Volatile Organic Compounds , Breath Tests , Exhalation , Gases , Humans
9.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 130(3): 183-188, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is known to cause severe respiratory infections with occasional accompanying pleural effusion (PE), pericardial effusion (PCE), or peritoneal effusion (PTE). The effect of COVID-19 on effusion cytology is not yet known. This study aimed to examine the cytomorphologic features and workup of effusion fluids in patients with active COVID-19 infection versus those in recovery. METHODS: PE (n = 15), PCE (n = 1), and PTE samples (n = 20) from hospitalized patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection (from June 1, 2020, to December 30, 2020) were reviewed. Effusion fluids with metastatic carcinoma were excluded. Differential cell counts, cytomorphology, and relevant immunostains for effusion fluids were retrospectively evaluated and compared between patients with active infection (positive on a SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test [NAAT] within 2 months; n = 23) and those in the recovery phase from COVID-19 (negative on a SARS-CoV-2 NAAT for >2 months; n = 13). RESULTS: The cytology diagnoses were negative for malignancy (n = 31), atypical (n = 4), and suspicious for malignancy (n = 1). Active infection cases showed more atypical mesothelial cells than recovery cases (P < .05); some had enlarged nuclei, prominent nucleoli, occasional multinucleation, and bizarre nuclei. Immunostains were performed more often in active infection cases than recovery cases (47.8% vs 7.7%; P < .05). Differential cell counts (available for 28 cases) showed no significant differences between the active infection and recovery groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study found atypical and bizarre mesothelial cells more often in effusions of cases with active COVID-19 infection in comparison with patients in recovery. It is important for cytopathologists to become familiar with the cytomorphologic effects of SARS-CoV-2 on effusion cytology so that these cases can be properly triaged.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , COVID-19 , Body Fluids/cytology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytodiagnosis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(12): 1661-1670, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540788

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted through airborne particles in exhaled breath, causing severe respiratory disease, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), in some patients. Samples for SARS-CoV-2 testing are typically collected by nasopharyngeal swab, with the virus detected by PCR; however, patients can test positive for 3 months after infection. Without the capacity to assay SARS-CoV-2 in breath, it is not possible to understand the risk for transmission from infected individuals. To detect virus in breath, the Bubbler-a breathalyzer that reverse-transcribes RNA from SARS-CoV-2 particles into a sample-specific barcoded cDNA-was developed. In a study of 70 hospitalized patients, the Bubbler was both more predictive of lower respiratory tract involvement (abnormal chest X-ray) and less invasive than alternatives. Samples tested using the Bubbler were threefold more enriched for SARS-CoV-2 RNA than were samples from tongue swabs, implying that virus particles were being directly sampled. The barcode-enabled Bubbler was used for simultaneous diagnosis in large batches of pooled samples at a lower limit of detection of 334 genomic copies per sample. Diagnosis by sequencing can provide additional information, such as viral load and strain identity. The Bubbler was configured to sample nucleic acids in water droplets circulating in air, demonstrating its potential in environmental monitoring and the protective effect of adequate ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Specimen Handling , Viral Load/methods
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21723, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503978

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus with intact infectivity attached to PPE surfaces pose significant threat to the spread of COVID-19. We tested the hypothesis that an electroceutical fabric, generating weak potential difference of 0.5 V, disrupts the infectivity of coronavirus upon contact by destabilizing the electrokinetic properties of the virion. Porcine respiratory coronavirus AR310 particles (105) were placed in direct contact with the fabric for 1 or 5 min. Following one minute of contact, zeta potential of the porcine coronavirus was significantly lowered indicating destabilization of its electrokinetic properties. Size-distribution plot showed appearance of aggregation of the virus. Testing of the cytopathic effects of the virus showed eradication of infectivity as quantitatively assessed by PI-calcein and MTT cell viability tests. This work provides the rationale to consider the studied electroceutical fabric, or other materials with comparable property, as material of choice for the development of PPE in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Electrochemistry/methods , Textiles , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , Body Fluids , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Fluoresceins , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Kinetics , Nanoparticles , Propidium , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Temperature , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles , Virion , Wound Healing
12.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458477

