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1.
Inflamm Res ; 71(9): 1025-1040, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a highly infectious respiratory virus associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Discoveries in the field revealed that inflammatory conditions exert a negative impact on bone metabolism; however, only limited studies reported the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection on skeletal homeostasis. Inflammatory immune cells (T helper-Th17 cells and macrophages) and their signature cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are the major contributors to the cytokine storm observed in COVID-19 disease. Our group along with others has proven that an enhanced population of both inflammatory innate (Dendritic cells-DCs, macrophages, etc.) and adaptive (Th1, Th17, etc.) immune cells, along with their signature cytokines (IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, etc.), are associated with various inflammatory bone loss conditions. Moreover, several pieces of evidence suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infects various organs of the body via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors including bone cells (osteoblasts-OBs and osteoclasts-OCs). This evidence thus clearly highlights both the direct and indirect impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the physiological bone remodeling process. Moreover, data from the previous SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002-2004 revealed the long-term negative impact (decreased bone mineral density-BMDs) of these infections on bone health. METHODOLOGY: We used the keywords "immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2," "SARS-CoV-2 and bone cells," "factors influencing bone health and COVID-19," "GUT microbiota," and "COVID-19 and Bone health" to integrate the topics for making this review article by searching the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. CONCLUSION: Current evidence and reports indicate the direct relation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and bone health and thus warrant future research in this field. It would be imperative to assess the post-COVID-19 fracture risk of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals by simultaneously monitoring them for bone metabolism/biochemical markers. Importantly, several emerging research suggest that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota-GM (established role in inflammatory bone loss conditions) is further involved in the severity of COVID-19 disease. In the present review, we thus also highlight the importance of dietary interventions including probiotics (modulating dysbiotic GM) as an adjunct therapeutic alternative in the treatment and management of long-term consequences of COVID-19 on bone health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bone Density , Cytokines , Dysbiosis , Humans , Interleukin-17 , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(11): e4471-e4486, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854902

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Estradiol is the primary female sex hormone and plays an important role for skeletal health in both sexes. Several enzymes are involved in estradiol metabolism, but few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed to characterize the genetic contribution to variation in estrogen levels. OBJECTIVE: Identify genetic loci affecting estradiol levels and estimate causal effect of estradiol on bone mineral density (BMD). DESIGN: We performed GWAS for estradiol in males (n = 147 690) and females (n = 163 985) from UK Biobank. Estradiol was analyzed as a binary phenotype above/below detection limit (175 pmol/L). We further estimated the causal effect of estradiol on BMD using Mendelian randomization. RESULTS: We identified 14 independent loci associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with estradiol levels in males, of which 1 (CYP3A7) was genome-wide and 7 nominally (P < 0.05) significant in females. In addition, 1 female-specific locus was identified. Most loci contain functionally relevant genes that have not been discussed in relation to estradiol levels in previous GWAS (eg, SRD5A2, which encodes a steroid 5-alpha reductase that is involved in processing androgens, and UGT3A1 and UGT2B7, which encode enzymes likely to be involved in estradiol elimination). The allele that tags the O blood group at the ABO locus was associated with higher estradiol levels. We identified a causal effect of high estradiol levels on increased BMD in both males (P = 1.58 × 10-11) and females (P = 7.48 × 10-6). CONCLUSION: Our findings further support the importance of the body's own estrogen to maintain skeletal health in males and in females.


