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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2212996, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849966

ABSTRACT

Importance: The factors associated with long-term serum levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after COVID-19 vaccination in healthy individuals have rarely been investigated. Objective: To investigate factors associated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included health care workers at Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital (Daegu, Korea) with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection who received 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech; first dose, March 17-20, 2021; second dose, April 7-10, 2021). Serum samples were collected at 2, 4, and 6 months after the second injection. Interventions: SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits up to 6 months after the receipt of 2 doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The main outcome was factors associated with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels at 6 months. Results: All 50 participants (mean [SD] age, 34.7 [9.4] years; 10 [20.0%] male; mean [SD] body mass index, 21.8 [5.4]) acquired anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and maintained positive antibody (cutoff ≥30%) up to 6 months. The mean serum antibody level decreased with time (91.9%, 89.3%, and 81.5% at 2, 4, and 6 months, respectively). Serum antibody levels at 6 months were correlated with antibody levels at 2 months (R = 0.944; P < .001). The anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody level was inversely correlated with weight, body mass index, body fat amount, and body weight to height ratio in Spearman correlation analysis. A 1-SD increase in body weight, weight to height ratio, and body mass index was associated with a 4%- to 5%-decrease in anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in multiple linear regression analysis for women. In multivariate analysis for categorized variables, lower serum level of antibody (ie, <81.5%) was associated with weight (weight ≥55 kg: odds ratio, 9.01; 95% CI, 1.44-56.40). The probabilities of less than 70% and less than 80% antibody at 6 months were 0% and 11% in participants weighing less than 55 kg, respectively, but 16% and 42% in participants weighing 55 kg or greater. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the inverse correlation of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels with weight was sustained up to 6 months after vaccination. A booster shot of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination may be given later than 6 months after the second dose in young and middle-aged healthy persons with low body weight.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Body Weight , COVID-19/prevention & control , Demography , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
J Obes ; 2022: 7652408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840663

