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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099550

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to explore how the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, during which contact communication was severely restricted, changed psychological health indicators, such as subjective assessment of health and depression, impulsivity, stress and emotional intelligence (EI) and how that depended on age, gender, physical activity (PA), sports specificity and body mass index (BMI).We surveyed 6369 before and 2392 people during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were aged 18-74 years. Participants completed the Danish Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ), the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSREIT), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 11 (BIS-11), subjective depression and health self-assessments. One-way and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed to assess the effect of independent variables on the dependent variables of MVPA (METs). Statistical analysis showed that restrictions during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic did not alter moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), except for a significant decrease in MVPA in women aged 18-25 years, or body mass index in women and men of different ages. An increase in depression and impulsivity was observed, especially an increase in unplanned or spontaneous activity. The restrictions during the first wave increased stress in women of all ages and, rather unexpectedly, improved health self-assessment in men.The study showed that the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic affected people's subjective assessment of health, depression, stress and impulsivity in two ways: it "weakened the weak ones" and "strengthened the strong ones".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Emotions , Impulsive Behavior , Body Mass Index
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099534

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to assess the changes in somatic and motor characteristics in adolescents studying physiotherapy from 2011-2020. It was hypothesized that there was no secular trend of morphological features, its maintenance in endurance, increased sexual dimorphism and the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the observed characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young people studying at the Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz were examined. Basic somatic features, endurance and coordination were measured. WHR, BMI and dimorphism indices were calculated based on the results from 538 female and 217 male examined students. RESULTS: There was a decrease in body height with an increase in body weight in relation to the values recorded in the years 2001-2010 (BMI: women D = 0.49, Z = 2.9192; men D = 0.93, Z = 3.5746; WHR women D = 0.01, Z = 2.88491; men D = 0.02, Z = 3.5746), an increase in sexual dimorphism and a significant increase in the waist circumference of women (R2 = 0.008, p (F) = 0.0353) year by year by 0.3099 cm (p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results and the comparisons made allow us to assume that some people studying physiotherapy may have problems with meeting the standards that require physical effort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Male , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Waist Circumference , Students , Physical Therapy Modalities
3.
Technol Health Care ; 30(6): 1287-1298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic broke out in 2019 and rapidly spread across the globe. Most of the severe and dead cases are middle-aged and elderly patients with chronic systemic diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between fasting blood glucose (FPG) and body mass index (BMI) levels in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) under different conditions. METHODS: Experimental-related information (age, gender, BMI, and FPG on the second day of admission) from 86 COVID-19 cases (47 males and 39 females) with an average age of (39 ± 17) years was collected in April and November 2020. These cases were divided into three groups according to the most severe classification of each case determined by the clinical early warning indicators of severe-critically illness, the degree of progression, and the treatment plan shown in the diagnosis and treatment plan of COVID-19 pneumonia. Statistical models were used to analyze the differences in the levels of FPG and BMI, age, and gender among the three groups. RESULTS: 1. Experimental group: 21 patients with asymptomatic or and mild symptoms (group A), 45 patients with common non-progression (group B), and 20 patients with common progression and severe symptoms (group C). 2. The age differences among the three groups were statistically significant and elderly patients had a higher risk of severe disease (t= 4.1404, 3.3933, 9.2123, P= 0.0001, 0.0012, 0.0000). There was a higher proportion of females than males in the normal progression and severe disease cases (χ2= 5.512, P= 0.019). 3. The level of FPG was significantly higher in group C than in group A (t= 3.1655, P= 0.0030) and B (t= 2.0212, P= 0.0475). The number of diabetes or IFG in group C was significantly higher than in group A (χ2= 5.979, P= 0.014) and group B (χ2= 6.088, P= 0.014). 4. BMI was significantly higher in group C than in groups A (t= 3.8839, P= 0.0004) and B (t= 3.8188, P= 0.0003). The number of overweight or obese patients in group C was significantly higher than in groups A (χ2= 8.838, P= 0.003) and B (χ2= 10.794, P= 0.001). 5. Patients' age, gender, and FPG were independent risk factors for COVID-19 disease progression (ß= 0.380, 0.191, 0.186; P= 0.000, 0.034, 0.045). CONCLUSION: The levels of FPG and BMI were significantly increased in the population with common progressive and severe COVID-19. FPG and age are independent risk factors for the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Blood Glucose , Retrospective Studies , Fasting , Pandemics
4.
Vaccine ; 40(48): 6900-6907, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The associations of doses of vaccine received with symptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 and negative conversion rate of viral RNA by BMI, diabetes, and age are unclear. METHODS: Included were adult cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized at a makeshift hospital in Shanghai (N = 38,592). Each case received a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test every day until discharge. Symptomatic cases had ≥1 pre-specified symptoms. Negative conversion time (NCT) was the duration between the specimen collection date associated with the first positive RT-PCR test and the first test date of the two consecutive negative tests at least 24 h apart. BMI-, diabetes- and age-stratified multivariable logistic and Poisson regressions were applied. FINDINGS: Coexistence of overweight/obesity and diabetes was associated with a higher risk of symptomatic infection and a longer NCT compared with coexistence of normal weight and without diabetes, but this association was primarily attributed to underlying comorbidities. Compared with absence of vaccination, booster vaccination, but not full vaccination, was consistently associated with a 42 %-56 % lower odds of symptomatic infection and ∼1.6-1.8 days of shorter NCT across different strata separately for weight and diabetes. Age-stratified analyses found that the effectiveness of booster vaccination did not attenuate with age, except for preventing symptomatic infection among adults with diabetes. INTERPRETATION: BMI and diabetes co-determined their associations with symptomatic infection and NCT. Booster vaccination but not full vaccination was associated a lower risk of symptomatic infection, a shorter NCT or both regardless of BMI, diabetes status and age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , RNA, Viral/genetics , Body Mass Index , China , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Vaccination
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082076

