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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(1): 74-85, mar. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20241999

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El síndrome metabólico (SM) aumenta el ingreso hospitalario y el riesgo de desarrollar COVID-19, los fármacos utilizados para su tratamiento ocasionan efectos secundarios por lo que se ha optado por la búsqueda de alternativas terapéuticas a base de compuestos bioactivos contenidos en plantas medicinales. La canela se utiliza como agente terapéutico debido a sus propiedades comprobadas con diversos mecanismos de acción reportados en el tratamiento de varias patologías. Objetivo. Documentar los estudios in vitro, in vivo, estudios clínicos y los mecanismos de acción reportados del efecto de la administración de extractos y polvo de canela en las comorbilidades relacionadas con el SM. Materiales y métodos. Revisión sistemàtica de artículos en bases de datos electrónicas, incluyendo estudios de canela en polvo, extractos acuosos, de acetato de etilo y metanol de la corteza de canela, período de 5 años, excluyendo todo artículo relacionado a su efecto antimicrobiano, antifúngico y aceite de canela. Resultados. Las evidencias de los principales compuestos bioactivos contenidos en la canela validan su potencial en el tratamiento de enfermedades relacionadas al SM, con limitados estudios que indagan en los mecanismos de acción correspondientes a sus actividades biológicas. Conclusiones. Las evidencias de las investigaciones validan su potencial en el tratamiento de estas patologías, debido a sus principales compuestos bioactivos: cinamaldehído, transcinamaldehído, ácido cinámico, eugenol y, antioxidantes del tipo proantocianidinas A y flavonoides, los cuales participan en diversos mecanismos de acción que activan e inhiben enzimas, con efecto hipoglucemiante (quinasa y fosfatasa), antiobesogénico (UPC1), antiinflamatorio (NOS y COX), hipolipemiante (HMG-CoA) y antihipertensivo (ECA)(AU)


Introduction. Metabolic syndrome (MS) increases hospital admission and the risk of developing COVID-19. Due to the side effects caused by the drugs used for its treatment, the search for therapeutic alternatives based on bioactive compounds contained in medicinal plants has been chosen. Cinnamon is used as a therapeutic agent due to its proven properties with various mechanisms of action reported in the treatment of various pathologies. Objective. To document the in vitro and in vivo studies, clinical studies and the mechanisms of action reported on the effect of the administration of cinnamon extracts and powder on comorbidities related to MS. Materials and methods. Systematic review of articles in electronic databases, including studies of cinnamon powder, aqueous extracts, ethyl acetate and methanol from cinnamon bark, over a period of 5 years, excluding all those articles related to its antimicrobial, antifungal and antimicrobial effect. cinnamon oil. Results. The evidence of the main bioactive compounds contained in cinnamon validates its potential in the treatment of diseases related to MS, with limited studies that investigate the mechanisms of action corresponding to its biological activities. Conclusions. Research evidence validates its potential in the treatment of these pathologies, due to its main bioactive compounds: cinnamaldehyde, transcinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, eugenol, and antioxidants of the proanthocyanidin A type and flavonoids, which participate in various mechanisms of action that activate and they inhibit enzymes, with hypoglycemic (kinase and phosphatase), antiobesogenic (UPC1), anti-inflammatory (NOS and COX), lipid-lowering (HMG-CoA) and antihypertensive (ACE) effects(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus , Phytochemicals , Obesity , Body Weight , Hypoglycemic Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
2.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 25(6): 1758-1768, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326828