Subject(s)
Bone Density/genetics , Estradiol/blood , Estradiol/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase/genetics , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Bone Density/physiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/genetics , Estrogens/genetics , Estrogens/physiology , Female , Genotype , Glucuronosyltransferase/genetics , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Middle Aged , N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , United Kingdom
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(8): 3046-3056, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The number patients surviving COVID-19 hospitalization is steadily increasing. Follow-up management for these patients relies on an understanding of the long-term effects of COVID-19. Specifically, there are insufficient data about the lasting effects of COVID-19 on bone health. We aim in this study to evaluate whether COVID-19 illness and treatment adversely affect the bone health of surviving patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed the bone mineral density (BMD) of hospitalized COVID-19 patients at diagnosis and at follow-up visits. Using the chest computed tomography (CT) scans of patients that were obtained for clinical management at diagnosis and follow-up visits, BMD was retrospectively measured by quantitative CT. The effect of COVID-19 severity markers and treatment-related factors on BMD were also assessed. RESULTS: BMD decreased by a mean of 8.6% (± 10.5%) from diagnosis to follow-up. The follow-up visits occurred at a mean of 81 (± 48) days after hospital discharge. The BMD decrease was significantly greater than expected for age-related annual BMD loss. The osteoporosis ratio increased two-fold after hospitalization for COVID-19 because of this substantial bone loss. On multivariable linear regression, only severity of COVID-19 pneumonia on initial chest CT and total steroid dose were predictive of change in BMD after COVID-19 hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary osteoporosis may occur as a post-acute sequela of COVID-19. Therefore, the bone health status of patients surviving COVID-19 hospitalization should be monitored closely at follow-up visits, to facilitate the prevention and early treatment of osteoporosis complications.


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases, Metabolic , COVID-19 , Osteoporosis , Bone Density , Humans , Osteoporosis/etiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(6): 1749-1752, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793448

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Czeck, MA, Roelofs, EJ, Evanoff, NG, and Dengel, DR. No Changes in body composition in NCAA Division I Collegiate Football Players due to COVID-19 restrictions. J Strength Cond Res 36(6): 1749-1752, 2022-The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions on body composition, assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), between the 2020 postseason (pre-COVID-19 restrictions) and the 2021 postseason (post-COVID-19 restrictions) in collegiate football players (n = 50). In addition, a subset of athletes (n = 23) was used to explore body composition variables across 4 postseason time points. Body composition variables assessed were total and regional body fat percent, total mass, lean mass, fat mass, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and visceral adipose tissue mass. Paired t-tests were used to determine differences between the 2020 postseason and the 2021 postseason in body composition variables. Analysis of variance with Tukey HSD post hoc tests assessed significant differences in total and regional body composition across 4 years while adjusting for multiple comparisons. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between postseason 2020 and postseason 2021 for all measures of body composition. In a subset of athletes, body composition was analyzed over a 4-year period of time. There were no significant differences between all 4 time points for all measures of body composition. In conclusion, body composition variables in this study's subjects were not affected because of coronavirus disease 2019 restrictions or over 4 years of their collegiate football career.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Body Composition , COVID-19 , Football , Absorptiometry, Photon , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Bone Density , COVID-19/prevention & control , Football/physiology , Humans
5.
Pediatr Phys Ther ; 34(2): 163-170, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778996

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A systematic review evaluated exercise parameters and ages that produced the most improvement in bone among individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) ages 3 to 21 years. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Ebscohost, and Web of Science identified potential articles. Covidence was used to identify eligible citations and assess bias. The osteogenic index (OI) was used to evaluate intervention parameters. RESULTS: The database search identified 312 citations. Twelve full-text articles were included. A 1-hour calisthenic exercise program performed 2 to 3 times a week for 8 months targeting each body region had the highest effect size and a substantial OI. Most of the interventions reviewed had low OIs. Activities of longer duration and greater intensity had greater OIs and prepubertal age-enhanced treatment effects. CONCLUSION: Bone interventions for individuals with CP have low OIs, and principles of mechanostat theory should be applied to exercise dosing.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Palsy , Adolescent , Adult , Bone Density , Cerebral Palsy/rehabilitation , Child , Child, Preschool , Exercise , Humans , Young Adult
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 700148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775816

ABSTRACT

Background: An increasing number of Chinese elderly women stay at home and act as grandchildren sitters. In consequence of the frequent load-bearing, chronic lumbar fatigue probably caused a higher risk of lumbar degeneration, fatigue, and injury which has become one of the most important aging and health problems in China. In this study, a multi-mode lumbar finite element model (FEM) with specific bone mineral density (BMD) were developed and validated for further spine injury prevention and control. Methods: The material properties of lumbar vertebra were modified according to degenerated bone mineral density, and geometry was adjusted based on intervertebral disc height. The motion of lifting children was simulated by a 76 year-old Chinese women's FEM, and the stress distribution was calculated and predicted. Results: The pressure of L5-S intervertebral disc in the bending 3-year-old dummy lifting posture was significantly higher than the same posture without lifting, the maximum effective stress of endplate cartilage in the upright child lifting posture was 1.6 times that of the bending without lifting posture. And the fatigue risk limitation frequency of the upright with dummy posture was predicted with the functional equation of fatigue and stress which was deduced by genetic algorithm, which combined with the effective stress of lumbar vertebrae spongy bone calculated from FEM. Conclusions: The child-lifting motion could increase the risk of lumbar degeneration, fatigue, and injury in elderly women, and they should keep below the frequency limit of the motion of lifting children in their daily life. This study could put forward scientific injury prevention guidance to Chinese elderly women who lift children in daily life frequently.