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may constitute an "obesogenic lifestyle" that results in exacerbating childhood obesity. However, studies investigating regional sociodemographic factors including different age groups or sexes in children with obesity are lacking. We aimed to clarify the high obesity prevalence populations of preschool children to provide a regional basis for children's health policy during the COVID-19 school closures. From May to September 2019, a total of 29,518 preschool children were included in a large sample, multicenter cross-sectional study to explore physical status in Fujian Province by stratified cluster random sampling. In October 2019 and October 2020, we also conducted a cross-sectional study exploring physical development including changes in height, weight, and BMI of 1688 preschool children in Fuzhou before and after the COVID-19 school closures. Student' s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, or chi-square test was used to assess differences in physical development and overweight and obesity rates among preschool children before and after school closures. For regional factors, the weight of urban preschool children of all ages became higher after the outbreak (p (age 3-4) = 0.009; p (age 4-5) < 0.001; p (age 5-6) = 0.002). For sex factors, overweight and obesity in boys had a greater prevalence than in girls before and after the outbreak. In four age groups, overweight and obesity rates in the 5-year-old group (15.5% and 9.9%) were higher than before (11.4% and 6.0%). The weight and BMI of 4- to 5-year-old children also increased faster than before (p < 0.001). The COVID-19 pandemic has promoted the epidemic of childhood obesity. Living in urban/coastal (economically developed) areas, boys, and aged 4-6 years old may be a susceptible population to obesity development after the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Male , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Schools , Prevalence , Body Mass Index
6.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071661