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the albuminuria-lowering effect of dapagliflozin, exenatide, and the combination of dapagliflozin and exenatide in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. METHODS: Participants with type 2 diabetes, an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of more than 30 ml/min/1.73m2 and an urinary albumin: creatinine ratio (UACR) of more than 3.5 mg/mmol and 100 mg/mmol or less completed three 6-week treatment periods, during which dapagliflozin 10 mg/d, exenatide 2 mg/wk and both drugs combined were given in random order. The primary outcome was the percentage change in UACR. Secondary outcomes included blood pressure, HbA1c, body weight, extracellular volume, fractional lithium excretion and renal haemodynamic variables as determined by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: We enrolled 20 patients, who completed 53 treatment periods in total. Mean percentage change in UACR from baseline was -21.9% (95% CI: -34.8% to -6.4%) during dapagliflozin versus -7.7% (95% CI: -23.5% to 11.2%) during exenatide and -26.0% (95% CI: -38.4% to -11.0%) during dapagliflozin-exenatide treatment. No correlation was observed in albuminuria responses between the different treatments. Numerically greater reductions in systolic blood pressure, body weight and eGFR were observed during dapagliflozin-exenatide treatment compared with dapagliflozin or exenatide alone. Renal blood flow and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) did not significantly change with either treatment regimen. However, all but four and two patients in the dapagliflozin and dapagliflozin-exenatide groups, respectively, showed reductions in ERPF. The filtration fraction did not change during treatment with dapagliflozin or exenatide, and decreased during dapagliflozin-exenatide treatment (-1.6% [95% CI: -3.2% to -0.01%]; P = .048). CONCLUSIONS: In participants with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria, treatment with dapagliflozin, exenatide and dapagliflozin-exenatide reduced albuminuria, with a numerically larger reduction in the combined dapagliflozin-exenatide treatment group.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Exenatide/therapeutic use , Exenatide/pharmacology , Albuminuria/urine , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Body Weight
3.
Dementia (London) ; 22(6): 1241-1258, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322592

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of dementia is growing as the population and longevity increase. Caregivers of adults with dementia report stress and fatigue and often neglect their health. They also indicate the need for information to address health-related issues, including nutritional problems, of their family members with dementia (FMWD). This study examined the impact of coaching to improve family caregiver (FCG) stress and well-being and to increase the protein intake of both FCGs and their FMWD. All participants received nutrition education including a protein prescription (1.2 g/kg body weight/day) and FCGs received stress-reduction materials. Coached-group randomized participants also received weekly diet coaching and stress-reduction coaching. At baseline and 8 weeks, anthropometrics, a mini-nutritional assessment questionnaire, and diet (protein intake) were assessed in FCGs and FMWD; well-being, fatigue and strain were assessed in FCGs. Repeated two words measures analysis of variance and Fisher's exact tests examined within group and intervention effects. Twenty-five FCGs (13 coached group, 12 not-coached group) and 23 FMWD (12 coached group, 11 not-coached group) completed the study. No significant differences were found between coached and not-coached FCGs and FMWD at baseline. After 8- weeks, FCGs' protein intake significantly increased from 1.00 ± 0.17 to 1.35 ± 0.23 g/kg/body weight in the coached group and from 0.91 ± 0.19 to 1.01 ± 0.33 g/kg/body weight in the not-coached group; there was also an intervention effect (p=.01, η2 = .24). The percentage of FCGs with baseline protein intake less than prescription guidelines and with an end-of-study protein intake meeting/exceeding the prescription significantly differed, with 60% of coached FCGs versus 10% of not coached FCGs meeting the prescription. No intervention effects were shown for protein intake in FMWD or for well-being, fatigue or strain among FCGs. Diet coaching with nutrition education successfully assisted FCGs with improving their protein intake versus nutrition education alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Mentoring , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , Body Weight , Caregivers/education , Dietary Proteins , Family , Fatigue
4.
Nutrients ; 15(1)2022 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319655

ABSTRACT

This double-blind, randomized clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Bifidobacterium breve B-3 (BB-3) for reducing body fat. Healthy individuals were randomized into the BB-3 or placebo group (1:1). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate body fat reduction objectively. In the BB-3 group, body weight was lower than before BB-3 ingestion. Regarding waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist/hip circumference ratio, waist circumference and hip circumference were lower in the BB-3 group than in the placebo group at 12 weeks; the waist/hip circumference ratio was found to decrease at each visit in the BB-3 group, although there was no significant difference in the amount of change after 12 weeks. BB-3 did not cause any severe adverse reactions. Body fat was significantly lower in the BB-3 group than in the placebo group. In conclusion, ingesting BB-3 significantly reduces body weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference. Thus, BB-3 is safe and effective for reducing body fat.