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The primary objective of the present investigation was to identify 10-year weight gain patterns in 13,802 US adults and also to determine the extent that differences in 10-year weight gains were associated with the key demographic variables: age, sex, and race. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional and included the years 2011-2018. Data for 2019-2020 were not available because of COVID. A multistage random sampling strategy was employed. Specifically, individual sample weights and randomly selected clusters and strata were used with each statistical model, allowing the results to be generalized to the US adult population. Results: Mean (±SE) 10-year weight gain was 4.2 ± 0.2 kg or 6.6 ± 0.2% of initial body weight. A total of 51% of the participants gained 5% or more body weight, 36% gained 10% or more, and 16% gained 20% or more across the 10-years. Age was linearly and inversely associated with 10-year weight gain, expressed in kg (F = 166.4, P < 0.0001) or percent weight gain (F = 246.9, P < 0.0001), after adjusting for sex and race. For each 1-year increase in age, 10-year weight gain decreased by 0.20 ± 0.02 kg and 0.28 ± 0.02 percent. After adjusting for age and race, 10-year weight gain (kg) was significantly greater (F = 73.6, P < 0.0001) in women (5.4 ± 0.3) than in men (2.6 ± 0.2). Weight gain also differed across races, kg (F = 27.7, P < 0.0001) and % (F = 28.5, P < 0.0001). Non-Hispanic Blacks gained more weight and NH Asians gained less weight than the other races. Conclusion: Without question, 10-year weight gain is a serious problem within the US adult population. Younger adults, women, and Non-Hispanic Blacks, particularly Black women, seem to experience the highest levels of 10-year weight gain. Consequently, obesity and weight gain prevention programs focusing on these at-risk individuals should be a public health priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Body Weight , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Weight Gain
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013334, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Debates on effective and safe diets for managing obesity in adults are ongoing. Low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets (also known as 'low-carb diets') continue to be widely promoted, marketed and commercialised as being more effective for weight loss, and healthier, than 'balanced'-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets to weight-reducing diets with balanced ranges of carbohydrates, in relation to changes in weight and cardiovascular risk, in overweight and obese adults without and with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science Core Collection (Clarivate Analytics), ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) up to 25 June 2021, and screened reference lists of included trials and relevant systematic reviews. Language or publication restrictions were not applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults (18 years+) who were overweight or living with obesity, without or with T2DM, and without or with cardiovascular conditions or risk factors. Trials had to compare low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets to balanced-carbohydrate (45% to 65% of total energy (TE)) weight-reducing diets, have a weight-reducing phase of 2 weeks or longer and be explicitly implemented for the primary purpose of reducing weight, with or without advice to restrict energy intake.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts and full-text articles to determine eligibility; and independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias using RoB 2 and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We stratified analyses by participants without and with T2DM, and by diets with weight-reducing phases only and those with weight-reducing phases followed by weight-maintenance phases. Primary outcomes were change in body weight (kg) and the number of participants per group with weight loss of at least 5%, assessed at short- (three months to < 12 months) and long-term (≥ 12 months) follow-up. MAIN RESULTS: We included 61 parallel-arm RCTs that randomised 6925 participants to either low-carbohydrate or balanced-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets. All trials were conducted in high-income countries except for one in China. Most participants (n = 5118 randomised) did not have T2DM. Mean baseline weight across trials was 95 kg (range 66 to 132 kg). Participants with T2DM were older (mean 57 years, range 50 to 65) than those without T2DM (mean 45 years, range 22 to 62). Most trials included men and women (42/61; 3/19 men only; 16/19 women only), and people without baseline cardiovascular conditions, risk factors or events (36/61). Mean baseline diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol across trials were within normal ranges. The longest weight-reducing phase of diets was two years in participants without and with T2DM. Evidence from studies with weight-reducing phases followed by weight-maintenance phases was limited. Most trials investigated low-carbohydrate diets (> 50 g to 150 g per day or < 45% of TE; n = 42), followed by very low (≤ 50 g per day or < 10% of TE; n = 14), and then incremental increases from very low to low (n = 5). The most common diets compared were low-carbohydrate, balanced-fat (20 to 35% of TE) and high-protein (> 20% of TE) treatment diets versus control diets balanced for the three macronutrients (24/61). In most trials (45/61) the energy prescription or approach used to restrict energy intake was similar in both groups. We assessed the overall risk of bias of outcomes across trials as predominantly high, mostly from bias due to missing outcome data. Using GRADE, we assessed the certainty of evidence as moderate to very low across outcomes.  Participants without and with T2DM lost weight when following weight-reducing phases of both diets at the short (range: 12.2 to 0.33 kg) and long term (range: 13.1 to 1.7 kg).  In overweight and obese participants without T2DM: low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets compared to balanced-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets (weight-reducing phases only) probably result in little to no difference in change in body weight over three to 8.5 months (mean difference (MD) -1.07 kg, (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.55 to -0.59, I2 = 51%, 3286 participants, 37 RCTs, moderate-certainty evidence) and over one to two years (MD -0.93 kg, 95% CI -1.81 to -0.04, I2 = 40%, 1805 participants, 14 RCTs, moderate-certainty evidence); as well as change in DBP and LDL cholesterol over one to two years. The evidence is very uncertain about whether there is a difference in the number of participants per group with weight loss of at least 5% at one year (risk ratio (RR) 1.11, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.31, I2 = 17%, 137 participants, 2 RCTs, very low-certainty evidence).  In overweight and obese participants with T2DM: low-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets compared to balanced-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets (weight-reducing phases only) probably result in little to no difference in change in body weight over three to six months (MD -1.26 kg, 95% CI -2.44 to -0.09, I2 = 47%, 1114 participants, 14 RCTs, moderate-certainty evidence) and over one to two years (MD -0.33 kg, 95% CI -2.13 to 1.46, I2 = 10%, 813 participants, 7 RCTs, moderate-certainty evidence); as well in change in DBP, HbA1c and LDL cholesterol over 1 to 2 years. The evidence is very uncertain about whether there is a difference in the number of participants per group with weight loss of at least 5% at one to two years (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.20, I2 = 0%, 106 participants, 2 RCTs, very low-certainty evidence).  Evidence on participant-reported adverse effects was limited, and we could not draw any conclusions about these.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is probably little to no difference in weight reduction and changes in cardiovascular risk factors up to two years' follow-up, when overweight and obese participants without and with T2DM are randomised to either low-carbohydrate or balanced-carbohydrate weight-reducing diets.