ABSTRACT

Overweight and obesity are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and represent risk factors for various diseases, including COVID-19. However, most published studies on COVID-19 defined obesity by the body mass index (BMI), which does not encounter adipose tissue distribution, thus neglecting immunometabolic high-risk patterns. Therefore, we comprehensively analyzed baseline anthropometry (BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WtHR), visceral (VAT), epicardial (EAT), subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue masses and liver fat, inflammation markers (CRP, ferritin, interleukin-6), and immunonutritional scores (CRP-to-albumin ratio (CAR), modified Glasgow prognostic score, neutrophile-to-lymphocyte ratio, prognostic nutritional index)) in 58 consecutive COVID-19 patients of the early pandemic phase with regard to the necessity of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Here, metabolically high-risk adipose tissues represented by increased VAT, liver fat, and WtHR strongly correlated with higher levels of inflammation, pathologic immunonutritional scores, and the need for IMV. In contrast, the prognostic value of BMI was inferior and absent with regard to SAT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified an optimized IMV risk prediction model employing liver fat, WtHR, and CAR. In summary, we suggest an immunometabolically risk-adjusted model to predict COVID-19-induced respiratory failure better than BMI-based stratification, which warrants prospective validation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Body Mass Index , Interleukin-6 , Obesity/complications , Obesity/pathology , Inflammation/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Albumins , Ferritins , Risk Assessment , Intra-Abdominal Fat/pathology , Risk Factors
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071446

ABSTRACT

Older adults show lower physical activity. These changes altogether promote the development of overweight, obesity, and other chronic diseases. These factors substantially influence the quality of life and self-esteem of older adults. This phenomenon is especially visible after the lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of a 12-week reductive diet and a 12-week physical activity plan for older adults on the global self-esteem of lifestyle in 60-70-year-old women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our participants were 600 women with increased body mass (BMI > 25 kg/m2) aged 60-70 years. After the initial evaluation, the participants were randomly divided into three groups: CG-control group (n =200); DI-dietary group (n =200) that committed to a 12-week reductive diet; PA-physical activity group (n =200) that committed to a 12-week physical activity plan. The global self-esteem score (using the SES Rosenberg scale) and the anthropometric measurements were collected before and after the 12-week study. In the statistical analysis of data, the significance level was assumed to be 0.05. RESULTS: The global self-esteem score for all groups before the study started was 30-31 points, which corresponded to average self-esteem. After a 12-week dietary or physical activity intervention, the score in the DI group was 33, which corresponded with high self-esteem. In the CG group, the self-esteem score remained unchanged (30 points). The average body mass loss was 0.5 kg/m2 for CG, 1.92 kg/m2 for DI, and 1.10 kg/m2 for the PA group. The average waist-hip ratio (WHR) change for CG, DI, and PA was 1 cm, 1 cm, and 2 cm, respectively. A decrease in body mass and body composition indicators (BMI and WHR) corresponded to participants' global self-esteem increase (p <0.05); the greater the decrease noted for BMI and WHR, the greater the global self-esteem score that was achieved. In the CG group, a negative correlation between global self-esteem and BMI value (p <0.05) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: A 12-week reductive diet and a 12-week regular physical activity plan lowered participants' body mass. Adipose tissue content was reflected by decreased BMI and WHR indicators of participants from the DI and PA groups and was accompanied by higher global self-esteem scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Humans , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , Body Mass Index , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Overweight/epidemiology , Exercise , Body Composition , Diet, Reducing
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071401

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a prevalent health issue. Evidence suggests that the availability of urban nature may reduce the risks of obesity. However, several knowledge gaps remain. This study explores the relationships between the dose (distance, duration and frequency) of urban nature and demographic factors towards obesity risks among people in Thailand. A total of 111 participants in three urban and peri-urban nature locations answered a survey regarding their distance from green spaces, frequency of visits, and duration of their typical stay, as well as their socio-demographics, and waist-hip ratio (WHR). The results suggested that at least 1-2 h per typical visit to nature predicted low-risk WHR in women. Male participants are more likely to have a high-risk WHR. Increasing age predicted low-risk WHR. Spending more time in green spaces predicted lower odds of high-risk WHR, while distance did not predict the odds. This research is one of the first to study the relationship between time spent in nature and obesity, and one of the first nature and health studies conducted in Thailand. Given that Thailand is one of the countries most affected by obesity in Southeast Asia, this study is relevant and essential. Future research should explore the quality factors of the park with longer duration of stay.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk , Risk Factors , Thailand/epidemiology , Waist-Hip Ratio
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066349