Subject(s)
Bifidobacterium breve , Obesity , Humans , Obesity/drug therapy , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Adipose Tissue , Double-Blind Method
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(2)2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310319

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Childhood obesity has been increasing at a worrisome pace and emerging as a non-infectious pandemic in the pediatric population in recent years. Raising awareness on this problem is of utmost importance, in order to take action to control body weight from an early age. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective study among overweight or obese children evaluated on an outpatient basis in the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology of a tertiary care hospital in Bucharest Romania in 2021 in order to identify laboratory changes occurring according to age and sex. Results: A total of 268 children were included in the analysis, with a median age of 10.9 years (IQR: 8.3, 13.3 years); 61.8% were obese and 38.2% overweight. We identified a subclinical pro-inflammatory status characterized by increased neutrophil count (12.7%) and increased C-reactive protein (16.4%). Biochemically, we identified the highest increases for uric acid (35.4%). More than half of the children included in the study had dyslipidemia-specific changes: high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (50.0%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (58.9%) and increased triglyceride levels (12.7%), especially children with a body mass-index (BMI) percentile above 95%. Increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was identified in 20.3% and low thyroxine (T4) level in 13.4%, especially in females. Conclusions: Early measures to control excess body weight are needed since preventing obesity is easier than treating it. However, this is often difficult to do in our country because parents frequently do not recognize the problem until it is advanced. Furthermore, doctors are not always adequately prepared and sometimes they do not have the support of the health systems to provide children in need with the adequate care. Educational strategies and awareness of issue should be revisited in current post-pandemic context that facilitates increase of obesity prevalence in children. Increase of efficient communication could be achieved by pointing to these objective findings.


Subject(s)
Overweight , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Female , Humans , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Romania/epidemiology , Male
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1395: 205-209, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310010

ABSTRACT

The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) system plays a role in various areas of social activity, including healthcare. Telemetry of cardiovascular function, such as blood pressure and pulse, in daily life is useful in the treatment of cardiovascular disease and stress management. However, until now, brain function monitoring technology has not been installed in the IoMT system.In this study, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) installed in the IoMT system to evaluate whether consumers who are not medical experts can measure their own brain function correctly. In addition, the IoMT system was used to assess the long-term effects of physical exercise on physical and mental health.We studied a total of 119 healthy adults recruited from a fitness gym in Koriyama, Japan. After receiving instruction in the usage of the IoMT monitoring system including NIRS, the subjects monitored their physical and mental conditions by themselves when they visited the gym. We evaluated the relations between blood pressure (BP), pulse rate (PR), body weight (BW) and age. In addition, we evaluated the left/right asymmetry of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at rest and BP. We calculated the laterality index at rest (LIR) for assessment of left/right asymmetry of PFC activity; a positive LIR (>0) indicates right-dominant PFC activity associated with higher stress responses, while a negative LIR (<0) indicates left-dominant PFC activity associated with lower stress responses. We studied 47 out of 119 cases who monitored their physiological conditions before and after physical exercise for 6 months for this study.The results showed that the systolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure (p < 0.05) were significantly reduced after the physical exercise for 6 months; body weight did not change significantly (p > 0.05). In addition, NIRS demonstrated that LIR changed to plus values from minus values after exercise (p < 0.01).These results show that (1) consumers who are not-medical experts can measure their own brain function correctly using NIRS; (2) after long-term physical exercise, systemic blood pressure decreased, associated with modulation of PFC activity (i.e., from right-dominant PFC activity to left-dominant activity), indicating that long-term physical exercises caused relaxation in the brain and the autonomic nervous system.