Subject(s)
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Energy Intake , Adult , Body Weight , Carbohydrates , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Male
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 01, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1818706

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study describes body weight changes among participants of the NutriNet Brasil cohort (n = 14,259) during the covid-19 pandemic. We analyzed data reported before the pandemic onset (01/26/2020 to 03/18/2020) and about six months after (09/14/2020 to 10/19/2020). Our results show that 19.7% of the participants gained ≥ 2 kg. Weight gain was directly associated with male gender, lower education, and previous presence of overweight, and inversely associated with age. In turn, 15.2% lost ≥ 2kg, being directly associated with male gender and previous presence of overweight and inversely associated with age.


RESUMO Este estudo descreve modificações no peso corporal de participantes da coorte NutriNet Brasil (n = 14.259) ocorridas durante a pandemia de covid-19. Foram analisados dados informados em período anterior ao início da pandemia (26/01/2020 a 18/03/2020) e cerca de 6 meses após (14/09/2020 a 19/10/2020). O ganho de peso ≥ 2 kg alcançou 19,7% dos participantes, mostrando-se diretamente associado ao sexo masculino, à menor escolaridade e à presença prévia de excesso de peso, sendo inversamente associado à idade. A perda de peso ≥ 2kg alcançou 15,2% dos participantes, mostrando-se diretamente associada ao sexo masculino e à presença prévia de excesso de peso, sendo inversamente associada à idade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Body Weight , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Weight Gain , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Overweight
5.
Immunohorizons ; 6(4): 275-282, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818325

ABSTRACT

Putative subcomponent vaccines of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein and ARNAX (TLR3-specific adjuvant for priming dendritic cells) were examined and compared with spike protein + Alum in a mouse BALB/c model. Survival, body weight, virus-neutralizing Ab titer in the blood, and viral titer in the lung were evaluated for prognosis markers. The infiltration degrees of eosinophils in the lung were histopathologically monitored at 10 d postinfection. The results were: (1) adjuvant was essential in vaccines to achieve a complete recovery from infection, (2) ARNAX displayed optimal body weight recovery compared with Alum, (3) ARNAX was optimal for the amelioration of eosinophilic pneumonia, and (4) the eosinophil infiltration score was not associated with the neutralizing Ab titer in the blood or viral titer in the lung. Although the pathological link between the TLR3 vaccine and lung eosinophil infiltration remains unclear, severe acute respiratory syndrome-mediated eosinophilic pneumonia can be blocked by the prior induction of dendritic cell priming by ARNAX.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Eosinophilia , SARS Virus , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Body Weight , Dendritic Cells , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Pulmonary Eosinophilia/prevention & control , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 138, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate whether different methods of providing eubiotic feed additives to neonatal calves, during the preweaning period, can improve the calves' health, performance, ruminal fermentation, and metabolic status. Forty-four (3-day-old) Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (22 female and 22 male) were divided into four treatment groups for the duration of the 8-week trial. The eubiotic feed additive consisted of a combination of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. (multiple-strains at a dose of 250 mg/calf/day) and phytobiotics containing rosmarinic acid, as the main bioactive compound (at a dose of 50 mg/calf/day). The groups were named: CON (control, without eubiotic in either the milk replacer or the starter feed), MR (eubiotic in the milk replacer), SF (eubiotic in the starter feed), MRS (eubiotic in both the milk replacer and the starter feed). The individual intake of starter feed and the fecal scores were measured daily, and body weight and biometric measurements were taken weekly until calves were 56 days of age. Blood samples were collected on day 3 and then every 14 days to determine concentrations of insulin-like-growth-factor-I, ß-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, and blood urea nitrogen. Ruminal fluid was collected on days 28 and 56 for short-chain fatty acids, NH3-N, and pH measurements. RESULTS: The body weight of the calves of the MR treatment group was higher compared to all other groups on days 28 and 56. Including the eubiotic feed additive in the milk replacer increased average daily gain, starter intake, and total dry matter intake from day 29 to day 56 and the overall experimental period compared to the CON group. The calves with MR treatment had lower fecal scores from days 3 to 28, a number of parasite oocysts/cysts per gram of feces on day 28, and the occurrences of fecal consistency scores of 3 (mild diarrhea) and 4 (severe diarrhea) were 3.2 and 3.0 times lower, respectively, compared with the CON group. The MR group had higher ruminal concentrations of short-chain-fatty-acids, propionate, and butyrate on day 56 than the CON group. Adding eubiotics into milk replacer resulted in the highest concentrations of blood insulin-like-growth-factor-I and ß-hydroxybutyrate from days 29 to 56 and the overall experimental period. CONCLUSION: The addition of eubiotic feed additives into the milk replacer can improve health, performance, ruminal fermentation, and biochemical blood indices in dairy calves during the preweaning period.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed , Rumen , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid , Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , Body Weight , Cattle , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diet/veterinary , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Female , Fermentation , Insulin/metabolism , Male , Milk/metabolism , Rumen/metabolism , Weaning
7.
Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798889