ABSTRACT

The rate of obesity in adolescents has increased due to social distancing measures and school closures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. These issues have caused adolescents to change their lifestyles and eating habits. Furthermore, the growth in inactive behavior and computer screen or watching TV time, as well as the reduction in physical activity, could similarly be related with obesity. To overcome this problem, we recently developed an artificial intelligence (AI)-based gesture recognition game application called Super Kids Adventure (SUKIA, Funrehab, Daejeon, Korea), which provides inexpensive and motivational game applications. This research is designed to assess the effects of SUKIA and Nintendo Switch (NINS) on calorie consumption, VO2 max, 6-minute walking test (6MWT) as well as body mass index (BMI), and the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE) in adolescents with obesity. A convenience sample of 24 adolescents with obesity were randomized into either the NINS or SUKIA groups 5 days/week for 3 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t-tests were presented with significant level at p < 0.05, and the analysis indicated that SUKIA showed superior effects on calorie consumption, VO2 max, and RPE compared to NINS. Our results provide evidence that SUKIA can more effectively improve cardiopulmonary function and calorie consumption than NINS in adolescents with obesity during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Artificial Intelligence , Body Mass Index , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065962

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify changes in the prevalence of childhood (children under five years of age) overweight and obesity in Peru as a whole and at the departmental level, before and during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We performed a secondary data analysis of two Demographic and Family Health Surveys (2019 and 2021) in Peru. The outcome was childhood overweight and obesity, defined as a weight-for-height score greater than 2 standard deviations. Poisson log generalized linear regression models adjusted for sex and/or age in months of the child were fitted to obtain the prevalence ratios of the changes in childhood overweight and obesity from 2019 to 2021. The analysis included 41,533 (2019: 20,414; 2021: 21,119) participants. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was 6.4% in 2019 and 7.8% in 2021. Female children, aged 2, 3 and 4 years, and mothers who self-identified as non-native, had secondary and higher education, belonged to the middle and richer wealth quintile and resided in an urban area, in a village, in a small city and in the coastal region showed the largest increases in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in 2021 compared to 2019. The departments of Pasco, Apurímac, Junín, Cusco, Lambayeque and La Libertad presented the largest increases in the prevalence of these nutritional disorders. During the pandemic, an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was observed, with demographic and socioeconomic factors accounting for the largest increases in the prevalence rates. A restructuring of overweight and obesity control strategies is required to curb this steady increase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
Semergen ; 48(8): 101840, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061862