ABSTRACT

The enlightenment of the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as a part of the innate immune system shed new insights into the pathologies of various diseases. The initial idea that NETs are a pivotal defense structure was gradually amended due to several deleterious effects in consecutive investigations. NETs formation is now considered a double-edged sword. The harmful effects are not limited to the induction of inflammation by NETs remnants but also include occlusions caused by aggregated NETs (aggNETs). The latter carries the risk of occluding tubular structures like vessels or ducts and appear to be associated with the pathologies of various diseases. In addition to life-threatening vascular clogging, other occlusions include painful stone formation in the biliary system, the kidneys, the prostate, and the appendix. AggNETs are also prone to occlude the ductal system of exocrine glands, as seen in ocular glands, salivary glands, and others. Last, but not least, they also clog the pancreatic ducts in a murine model of neutrophilia. In this regard, elucidating the mechanism of NETs-dependent occlusions is of crucial importance for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to address the putative mechanisms of NETs-associated occlusions in the pathogenesis of disease, as well as prospective treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
Embolism/immunology , Extracellular Traps/physiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Animals , Body Fluids/immunology , Body Fluids/physiology , Embolism/physiopathology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/immunology , Prospective Studies , Thrombosis/physiopathology
13.
J Hosp Infect ; 107: 105-107, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385933
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 707, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main strategy to contain the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remains to implement a comprehensive testing, tracing and quarantining strategy until vaccination of the population is adequate. Scent dogs could support current testing strategies. METHODS: Ten dogs were trained for 8 days to detect SARS-CoV-2 infections in beta-propiolactone inactivated saliva samples. The subsequent cognitive transfer performance for the recognition of non-inactivated samples were tested on three different body fluids (saliva, urine, and sweat) in a randomised, double-blind controlled study. RESULTS: Dogs were tested on a total of 5242 randomised sample presentations. Dogs detected non-inactivated saliva samples with a diagnostic sensitivity of 84% (95% CI: 62.5-94.44%) and specificity of 95% (95% CI: 93.4-96%). In a subsequent experiment to compare the scent recognition between the three non-inactivated body fluids, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95% (95% CI: 66.67-100%) and 98% (95% CI: 94.87-100%) for urine, 91% (95% CI: 71.43-100%) and 94% (95% CI: 90.91-97.78%) for sweat, 82% (95% CI: 64.29-95.24%), and 96% (95% CI: 94.95-98.9%) for saliva respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The scent cognitive transfer performance between inactivated and non-inactivated samples as well as between different sample materials indicates that global, specific SARS-CoV-2-associated volatile compounds are released across different body secretions, independently from the patient's symptoms. All tested body fluids appear to be similarly suited for reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , COVID-19 , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Odorants , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva
15.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal (NPS)/oropharyngeal swabs is the gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral load monitoring. Oral fluid (OF) is an alternate clinical sample, easy and safer to collect and could be useful for COVID-19 diagnosis, monitoring viral load and shedding. METHODS: Optimal assay conditions and analytical sensitivity were established for the commercial Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assay adapted to OF matrix. The assay was used to test 337 OF and NPS specimens collected in parallel from 164 hospitalized patients; 50 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from a subgroup of severe COVID-19 cases were also analysed. RESULTS: Using Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct on OF matrix, 100% analytical detection down to 1 TCID50/mL (corresponding to 4 × 103 copies (cp)/mL) was observed. No crossreaction with other viruses transmitted through the respiratory toute was observed. Parallel testing of 337 OF and NPS samples showed highly concordant results (κ = 0.831; 95 % CI = 0.771-0.891), and high correlation of Ct values (r = 0.921; p < 0.0001). High concordance and elevated correlation was observed also between OF and BAL. Prolonged viral RNA shedding was observed up to 100 days from symptoms onset (DSO), with 32% and 29% positivity observed in OF and NPS samples, respectively, collected between 60 and 100 DSO. CONCLUSIONS: Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct assays on OF have high sensitivity and specificity to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and provide an alternative to NPS for diagnosis and monitoring SARS-CoV-2 shedding.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Shedding/physiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling , Viral Load
16.
J Proteome Res ; 20(7): 3404-3413, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253877

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has become a major public health burden and affects many organs including lungs, kidneys, the liver, and the brain. Although the virus is readily detected and diagnosed using nasopharyngeal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), detection of its presence in body fluids is fraught with difficulties. A number of published studies have failed to detect viral RNA by RT-PCR methods in urine. Although microbial identification in clinical microbiology using mass spectrometry is undertaken after culture, here we undertook a mass spectrometry-based approach that employed an enrichment step to capture and detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein directly from urine of COVID-19 patients without any culture. We detected SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein-derived peptides from 13 out of 39 urine samples. Further, a subset of COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative urine samples validated by mass spectrometry were used for the quantitative proteomics analysis. Proteins with increased abundance in urine of SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals were enriched in the acute phase response, regulation of complement system, and immune response. Notably, a number of renal proteins such as podocin (NPHS2), an amino acid transporter (SLC36A2), and sodium/glucose cotransporter 5 (SLC5A10), which are intimately involved in normal kidney function, were decreased in the urine of COVID-19 patients. Overall, the detection of viral antigens in urine using mass spectrometry and alterations of the urinary proteome could provide insights into understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , COVID-19 , Antigens, Viral , Humans , Immunity , Mass Spectrometry , Phosphoproteins , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
17.
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6667047, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186382

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cause of an acute respiratory illness which has spread around the world. The virus infects the host by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Due to the presence of ACE2 receptors in the kidneys and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, kidneys and GI tract damage arising from the virus can be seen in patients and can cause acute conditions such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and digestive problems for the patient. One of the complications of kidneys and GI involvement in COVID-19 is fluid and electrolyte disturbances. The most common ones of these disorders are hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremia, hypervolemia, and hypovolemia, which if left untreated, cause many problems for patients and even increase mortality. Fluid and electrolyte disturbances are more common in hospitalized and intensive care patients. Children are also at greater risk for fluid and electrolyte disturbances complications. Therefore, clinicians should pay special attention to the fluid and electrolyte status of patients. Changes in fluid and electrolyte levels can be a good indicator of disease progression.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids/metabolism , COVID-19/etiology , Electrolytes/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Hypokalemia/etiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/virology
19.
Simul Healthc ; 16(2): 153-154, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155835

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY STATEMENT: In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, protocols to reduce risk of exposure to healthcare teams have been implemented. The use of an acrylic box during intubation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been adopted worldwide. A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of an acrylic box in limiting contamination. The findings indicate that healthcare workers are still vulnerable to exposure despite the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and an acrylic box. The causes of contamination were related to improper PPE donning and doffing and incomplete coverage by the acrylic box. Institutions should focus on ensuring proper donning and doffing of PPE and incorporating high-fidelity simulation training to prepare teams to resuscitate COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , High Fidelity Simulation Training/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Body Fluids , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2236-2239, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153145

ABSTRACT

We report changes in viral load over time in a 27-day-old neonate with coronavirus disease 2019 who presented with fever, cough, and vomiting. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA was detected in the nasopharynx, oropharynx, stool, saliva, plasma, and urine. The highest viral RNA copies in nasopharynx decreased over time while viral load in stool remained high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mothers , RNA, Viral/analysis , Viral Load , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/urine , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Korea , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/virology
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