ABSTRACT

Despite evident lifestyle changes due to measures against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, few reports focus on the effects of eating-behavior changes on the nutritional status of elderly patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Thus, we examined dry-weight reduction, the simplest indicator of malnutrition among patients undergoing dialysis, and its association with the discontinuation of cafeteria services at a dialysis facility as per COVID-19 measures. This retrospective study included elderly patients (aged ≥ 65 years) undergoing HD at the Nagasaki Renal Center between December 2020 and October 2021. We collected nutrition-related data and patient characteristics and evaluated the association between the service discontinuation and dry-weight reduction 10 months after the discontinuation using multivariable logistic regression. This study included 204 patients, 79 of which were cafeteria users. During the observation period, cafeteria users showed significant dry-weight reduction; however, this was not observed among non-users. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated a close association between dry-weight reduction and the service discontinuation. That is, the dietary services cancelation caused dry-weight reduction in patients who relied on the cafeteria. As elderly patients undergoing HD are vulnerable to changes in their eating environment, alternative nutritional management methods need to be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Dialysis , Aged , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Nutritional Status , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Weight Loss
8.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 49: 241-245, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, our diet and lifestyle have changed significantly. In this study, it was aimed to determine the changes in diet, body weight and Orthorexia Nervosa (ON) tendency in the pandemic. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among adults (n = 945). An online questionnaire was used to determine nutrition, lifestyle factors and ON tendency (via Google Docs). The questionnaire was also shared on social media groups and pages (instagram, twitter and facebook) managed by registered dietitians. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic individuals' body weight and total food consumption increased by 51.0% and 57.2%, respectively. Increased screen time (OR: 1.912, 95% CI: 1.374-2.661 p < 0.001), sleeping time (OR: 3.630, 95% CI: 2.551-5.166 p < 0.001) and decreased physical activity (OR: 2.051, 95% CI: 1.198-3.509 p < 0.01) were associated with weight gain. The ON tendency increased in all groups according to the change in food consumption status (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the ongoing pandemic, individuals should be provided with adequate nutritional support. It is very important to get that support from nutritionists in order to monitor and control body weight and ON tendency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Adult , Body Weight , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Humans , Internet , Life Style , Pandemics
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760578

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Children's overweight and obesity are a growing public health problem. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of physical activity (PA) at school on body mass of children aged 10-12 during 2 years of observation. (2) Methods: Primary school children (n = 245, 48% girls and 52% boys) took part in the study. Children were divided in two groups, (1) of standard PA and (2) of elevated PA at school corresponding to 4 and 10 h of physical education lessons (PE) a week, respectively. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were measured starting from the 4th grade and ending at the 6th grade of school. (3) Results: The number of children with excessive body weight (overweight and obese) increased by » in children of standard PA while slightly decreased in children of elevated PA. Many more children of elevated PA changed body mass category from overweight to healthy weight than those of standard PA. Girls, especially of standard PA, had more often excessive body weight compared to boys. (4) Conclusions: Increasing time of physical activity at school by elevation of the number of PE lessons favorably affects the body mass of children.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Overweight , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity , Overweight/epidemiology , Schools
10.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(3): 379-380, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733963

Subject(s)
Obesity , Body Weight , Humans
11.
Virol Sin ; 37(2): 238-247, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692813