Subject(s)
Prefrontal Cortex , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Adult , Humans , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared/methods , Prefrontal Cortex/physiology , Functional Laterality/physiology , Exercise Therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Body Weight
7.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 17(3): 242-249, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291152

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We sought to analyze the impacts of social restriction measures imposed by the pandemic COVID-19 on the control of metabolic parameters in diabetic patients. METHODS: We accessed the medical records of patients who underwent clinical follow-up in the public and private health systems between July 2019 and June 2021. The sample consisted of 288 patients (111 adults and 177 older individuals). A two-way ANOVA mixed model was used to test the effects of intra- (time: baseline and after 24 months) and inter-subject factors. Linear regression analysis was used to predict the difference in body weight considering age, sex, HbA1c, health care system and insulin use. RESULTS: Among adults, we observed an increase in body weight and LDL-c levels, especially for insulin users (p ≤ 0.05). Adults assisted by the public health care system showed higher HbA1c levels (p = 0.001). Among older individuals using insulin, blood glucose levels decreased (p = 0.019). Body weight decreased in those assisted by the private system (p = 0.005), while glycemia decreased for patients assisted by both health care systems (p = 0.043). The linear regression model confirmed that the increase in body weight was more pronounced in adults than in older individuals. CONCLUSION: The social restriction measures imposed by the pandemic affected the metabolic control of diabetic patients, especially adults assisted by the public health care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Adult , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , Glycated Hemoglobin , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Body Weight , Insulin/therapeutic use , Delivery of Health Care , Blood Glucose/metabolism
8.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 31(4): 896-897, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302369

Subject(s)
Diet , Rodentia , Animals , Body Weight
9.
Pediatr Obes ; 17(6): e12890, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ramifications of COVID-19 restrictions might accelerate the already rising proportion of children with overweight or obesity. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between COVID-19 restrictions and changes in body mass index (BMI) and the proportion of children with overweight or obesity. METHODS: Cohort study with baseline measurements in September 2019 (prior to COVID-19 restrictions) and follow-up in June 2020, September 2020, and March 2021 at 12 primary schools in Austria. The height and weight of 738 children aged 7 to 10 years were measured and age- and sex-specific national and international standardized values were calculated. Changes over time were analysed by analysis of variance. RESULTS: Mean BMIIOTF standard deviation scores (SDS) increased by 0.24 (95% CI, 0.21-0.28) between September 2019 and March 2021. The proportion of children with overweight or obesity increased from 20.7% to 26.2% during this period (p < 0.001) using national reference values-EQUI BMIAUT -comparable results were observed. Simultaneously, the heightAUT SDS increased by 0.06 (95% CI, 0.05-0.08) with a larger increase in girls (+0.11; p < 0.001) than in boys (+0.03; p = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 restrictions were associated with accelerated increases in mean BMI and the proportion of children with overweight or obesity. The increase in height SDS in girls calls for further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Acceleration , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Schools
10.
Environ Res ; 220: 115167, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284644

