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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6667047, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186382

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the cause of an acute respiratory illness which has spread around the world. The virus infects the host by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Due to the presence of ACE2 receptors in the kidneys and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, kidneys and GI tract damage arising from the virus can be seen in patients and can cause acute conditions such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and digestive problems for the patient. One of the complications of kidneys and GI involvement in COVID-19 is fluid and electrolyte disturbances. The most common ones of these disorders are hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypochloremia, hypervolemia, and hypovolemia, which if left untreated, cause many problems for patients and even increase mortality. Fluid and electrolyte disturbances are more common in hospitalized and intensive care patients. Children are also at greater risk for fluid and electrolyte disturbances complications. Therefore, clinicians should pay special attention to the fluid and electrolyte status of patients. Changes in fluid and electrolyte levels can be a good indicator of disease progression.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids/metabolism , COVID-19/etiology , Electrolytes/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Hypokalemia/etiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/virology
2.
J Am Soc Cytopathol ; 10(3): 261-269, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049818

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with "flu-like" upper respiratory tract symptoms and pneumonia. Body cavity effusions develop in a subset of patients with advanced disease. Although SARS-CoV-2 is known to be present in certain body fluids (eg, blood) of COVID patients, it remains unclear if body cavity fluids are sites of infection. Our aim was to characterize the cytologic and clinical findings in COVID-19 patients with effusions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A record search for all cases of body cavity effusion cytology in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients from March 1, 2020, to September 1, 2020, was performed. Clinical history, fluid chemical analysis, cytologic findings, and patient outcomes were recorded. All cytology slides were reviewed. In situ hybridization (ISH) targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein transcript (V-nCoV2019-S) was performed on cell block material in all cases. RESULTS: A total of 17 effusion cytology cases were identified among 15 COVID patients, including 13 pleural, 2 pericardial, and 2 peritoneal. Most (13 of 15) patients were hospitalized for COVID complications. Eight patients died during hospitalization, 7 from COVID complications. All fluids were transudative by protein criteria. Lymphocytic or histiocytic inflammation predominated in 12 of 17 cases. Five exhibited hemophagocytosis. No viral cytopathic changes or extra-medullary megakaryocytes were seen. Viral RNA was not detected in any case by ISH. CONCLUSIONS: Body cavity effusion is an ominous finding in patients with advanced COVID-19 disease. Such effusions tend to be transudative with lymphohistiocytic inflammation, and commonly exhibit hemophagocytosis, an otherwise rare finding in effusion cytologies. No direct infection of cellular elements by SARS-CoV-2 was identified by ISH.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , COVID-19 , In Situ Hybridization , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Fluids/metabolism , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Anal Chem ; 92(17): 11543-11547, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-677479

ABSTRACT

Molecular analysis of exhaled breath aerosol (EBA) with simple procedures represents a key step in clinical and point-of-care applications. Due to the crucial health role, a face mask now is a safety device that helps protect the wearer from breathing in hazardous particles such as bacteria and viruses in the air; thus exhaled breath is also blocked to congregate in the small space inside of the face mask. Therefore, direct sampling and analysis of trace constituents in EBA using a face mask can rapidly provide useful insights into human physiologic and pathological information. Herein, we introduce a simple approach to collect and analyze human EBA by combining a face mask with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. SPME fiber was inserted into a face mask to form SPME-in-mask that covered nose and mouth for in vivo sampling of EBA, and SPME fiber was then coupled with direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) to directly analyze the molecular compositions of EBA under ambient conditions. The applicability of SPME-in-mask was demonstrated by direct analysis of drugs and metabolites in oral and nasal EBA. The unique features of SPME-in-mask were also discussed. Our results showed that this method is enabled to analyze volatile and nonvolatile analytes in EBA and is expected to have a significant impact on human EBA analysis in clinical applications. We also hope this method will inspire biomarker screening of some respiratory diseases that usually required wearing of a face mask in daily life.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Body Fluids/chemistry , Body Fluids/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Organic Chemicals/analysis , Solid Phase Microextraction/methods , Biosensing Techniques , Breath Tests , Exhalation , Humans , Imidazoles/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Masks , Metabolomics , Specimen Handling/methods
4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(1): 27-31, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637281

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to an abrupt halt of many Alzheimer's disease (AD) research studies at sites spanning the world. This is especially true for studies requiring in-person contact, such as studies collecting biofluids. Since COVID-19 is likely to remain a threat for an extended period, the resumption of fluid biomarker studies requires the development and implementation of procedures that minimize the risk of in-person visits to participants, staff, and individuals handling the biofluid samples. Some issues to consider include structuring the visit workflow to minimize contacts and promote social distancing; screening and/or testing participants and staff for COVID-19; wearing masks and performing hand hygiene; and precautions for handling, storing, and analyzing biofluids. AD fluid biomarker research remains a vitally important public health priority and resuming studies requires appropriate safety procedures to protect research participants and staff.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Health Personnel/trends , Patient Safety , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Biomarkers/metabolism , Body Fluids/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Protein Cell ; 11(10): 707-722, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626150

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has occurred in China and around the world. SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with severe pneumonia rapidly develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and die of multiple organ failure. Despite advances in supportive care approaches, ARDS is still associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy may be an potential alternative strategy for treating ARDS by targeting the various pathophysiological events of ARDS. By releasing a variety of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles, MSC can exert anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-microbial, and pro-angiogenic effects, promote bacterial and alveolar fluid clearance, disrupt the pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, eventually avoiding the lung and distal organ injuries to rescue patients with ARDS. An increasing number of experimental animal studies and early clinical studies verify the safety and efficacy of MSC therapy in ARDS. Since low cell engraftment and survival in lung limit MSC therapeutic potentials, several strategies have been developed to enhance their engraftment in the lung and their intrinsic, therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and optimization of MSC therapy in ARDS and highlighted the potentials and possible barriers of MSC therapy for COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adoptive Transfer , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Body Fluids/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coinfection/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Genetic Therapy/methods , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
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