ABSTRACT

Multiple new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have constantly emerged, as the delta and omicron variants, which have developed resistance to currently gained neutralizing antibodies. This highlights a critical need to discover new therapeutic agents to overcome the variants mutations. Despite the availability of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the use of broadly neutralizing antibodies has been considered as an alternative way for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 variants infection. Here, we show that the nasal delivery of two previously characterized broadly neutralizing antibodies (F61 and H121) protected K18-hACE2 mice against lethal challenge with SARS-CoV-2 variants. The broadly protective efficacy of the F61 or F61/F121 cocktail antibodies was evaluated by lethal challenge with the wild strain (WIV04) and multiple variants, including beta (B.1.351), delta (B.1.617.2), and omicron (B.1.1.529) at 200 or 1000 TCID50, and the minimum antibody administration doses (5-1.25 â€‹mg/kg body weight) were also evaluated with delta and omicron challenge. Fully prophylactic protections were found in all challenged groups with both F61 and F61/H121 combination at the administration dose of 20 â€‹mg/kg body weight, and corresponding mice lung viral RNA showed negative, with almost all alveolar septa and cavities remaining normal. Furthermore, low-dose antibody treatment induced significant prophylactic protection against lethal challenge with delta and omicron variants, whereas the F61/H121 combination showed excellent results against omicron infection. Our findings indicated the potential use of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies as prophylactic and therapeutic agent for protection of current emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Body Weight , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Yoga targets psychological processes which may be important for long-term weight loss (WL). This study is the first to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of yoga within a weight management program following WL treatment. METHODS: 60 women with overweight or obesity (34.3±3.9 kg/m2, 48.1±10.1 years) were randomized to receive a 12-week yoga intervention (2x/week; YOGA) or a structurally equivalent control (cooking/nutrition classes; CON), following a 3-month behavioral WL program. Feasibility (attendance, adherence, retention) and acceptability (program satisfaction ratings) were assessed. Treatment groups were compared on weight change, mindfulness, distress tolerance, stress, affect, and self-compassion at 6 months. Initial WL (3-mo WL) was evaluated as a potential moderator. RESULTS: Attendance, retention, and program satisfaction ratings of yoga were high. Treatment groups did not differ on WL or psychological constructs (with exception of one mindfulness subscale) at 6 months. However, among those with high initial WL (≥5%), YOGA lost significantly more weight (-9.0kg vs. -6.7kg) at 6 months and resulted in greater distress tolerance, mindfulness, and self-compassion and lower negative affect, compared to CON. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings provide preliminary support for yoga as a potential strategy for improving long-term WL among those losing ≥5% in standard behavioral treatment.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Obesity/therapy , Overweight/therapy , Weight Loss , Weight Reduction Programs , Yoga , Adolescent , Adult , Exercise , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Mindfulness , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e056174, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673443

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Individual weight management, defined as engaging in behaviours to maintain or lose weight, can improve health and well-being. However, numerous factors influence weight management outcomes, such as genetics, biology, stress, the social and physical environment. Consequently, weight management can be hard. Self-compassion, described as treating oneself kindly in times of failure or distress, has shown promise in improving weight management outcomes. The objectives of this study are twofold: (1) to examine the efficacy of an online self-compassion for weight management (SC4WM) intervention coupled with an online commercial weight management programme (WW Weight Watchers reimagined) with increasing self-compassion and improving weight management outcomes (eating behaviour, physical activity and body weight) in comparison with the WW programme only and (2) to explore whether improvements in weight management outcomes are moderated by eating restraint, weight self-stigma, perceived stress and psychological coping. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To achieve these objectives, 240 participants seeking to manage their weight were randomised to either an online behavioural commercial weight management programme (WW) or the online WW +SC4 WM intervention. Validated measures of self-compassion, stress, weight self-stigma, eating restraint, psychological coping and weight management outcomes were administered online at baseline, 4 weeks and at a 12-week follow-up. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics has been granted by the University of Auckland Health Research Ethics committee. Results will be communicated in peer-review journals, conferences and a doctoral thesis. If effective in increasing self-compassion and improving weight management outcomes, the intervention could be made more widely available to supplement behavioural weight management programmes. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12621000580875; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Adult , Body Weight , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
15.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(1): 148-155, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621938

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To explore the relationship between handgrip strength per weight (HGS/W), triglyceride glucose index (TyG) and diabetes, and whether lower HGS levels precede TyG in the Chinese elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two linear regression models were used to explore the association of whether baseline HGS/W predicted follow-up variation of TyG or baseline TyG predicted follow-up variation of HGS/W. The logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between baseline HGS/W and future diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 4,561 participants in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were enrolled, of which 47.0% were men, and the mean age was 58.7 years (standard deviation 8.68 years). A lower baseline HGS/W significantly correlated with a higher level of follow-up TyG (ß = -0.173, P = 0.002). The baseline level of HGS/W was significantly negatively associated with the incidence risk of diabetes (rate ratio 0.375, P = 0.004). However, in sex stratification, the statistical association between HGS/W and TyG and diabetes was only in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that HGS/W was inversely associated with TyG and diabetes, and lower HGS/W levels preceded TyG levels in the elderly population. However, the effect was inconsistent between men and women, and the possible mechanism would require further clarification.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Hand Strength , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Aged , Body Weight , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
16.
Br J Nutr ; 127(2): 298-317, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621161