ABSTRACT

The use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in many biological and technical domains is on the rise. There hasn't been much research on the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in biological systems, despite their ubiquitous usage. In the current investigation, samples were exposed to various dosages of TiO2 nanoparticles for 4 days, 1 month, and 2 months following treatment. ICP-AES was used to dose TiO2 into the tissues, and the results showed that the kidney had a significant TiO2 buildup. On the other hand, apoptosis of renal tubular cells is one of the most frequent cellular processes contributing to kidney disease (KD). Nevertheless, the impact of macroalgal seaweed extract on KD remains undetermined. In this work, machine learning (ML) approaches have been applied to develop prediction algorithms for acute kidney injury (AKI) by use of titanium dioxide and macroalgae in hospitalized patients. Fifty patients with (AKI) and 50 patients (non-AKI group) have been admitted and considered. Regarding demographic data, and laboratory test data as input parameters, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF) are utilized to build models of AKI prediction and compared to the predictive performance of logistic regression (LR). Due to its strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory powers, the current research ruled out the potential of using G. oblongata red macro algae as a source for a variety of products for medicinal uses. Despite a high and fast processing of algorithms, logistic regression showed lower overfitting in comparison to SVM, and Random Forest. The dataset is subjected to algorithms, and the categorization of potential risk variables yields the best results. AKI samples showed significant organ defects than non-AKI ones. Multivariate LR indicated that lymphocyte, and myoglobin (MB) ≥ 1000 ng/ml were independent risk parameters for AKI samples. Also, GCS score (95% CI 1.4-8.3 P = 0.014) were the risk parameters for 60-day mortality in samples with AKI. Also, 90-day mortality in AKI patients was significantly high (P < 0.0001). In compared to the control group, there were no appreciable changes in the kidney/body weight ratio or body weight increases. Total thiol levels in kidney homogenate significantly decreased, and histopathological analysis confirmed these biochemical alterations. According to the results, oral TiO2 NP treatment may cause kidney damage in experimental samples.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Seaweed , Humans , Logistic Models , Support Vector Machine , Random Forest , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Risk Factors , Kidney , Body Weight
11.
Acta Diabetol ; 60(6): 787-795, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275539

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine the association between COVID-19 Shutdown and within-subjects changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and glycemic parameters using electronic health record (EHR) data from 23,000 adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: Patients with T2DM with outpatient visit data on body weight, BMI, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and blood glucose (≥ 2 measures before and after 3/16/2020) recorded in the EHR at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center were included. A within-subjects analysis compared average and clinically significant changes in weight, BMI, HbA1c, and blood glucose during the year POST-Shutdown (Time 2-3) compared to the same interval during the PRE-Shutdown year (Time 0-1) using paired samples t-tests and the McNemar-Bowker test. RESULTS: We studied 23,697 adults with T2DM (51% female; 89% White; mean age = 66 ± 13 years; mean BMI = 34 ± 7 kg/m2; mean HbA1c = 7 ± 2% [53 ± 21.9 mmol/mol]). Weight and BMI decreased during both the PRE- and POST-Shutdown intervals, but the changes were statistically smaller during the year POST-Shutdown relative to PRE (0.32 kg and 0.11 units, p < 0.0001). HbA1c showed statistically greater improvements during the POST-Shutdown interval compared to PRE (- 0.18% [-2 mmol/mol], p < 0.0001), but changes in glucose did not differ for the two intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread discussion of weight gain in association with the COVID-19 Shutdown, study data showed no evidence of adverse effects of Shutdown on body weight, BMI, HbA1C, or blood glucose in a large sample of adults with T2DM. This information may help to inform future public health decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Blood Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin , Glycemic Control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Body Mass Index , Weight Gain , Body Weight
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(19): 56641-56653, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272696

ABSTRACT

Alternative products such as those from high-value protien animals have increased the demand for the production of high-quality chicken meat in past few years. This study examines the impact of two distinct feeding types on goose body-weight, as well as the genetic variation of growth hormone (GH) and pituitary-specific transcription factor (Pit-1) genes in ten goose populations using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and PCR-RFLP analysis. Both genes were seen as very important for productivity, especially in light of the COVID-19 and its effect on poultry industry at the time. The findings suggest that employing genetic indicators in these two genes in conjunction with a high-fat diet may be a feasible strategy for goose selection programme aiming to increase marketing body weight, as the high-fat diet outperformed the balanced diet. The study investigates the effect of gender, 2 types of diets, breeds and the genetic variation of the two genes, four SNPs were reported to be found: two at the GH gene exons C123T and C158T, and two at the Pit-1 gene exons G161A and T282G. Certain genotypes were found to have a substantial effect on the marketing body-weight of goose, which varied depending on the tested breeds. However, in terms of gender, males report higher and better performance levels than females. Diet, breeds and genotype interaction, and breeds, gender and genotype interaction were found to have a minor effect on goose body weight. However, diet, breeds, gender, SNP locus, diet and breeds interaction, and breeds and gender interaction were found to have a significant effect on goose body weight, as indicated by the effect size results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Geese , Animals , Female , Male , Geese/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genotype , Transcription Factors/genetics , Body Weight , Meat
14.
JAMA ; 328(22): 2230-2241, 2022 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263015