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is considered a risk factor in severe cases of COVID-19, which has been analysed using body mass index (BMI), an estimator that does not correlate adequately with body fat (BF) percentage. The aim of this study was to analyse the population attributable fraction to BF in severe forms of COVID-19 based on BMI and CUN-BAE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multicentre observational prevalence study. Sociodemographic information, personal history, BMI and CUN-BAE were collected in SARS-CoV-2 positive cases from the provinces of León and La Rioja. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age and personal history, as well as the population attributable fraction to BF. RESULTS: Seven hundred eighty-five patients participated, 123 (15.7%) were severe. Age, obesity (both by BMI and CUN-BAE) and personal history were detected as risk factors. 51.6% of severe cases could be attributed to excess BMI and 61.4% to excess BF estimated according to CUN-BAE, with a higher underestimation of risk in women. CONCLUSIONS: Excess BF is a risk factor for severe forms of COVID-19 together with advanced age and the presence of cardiovascular, chronic respiratory or oncohematological diseases. BMI underestimates the risk especially in women, being CUN-BAE the predictor selected for its better estimation of the percentage of BF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors
12.
Brain Behav ; 12(11): e2772, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that obesity is associated with decreased executive function. Impaired executive functions lead to poor self-regulation, which in turn may result in persistence of unhealthy behaviors, including eating behaviors, throughout life. Increasing self-regulation in childhood and adolescence has positive effects on creating healthy behaviors such as reducing unnecessary eating and changing unhealthy eating habits. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate an intervention package based on cognitive self-regulation training in changing eating behaviors and reducing obesity in children and adolescents. METHODS: Fifty-six students with obesity aged 12-16 years participated in the study in three groups (cognitive self-regulation training [CSRT], diet, and control). The CSRT group received twenty 30-min online training sessions with a diet over 10 weeks. The diet group received only a diet with no other intervention, and the control group did not receive any intervention. RESULTS: The results of our 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVA showed that the CSRT group had a mean BMI decrease of 2.21 (kg/m2 ) after ten weeks, and 3.24 (kg/m2 ) at the follow-up time. The diet group had a BMI decrease of 0.49 (kg/m2 ) at the ten weeks. In addition, the results showed that the CSRT had a significant reduction in eating behaviors such as external eating and emotional eating. However, the other two groups showed no changes in eating behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that online cognitive self-regulation training has been effective in weight loss and eating behaviors. This study shows promising evidence for the efficacy of the online CSRT-training as a weight stabilization intervention in children with obesity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/therapy , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Weight Loss/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Diet , Body Mass Index
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055248

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to food habit changes, including some negative ones that may increase the risk of overweight and obesity. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between adolescents' food habits, body mass change, as well as physical activity level in a population-based sample within the Diet and Activity of Youth during COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study. The DAY-19 Study was conducted in a cohort of 1333 students (aged 10-16 years) recruited in schools after stratified random quota sampling of primary schools (sampling counties within voivodeships and schools within counties) in June 2020. The food habits were assessed for the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and the period before the COVID-19 pandemic while using Adolescent Food Habits Checklist (AFHC). The body mass changes were assessed based on body weight and height for the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and the period before the COVID-19 pandemic while using Polish growth reference values. The physical activity changes were assessed based on the subjective assessment of adolescents. It was stated that for female adolescents declaring body mass gain during the COVID-19 pandemic the highest AFHC purchase scores (healthy purchase habits) (p < 0.0001) were accompanied by the lowest AFHC consumption score (unhealthy consumption habits) (p < 0.0001), as well as for female adolescents declaring physical activity decrease during the COVID-19 pandemic the highest AFHC purchase scores (healthy purchase habits) were observed (p = 0.0333). It was stated that for male adolescents declaring physical activity increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, the highest AFHC consumption scores (healthy consumption habits) were observed (p = 0.0003). In the case of a majority of participants, the general food habits were unchanged, which was observed mainly for food habits associated with food preparation. More food habits changes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in body mass changes were observed in females than in male adolescents. Body mass gain during the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents may have resulted from unhealthy consumption habits, accompanied by decreased physical activity, in spite of the fact that this sub-group presented healthy purchase habits, which was observed especially for female adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Male , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics
14.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274950, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054351