ABSTRACT

Pandemics and subsequent lifestyle restrictions such as 'lockdowns' may have unintended consequences, including alterations in body weight. This systematic review assesses the impact of pandemic confinement on body weight and identifies contributory factors. A comprehensive literature search was performed in seven electronic databases and in grey sources from their inception until 1 July 2020 with an update in PubMed and Scopus on 1 February 2021. In total, 2361 unique records were retrieved, of which forty-one studies were identified eligible: one case­control study, fourteen cohort and twenty-six cross-sectional studies (469, 362 total participants). The participants ranged in age from 6 to 86 years. The proportion of female participants ranged from 37 % to 100 %. Pandemic confinements were associated with weight gain in 7·2­72·4 % of participants and weight loss in 11·1­32·0 % of participants. Weight gain ranged from 0·6 (sd 1·3) to 3·0 (sd 2·4) kg, and weight loss ranged from 2·0 (sd 1·4) to 2·9 (sd 1·5) kg. Weight gain occurred predominantly in participants who were already overweight or obese. Associated factors included increased consumption of unhealthy food with changes in physical activity and altered sleep patterns. Weight loss during the pandemic was observed in individuals with previous low weight, and those who ate less and were more physically active before lockdown. Maintaining a stable weight was more difficult in populations with reduced income, particularly in individuals with lower educational attainment. The findings of this systematic review highlight the short-term effects of pandemic confinements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult
17.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(3): 538-542, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the authorities made a change in the classification of malnutrition and concomitant service delivery protocol among the Rohingya children, residing in world's largest refugee camp, located in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. In this paper, we discussed the potential implications of this updated protocol on the malnutrition status among children residing in the Rohingya camps. DESIGN: This paper reviewed relevant literature and authors' own experience to provide a perspective of the updated protocol for the classification of malnutrition among the children in the Rohingya camps and its implication from a broader perspective. SETTING: Rohingya refugee camps, Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged less than five years residing in the Rohingya camps. RESULTS: Major adaptation during this COVID-19 was the discontinuation of using weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and the use of only mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and presence of oedema for admission, follow-up and discharge of malnourished children in the camps. However, evidence suggests that use of MUAC only can underestimate the prevalence of malnutrition among the children in Rohingya camps. These apparently non-malnourished children are devoid of the rations that they would otherwise receive if classified as malnourished, making them susceptible to more severe malnutrition. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that policymakers should consider using the original protocol of using both MUAC and WHZ to classify malnutrition and retain the guided ration size. We also believe that it would not take an extra effort to adopt the original guideline as even with MUAC only guideline, certain health measures needed to adopt during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pandemics , Refugee Camps
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(12)2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596962

ABSTRACT

Copy number variants (CNVs) provide numerous genetic differences between individuals, and they have been linked with multiple human diseases. Obesity is one of the highly heritable complex disorders, which is associated with copy number variance (CNV). A recent report shows that the 11q11 gene, a novel olfactory receptor, and its copy number variants are involved in the early onset of obesity. In the current study, we analyzed the 11q11 gene copy number variance (CNV) based on gender in White/European American (EA) and African American (AA) normal weight and overweight/obese children. Sixty-nine boys and fifty-eight girls between the ages of 6 and 10 years belonging to either EA or AA ethnicity were involved in this study. As per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, each participant's body weight and height were recorded. DNA was extracted from saliva, and the copy number variants for the 11q11 gene were measured using digital PCR. The descriptive analysis of the 11q11 copy number showed significantly more copies in girls compared to boys; similarly, AA participants had significantly increased CNV compared to EA. The normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) girls were significantly less likely to belong to the low copy number variant (LCNV) group of 11q11 compared to boys; similarly, NW and OW/OB AA children were significantly less likely to belong to the LCNV group. The AA girls in LCNV had significantly higher BMI z-scores. Our findings suggest that the 11q11 copy number in children is race and gender-specific.