ABSTRACT

Importance: The effectiveness of remotely delivered, self-directed, weight loss programs in routine clinical practice is largely unknown. Objective: To test whether a self-directed, remotely administered behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight and self-reported general health status compared with usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this randomized clinical trial, 511 adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more and less than 45 (based on electronic health record [EHR] weight and height), were enrolled from 30 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) sites between February 15, 2018, and December 18, 2018 (final follow-up February 18, 2021). Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 254) or the control group (n = 257). Both received usual care. Participants randomized to the intervention received Diabetes Prevention Program-based self-directed videos, handouts, and coaching messages via an online platform or US mail for 12 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: Coprimary outcomes were weight measured in primary care and recorded in the EHR and self-reported general health status using the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical component score (PCS; higher scores are better [range, 0-100]) at the 12-month follow-up. The between-group minimal clinically important differences are 3 kg for weight and 5 points for the SF-12 PCS. Linear mixed models used weights and SF-12 PCS measured at either time point, with participants analyzed according to randomization assignment. Statistical significance for each coprimary outcome was based on a 2-sided α level of .025. Results: Among 511 participants randomized (mean age, 57.4 [SD, 13.9] years; 231 female [45%]), 429 (84.0%) had EHR-based weights and 410 (80.2%) had SF-12 PCS data at 12 months. The unadjusted mean weight at 12 months declined from 102.7 kg to 99.8 kg in the intervention group compared with 101.9 kg to 101.0 kg in the control group (adjusted between-group mean difference, -1.93 [97.5% CI, -3.24 to -0.61]; P = .001). At 12 months, the unadjusted mean SF-12 PCS scores declined from 44.8 to 44.3 among intervention participants compared with 44.5 to 43.2 among control participants (adjusted between-group mean difference, intervention minus control, 0.69 [97.5% CI, -1.11 to 2.49]; P = .39). Cardiovascular events represented the highest percentage of serious adverse events, accounting for 25% of events in the intervention group and 35% in the control group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with obesity, a remotely delivered self-directed, behavioral lifestyle intervention, compared with usual care, resulted in statistically significantly greater weight loss at 12 months, although the difference was not clinically important. There was no significant difference in self-reported general physical health status at 12 months. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03260140.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy , Obesity , Weight Reduction Programs , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Behavior Therapy/methods , Health Status , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/therapy , Weight Loss , Weight Reduction Programs/methods , Body Weight , Telemedicine/methods , Self Care , Healthy Lifestyle , Male , Aged
15.
Exp Gerontol ; 174: 112121, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257425

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of obesity represents a major global public health problem, mainly due to its association with chronic non-communicable disabling conditions and with increased mortality. Population aging increases the chances of non-communicable chronic diseases allowing a longer exposure to risk factors for these disabling conditions. Obesity is a major risk factor contributing to pathological aging. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease and cancer increases progressively as overweight and obesity rise. Nutrition research is now focused on the effects of combinations of foods in dietary patterns instead of those of single nutrients or foods. The dietary model with the largest body of evidence of health benefit is that traditionally followed by inhabitants of some Mediterranean countries. There is evidence confirming the inverse association of adhering to Mediterranean diet with overweight and obesity. Four meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials, including up to 16 trials, have shown a greater reduction of body weight and BMI with MedDiet compared to other diets, while a meta-analysis of 7 prospective cohort studies, found a reduced risk of becoming obese and gaining weight over time associated with a higher adherence to MedDiet. This narrative review examines studies reporting inverse associations of a higher adherence to the MedDiet with overweight/obesity and with age-associated chronic diseases related to obesity.