ABSTRACT

The human milk microbiome is thought to partly contribute to the assembly of the infant gut microbiome, a microbial community with important implications for infant health and development. While obesity has well-established links with the adult gut microbiome, less is known about how it affects the human milk microbiome. In this scoping review, we synthesize the current literature on the microbial composition of human milk by maternal weight status, defined broadly as BMI (prepregnancy and postpartum) and gestational weight gain (GWG). This study followed the a priori protocol published in Prospero (registration #: CRD42020165633). We searched the following databases for studies reporting maternal weight status and a characterization of milk microbiota through culture-dependent and culture-independent methods: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scopus. After screening 6,365 studies, we found 20 longitudinal and cross-sectional studies investigating associations between maternal weight status and the composition of the milk microbiome. While some studies reported no associations, many others reported that women with a pre-pregnancy or postpartum BMI characterized as overweight or obese, or with excessive GWG, had higher abundances of the genus Staphylococcus, lower Bifidobacterium abundance, and lower alpha diversity (within-sample diversity). This review suggests that maternal weight status is minorly associated with the composition of the milk microbiome in various ways. We offer potential explanations for these findings, as well as suggestions for future research.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gestational Weight Gain , Adult , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human , Obesity/microbiology , Pregnancy
15.
J Int Med Res ; 50(9): 3000605221127520, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evidence indicates that people with a high body mass index (BMI) tend to develop more severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to determine the association between the duration of COVID-19 symptoms and variables such as BMI, age, presence of comorbidities, and smoking in non-hospitalized patients. METHODS: In this observational cross-sectional analytical study, we analyzed the data of patients with COVID-19 but without severe manifestations. We conducted descriptive statistics, non-parametric tests, and multivariate quasi-Poisson regression in the analysis. The quasi-Poisson regression model was configured with the duration of COVID-19 symptoms as the response variable, and BMI and the presence of comorbidities as the explanatory variables. RESULTS: Among 302 non-hospitalized patients, we found a significant difference in COVID-19 symptom duration between the overweight group and the group with normal weight. Multivariate quasi-Poisson regression analysis showed that BMI and the presence of comorbidities were associated with the duration of COVID-19 symptoms. On the contrary, sex, age, and smoking status were not related to COVID-19 symptom duration. CONCLUSIONS: BMI and comorbidities were associated with the duration of COVID-19 symptoms in non-hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 377-384, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although obesity have been generally shown to be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in COVID-19 infection, some studies demonstrate a paradoxical protective effect ("obesity paradox"). This study examines the influence of obesity categories on clinical outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients admitted to an intensive care unit with acute hypoxic respiratory failure requiring either non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This is a single centre, retrospective study of consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit between 03/2020 to 03/2021. Patients were grouped according to the NICE Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Admission variables including age, sex, comorbidities, and ICU severity indices (APACHE-II, SOFA and PaO2/FiO2) were collected. Data were compared between BMI groups for outcomes such as need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), renal replacement therapy (RRT) and 28-day and overall hospital mortality. RESULTS: 340 patients were identified and of those 333 patients had their BMI documented. Just over half of patients (53%) had obesity. Those with extreme obesity (obesity groups II and III) were younger with fewer comorbidities, but were more hypoxaemic at presentation, than the healthy BMI group. Although non-significant, obesity groups II and III paradoxically showed a lower in-hospital mortality than the healthy weight group. However, adjusted (age, sex, APACHE-II and CCI) competing risk regression analysis showed three-times higher mortality in obese category I (sub-distribution hazard ratio = 3.32 (95% CI 1.30-8.46), p = 0.01) and a trend to higher mortality across all obesity groups compared to the healthy weight group. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, those with obesity were at higher risk of mortality after adjustment for confounders. We did not identify an "obesity paradox" in this cohort. The obesity paradox may be explained by confounding factors such as younger age, fewer comorbidities, and less severe organ failures. The impact of obesity on indicators of morbidity including likelihood of requirement for organ support measures was not conclusively demonstrated and requires further scrutiny.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Obesity/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
17.
J Behav Med ; 45(5): 760-770, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048387

ABSTRACT

Medical avoidance is common among U.S. adults, and may be emphasized among members of marginalized communities due to discrimination concerns. In the current study, we investigated whether this disparity in avoidance was maintained or exacerbated during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed the likelihood of avoiding medical care due to general-, discrimination-, and COVID-19-related concerns in an online sample (N = 471). As hypothesized, marginalized groups (i.e., non-White race, Latinx/e ethnicity, non-heterosexual sexual orientation, high BMI) endorsed more general- and discrimination-related medical avoidance than majoritized groups. However, marginalized groups were equally likely to seek COVID-19 treatment as majoritized groups. Implications for reducing medical avoidance among marginalized groups are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Social Marginalization , Vulnerable Populations , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Behavior , Treatment Refusal/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data
18.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043883