Subject(s)
African Americans/genetics , Body Weight/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 , Pediatric Obesity/genetics , Child , DNA Copy Number Variations , Female , Humans , Male , Receptors, Odorant/genetics , Saliva , Sex Characteristics , /genetics
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1867(2): 159070, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596012

ABSTRACT

N-[4-hydroxyphenyl]retinamide, commonly known as fenretinide, a synthetic retinoid with pleiotropic benefits for human health, is currently utilized in clinical trials for cancer, cystic fibrosis, and COVID-19. However, fenretinide reduces plasma vitamin A levels by interacting with retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), which often results in reversible night blindness in patients. Cell culture and in vitro studies show that fenretinide binds and inhibits the activity of ß-carotene oxygenase 1 (BCO1), the enzyme responsible for endogenous vitamin A formation. Whether fenretinide inhibits vitamin A synthesis in mammals, however, remains unknown. The goal of this study was to determine if the inhibition of BCO1 by fenretinide affects vitamin A formation in mice fed ß-carotene. Our results show that wild-type mice treated with fenretinide for ten days had a reduction in tissue vitamin A stores accompanied by a two-fold increase in ß-carotene in plasma (P < 0.01) and several tissues. These effects persisted in RBP4-deficient mice and were independent of changes in intestinal ß-carotene absorption, suggesting that fenretinide inhibits vitamin A synthesis in mice. Using Bco1-/- and Bco2-/- mice we also show that fenretinide regulates intestinal carotenoid and vitamin E uptake by activating vitamin A signaling during short-term vitamin A deficiency. This study provides a deeper understanding of the impact of fenretinide on vitamin A, carotenoid, and vitamin E homeostasis, which is crucial for the pharmacological utilization of this retinoid.


Subject(s)
Fenretinide/pharmacology , Vitamin A/pharmacology , beta Carotene/metabolism , Animals , Body Weight/drug effects , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Intestinal Absorption/drug effects , Intestines/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Biological , Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma/deficiency , Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma/metabolism , Vitamin A/blood , Vitamin A Deficiency/blood , Vitamin A Deficiency/pathology , Vitamin E/blood , Vitamin E/metabolism , beta Carotene/blood
20.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 72: 102108, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The RECOVERY clinical trial reported that 6 mg of dexamethasone once daily for up to 10 days reduces the 28-day mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) receiving respiratory support. In our clinical setting, a fixed dose of dexamethasone has prompted the question of whether inflammatory modulation effects sufficiently reduce lung injury. Therefore, preliminary verification on the possibility of predicted body weight (PBW)-based dexamethasone therapy was conducted in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This single-center retrospective study was conducted in a Japanese University Hospital to compare the treatment strategies/management in different periods. Consecutive patients (n = 90) with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring oxygen therapy and were treated with dexamethasone between June 2020 and May 2021 were analyzed. Initially, 60 patients administered a fixed dexamethasone dose of 6.6 mg/day were defined as the conventional group, and then, 30 patients were changed to PBW-based therapy. The 30-day discharged alive rate and duration of oxygen therapy were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. The multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate the effects of PBW-based dexamethasone therapy on high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), noninvasive ventilation (NIV), or mechanical ventilation (MV). RESULTS: In the PBW-based group, 9, 13, and 8 patients were administered 6.6, 9.9, and 13.2 mg/day of dexamethasone, respectively. Additional respiratory support including HFNC, NIV, or MV was significantly less frequently used in the PBW-based group (P = 0.0046), with significantly greater cumulative incidence of being discharged alive and shorter oxygen demand within 30 days (92 vs. 89%, log-rank P = 0.0094, 90 vs. 92%, log-rank P = 0.0002, respectively). Patients treated with PBW-based therapy significantly decreased the use of additional respiratory support after adjusting for baseline imbalances (adjusted odds ratio, 0.224; 95% confidence interval, 0.062-0.813, P = 0.023). Infection occurred in 13 (21%) and 2 (7%) patients in the conventional and PBW-based groups, respectively (P = 0.082). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring oxygen therapy, PBW-based dexamethasone therapy may potentially shorten the length of hospital stay and duration of oxygen therapy and risk of using HFNC, NPPV, or MV without increasing serious adverse events or 30-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Body Weight , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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