Subject(s)
Diet, Mediterranean , Humans , Overweight/complications , Prospective Studies , Obesity/complications , Body Weight
16.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 55(8): 1366-1374, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253040

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions/lockdowns on physical activity levels, body mass, quadriceps strength, and gait biomechanics over 18 months. METHODS: Ten healthy men were assessed at baseline (~14 wk before first lockdown) and 17.9 ± 0.3 months later (<1 wk after second lockdown). At both times, physical activity levels, body mass, and quadriceps strength were acquired using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, a force plate, and a dynamometer, respectively. Gait data were also acquired using a motion capture system and force plates during self-paced walking, from which spatiotemporal parameters, knee angles, and external moments were computed. Baseline and follow-up measurements were compared using two-tailed paired t -tests ( α = 0.05). RESULTS: At follow-up, participants spent less time doing vigorous physical activity (∆ = -76 ± 157 min·wk -1 , P = 0.048), exhibited a tendency toward increased sedentary time (∆ = +120 ± 162 min·d -1 , P = 0.056), weighed more (∆ = +2.5 ± 2.8 kg, P = 0.021), and showed a trend toward reduced quadriceps strength (∆ = -0.29 ± 0.45 (N·m)·kg -1 , P = 0.071) compared with baseline. At follow-up, participants walked slower (∆ = -0.09 ± 0.07 m·s -1 , P = 0.005), had greater knee flexion angles at heel strike (∆ = +2.2° ± 1.8°, P = 0.004) and during late stance (∆ = +2.2° ± 1.8°, P = 0.004), had reduced knee extension moments (∆ = -0.09 ± 0.09 (N·m)·kg -1 , P = 0.012) and knee internal rotation moments (∆ = -0.02 ± 0.02 (N·m)·kg -1 , P = 0.012) during late stance. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy men exhibited reduced physical activity levels, increased body weight, a tendency toward reduced quadriceps strength, and altered gait biomechanics over the initial 18 months of the COVID-19 pandemic-alterations that could have far-reaching health consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Male , Humans , Biomechanical Phenomena , Muscle Strength , Communicable Disease Control , Gait , Knee Joint , Walking , Quadriceps Muscle , Body Weight
17.
Nutrients ; 15(6)2023 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271330

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 lockdowns affected everyday life significantly and made it challenging to achieve or maintain a healthy lifestyle. The aim of the present study was to examine longitudinal changes in Danish adults' eating habits and physical activity (PA) assessed during and after the first national lockdown in 2020. Furthermore, changes in body weight were examined during the first lockdown period. The whole diet (semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire), sociodemographic factors, moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA), leisure screen time, anthropometrics, change in body weight, and stress level were assessed with a self-administered web-based questionnaire among 839 18-65-year-old Danes during and 5-6 months after the lockdown. Both favorable (decreased intake of saturated fat) and unfavorable (decreased intake of whole grain and fish, and increased intake of red meat) changes were found in the diet after the lockdown, while favorable changes in MVPA (increase in couples) and leisure screen time (decrease with a combined effect of family status and education) were found for PA. More Danish adults reported to gain weight (mean 3.0 kg) than to lose weight (mean 3.5 kg) during the first lockdown period (27% vs. 15%). The study showed favorable changes in PA and mixed results regarding diet among Danish adults after the lockdown. Furthermore, the first lockdown period unfavorably impacted the body weight of many Danes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diet , Exercise , Body Weight
18.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(1): 17-30, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255566