ABSTRACT

Higher body mass index (BMI) has been associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate associations among BMI, underlying health conditions and hospital admission as well as the effects of COVID-19 vaccines in adults aged 50 years and older in Europe using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) which was collected from June to August 2021, shortly after the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic occurred in Europe. Survey data totalling 1936 individuals were used for statistical analyses to calculate the likelihood of hospitalization due to COVID-19 infection in relation to BMI, sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and COVID vaccination status. Approximately 16% of individuals testing positive for COVID-19 were hospitalized for COVID-19, and over 75% of these hospitalized individuals were either overweight or obese. The likelihood of hospitalization for individuals with obesity was approximately 1.5 times (CI [1.05-2.05]) higher than those with a healthy weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) after adjusting for BMI, sex and age. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, vaccination and comorbidities, the likelihood of hospitalization for individuals with obesity was 1.34 times higher than those with a healthy weight (CI [0.94-1.90]). Vaccine uptake was lowest in individuals with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) in all age groups. Individuals who had not received a vaccine were 1.8 times more likely to be hospitalized (CI [1.34-2.30]). Across European regions, obesity is associated with higher odds of hospitalization, and vaccination may be effective to reduce these odds for older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Europe/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043709

ABSTRACT

Apart from influencing the health of the worldwide population, the COVID-19 pandemic changed the day-to-day life of all, including children. A sedentary lifestyle along with the transformation of eating and sleep habits took place in the child population. These changes created a highly obesogenic environment. Our aim was to evaluate the current weight in the child population and identify the real effects of the pandemic. Height and weight data were collected by pediatricians from the pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 periods from 3517 children (1759 boys and 1758 girls) aged 4.71 to 17.33 years. We found a significant rise in the z-score BMI between pediatric visits in the years 2019 and 2021 in both sexes aged 7, 9, 11, and 13 years. Especially alarming were the percentages of (severely) obese boys at the ages of 9 and 11 years, which exceed even the percentages of overweight boys. With the use of statistical modeling, we registered the most dramatic increment at around 12 years of age in both sexes. Based on our research in the Czech Republic, we can confirm the predictions that were given at the beginning of the pandemic that COVID-19-related restrictions worsened the already present problem of obesity and excess weight in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 712, 2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity in pregnant women is increasing worldwide, affecting the health of both mother and baby. Obesity may be associated with inadequate health literacy, a central competence when navigating antenatal health information and services. This study explores women's health literacy by examining their knowledge, motivation and skills to access, understand and evaluate health information and the related behaviour among a sample of pregnant women with a prepregnant body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2. METHODS: An inductive, qualitative study using an interpretive description methodology. Data was collected through ten semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a prepregnancy BMI > 25 kg/m2 attending antenatal care at the midwifery clinic at Aarhus University Hospital in the Central Denmark Region. RESULTS: Pregnant women with obesity understand general health information provided by health professionals, but translating this knowledge into specific healthy behaviours presents a challenge. Although difficulties navigating booking systems and available digital services contribute to this problem, apps can help facilitate navigation. However, successful navigation may depend on adequate e-health literacy. Conflicting information from health professionals, social media and families also present a challenge for pregnant women, requiring a broad skillset for critical evaluation and resolution. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate health literacy is necessary for pregnant women receiving antenatal care to (i) translate general health information into personalised healthy behaviour, (ii) access and navigate complex and digitalised systems, and (iii) critically evaluate conflicting information. Person-centred differentiation in the organisation of antenatal care may benefit vulnerable pregnant women with inadequate health literacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered cf. General Data Protection Regulation, Aarhus University Journal number 2016-051-000001, serial number 1934.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Pregnant Women , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Infant , Obesity/complications , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research
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