Subject(s)
Fatigue , Lumbar Vertebrae , Aged , Bone Density , Child, Preschool , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Risk Assessment
7.
Osteoporos Int ; 33(7): 1415-1427, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712222

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is a major health issue worldwide. This study analyzes the effects of non-supervised osteoporosis prevention programs on bone mineral density. Non-supervised exercise increases femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral density in adult women. Thus, it might be effective for preventing or treating osteoporosis or osteopenia in this population. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a major health issue worldwide. Social distancing measures due to COVID-19 have hindered the chances to take part in supervised osteoporosis prevention exercise programs. The purpose of the present study is to systematically review and meta-analyze the effects of non-supervised osteoporosis prevention exercise programs on bone mineral density (BMD) in adult women. METHODS: A comprehensive search of electronic databases (n = 7) was conducted including (a) prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing at least one exercise group vs. a control group with sedentary lifestyle or sham exercises; (b) baseline and follow-up BMD values, or BMD changes from baseline, at any skeletal site; (c) women over 30 years old; and (d) non-supervised exercise programs only. Subgroup analyses were performed for menopausal status, intervention duration, type of exercise, and osteopenia/osteoporosis status. RESULTS: Ten studies were included (n = 668). Random effect analyses showed that unsupervised exercise had beneficial effects on lumbar spine (LS) BMD with standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.77), and femoral neck (FN) BMD with SMD = 0.51 (95% CI: 0.16-0.85). Unsupervised exercise increased LS (SMD = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.13-1.33)) and FN BMD (SMD = 0.85 (95% CI: 0.33-1.37)) in women with osteopenia/osteoporosis, but not in healthy counterparts. CONCLUSION: Non-supervised exercise improves FN and LS BMD in adult women. Beneficial effects of exercise on FN and LS BMD might be more pronounced in those with poor bone health compared with healthy counterparts. More RCTs prescribing non-supervised, osteogenic exercise are required in this population. It is necessary to investigate the efficacy of remote/assistive technologies for delivering and monitoring non-supervised exercise interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoporosis , Adult , Bone Density , Exercise Therapy , Female , Femur Neck , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae , Osteoporosis/prevention & control
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 800376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662577

ABSTRACT

Background: Although genetic diseases are rare, children with such conditions who get infected with COVID-19 tend to have a severe illness requiring hospitalization. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fractures and skeletal deformities. Kyphoscoliosis, restrictive lung disease, and pneumonia worsen the prognosis of patients with OI. The use of bisphosphonate improves bone mineral density (BMD) and reduces fractures in OI. There is no literature describing the impact of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Methodology: A retrospective multi-center study was performed in three hospitals in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from March 1st, 2020, until August 31st, 2021, aiming to evaluate the outcome of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Demographics, vaccination status, underlying kyphoscoliosis, functional status, use of bisphosphonate, BMD, and COVID-19 severity, and course were recorded for all patients. Results: Twelve cases of confirmed COVID-19 were identified among 146 patients with OI. 9 (75%) of patients were less than 18 years, 6 (50%) were male, 5 (41%) had kyphoscoliosis, and 5 (41%) were wheelchair-bound. 6 (50%) received bisphosphonate, and 7(58%) had normal BMD. All patients had mild disease and did not require hospitalization. None of OI the patients with COVID-19 were fully vaccinated before the infection, and some were ineligible for vaccination. Conclusion: Patients with OI and COVID-19 in our study recovered without complications, unlike patients with other genetic diseases. Young age and mild illness contributed to the favorable outcome. Half of the patients received bisphosphonate and had normal BMD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bone Density , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Bone/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/pathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/epidemiology , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 176, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554071