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this study, we investigated self-weighing frequency (SWF) among adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and retrospectively (6 months) before the pandemic, and whether SWF was associated with changes in health-related behaviors. Methods: United States adults (N = 1607) completed a health-related questionnaire during COVID-19 and associated shelter-in-place. We categorized respondents into 4 groups of SWF at the time of the pandemic: "Never," "< 1x a week," "1x a week," or "> 1x a week." Results: The proportion of adults never weighing increased during the pandemic (15% to 25%), whereas the proportion of those weighing < 1x week went down (41% to 29%). Higher SWF was significantly associated with changes in energy expenditure including increased total physical activity (PA), lower likelihood of decreases in vigorous, moderate, and walking PA, and a lower likelihood of sitting more. More frequent self-weighing also was associated statistically with lower likelihood of keeping unhealthy eating behaviors the same. Conversely, there was no significant difference in changes in alcohol, caffeine, takeout, fruit or vegetable consumption, and television viewing among SWF groups. Conclusion: SWF decreased during the pandemic in the lower 2 SWF categories. Higher SWF was associated with fewer negative changes in health behaviors, especially related to PA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Behavior , Adult , Body Weight , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Quarantine , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
19.
Nutrients ; 15(4)2023 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238834

ABSTRACT

In the last two and a half years, COVID-19 has been one of the most challenging public health issues worldwide. Based on the available evidence, pregnant women do not appear to be more susceptible to infection than the general population but having COVID-19 during pregnancy may increase the risk of major complications for both the mother and the fetus. The aim of this study is to identify the correlation between BMI and nutritional status and the likelihood of contracting COVID-19 infection in pregnancy, its severity, and maternal pregnancy outcomes. We carry out a systematic literature search and a meta-analysis using three databases following the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration. We include 45 studies about COVID-19-positive pregnant women. Compared with normal-weight pregnant women with COVID-19, obesity is associated with a more severe infection (OR = 2.32 [1.65-3.25]), increased maternal death (OR = 2.84 [2.01-4.02]), and a higher rate of hospital admission (OR = 2.11 [1.37-3.26]). Obesity may be associated with adverse maternal and pregnancy outcomes by increasing symptom severity and, consequently, hospital and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, and, finally, death rates. For micronutrients, the results are less definite, even if there seems to be a lower level of micronutrients, in particular Vitamin D, in COVID-19-positive pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Pregnancy Outcome , Nutritional Status , Body Weight , Obesity/chemically induced , Micronutrients/adverse effects
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 308: 116291, 2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243648

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Artemisia annua L. has >2000 yr of history in treating fever a symptom common to many infectious diseases including viruses. The plant is widely used as a tea infusion in many areas of the globe to thwart many infectious diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus continues to infect millions while rapidly evolving new variants that are more transmissible and evade vaccine-elicited antibodies, e.g., omicron and its subvariants. Having shown potency against all previously tested variants, A. annua L. extracts were further tested against highly infectious omicron and its recent subvariants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using Vero E6 cells, we measured the in vitro efficacy (IC50) of stored (frozen) dried-leaf hot-water A. annua L. extracts of four cultivars (A3, BUR, MED, and SAM) against SARS-CoV-2 variants: original WA1 (WT), BA.1 (omicron), BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4. End point virus titers of infectivity in cv. BUR-treated human lung A459 cells overexpressing hu-ACE2 were determined for both WA1 and BA.4 viruses. RESULTS: When normalized to the artemisinin (ART) or leaf dry weight (DW) equivalent of the extract, the IC50 values ranged from 0.5 to 16.5 µM ART and from 20 to 106 µg DW. IC50 values were within limits of assay variation of our earlier studies. End-point titers confirmed a dose-response inhibition in ACE2 overexpressing human lung cells to the BUR cultivar. Cell viability losses were not measurable at leaf dry weights ≤50 µg for any cultivar extract. CONCLUSIONS: A. annua hot-water extracts (tea infusions) continue to show efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 and its rapidly evolving variants and deserve greater attention as a possible cost-effective therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Body Weight , Tea
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