ABSTRACT

The objective of this consensus statement is to inform the clinical practice communities, research centres and policymakers across Africa of the results of the recommendations for osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis and management. The developed guideline provides state-of-the-art information and presents the conclusions and recommendations of the consensus panel regarding these issues. PURPOSE: To reach an African expert consensus on a treat-to-target strategy, based on current evidence for best practice, for the management of osteoporosis and prevention of fractures. METHOD: A 3-round Delphi process was conducted with 17 osteoporosis experts from different African countries. All rounds were conducted online. In round 1, experts reviewed a list of 21 key clinical questions. In rounds 2 and 3, they rated the statements stratified under each domain for its fit (on a scale of 1-9). After each round, statements were retired, modified or added in view of the experts' suggestions and the percent agreement was calculated. Statements receiving rates of 7-9 by more than 75% of experts' votes were considered as achieving consensus. RESULTS: The developed guidelines adopted a fracture risk-centric approach. Results of round 1 revealed that of the 21 proposed domains, 10 were accepted whereas 11 were amended. In round 2, 32 statements were presented: 2 statements were retired for similarity, 9 statements reached consensus, whereas modifications were suggested for 21 statements. After the 3rd round of rating, the experts came to consensus on the 32 statements. Frequency of high-rate recommendation ranged from 83.33 to 100%. The response rate of the experts was 100%. An algorithm for the osteoporosis management osteoporosis was suggested. CONCLUSION: This study is an important step in setting up a standardised osteoporosis service across the continent. Building a single model that can be applied in standard practice across Africa will enable the clinicians to face the key challenges of managing osteoporosis; furthermore, it highlights the unmet needs for the policymakers responsible for providing bone health care together with and positive outcomes of patients' care.


Subject(s)
Fractures, Bone , Osteoporosis , Bone Density , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Humans , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/drug therapy
11.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(10): 2142-2143, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513232
12.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(3): 639-653, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CKD is a heterogeneous condition with multiple underlying causes, risk factors, and outcomes. Subtyping CKD with multidimensional patient data holds the key to precision medicine. Consensus clustering may reveal CKD subgroups with different risk profiles of adverse outcomes. METHODS: We used unsupervised consensus clustering on 72 baseline characteristics among 2696 participants in the prospective Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study to identify novel CKD subgroups that best represent the data pattern. Calculation of the standardized difference of each parameter used the cutoff of ±0.3 to show subgroup features. CKD subgroup associations were examined with the clinical end points of kidney failure, the composite outcome of cardiovascular diseases, and death. RESULTS: The algorithm revealed three unique CKD subgroups that best represented patients' baseline characteristics. Patients with relatively favorable levels of bone density and cardiac and kidney function markers, with lower prevalence of diabetes and obesity, and who used fewer medications formed cluster 1 (n=1203). Patients with higher prevalence of diabetes and obesity and who used more medications formed cluster 2 (n=1098). Patients with less favorable levels of bone mineral density, poor cardiac and kidney function markers, and inflammation delineated cluster 3 (n=395). These three subgroups, when linked with future clinical end points, were associated with different risks of CKD progression, cardiovascular disease, and death. Furthermore, patient heterogeneity among predefined subgroups with similar baseline kidney function emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Consensus clustering synthesized the patterns of baseline clinical and laboratory measures and revealed distinct CKD subgroups, which were associated with markedly different risks of important clinical outcomes. Further examination of patient subgroups and associated biomarkers may provide next steps toward precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/classification , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Bone Density , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Function Tests , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Unsupervised Machine Learning , Young Adult
13.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456336

ABSTRACT

Calcium supplementation and fortification are strategies widely used to prevent adverse outcome in population with low-calcium intake which is highly frequent in low-income settings. We aimed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of calcium fortified foods on calcium intake and related health, or economic outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis involving participants of any age or gender, drawn from the general population. We searched PubMed, Agricola, EMBASE, CINAHL, Global Health, EconLit, the FAO website and Google until June 2019, without language restrictions. Pair of reviewers independently selected, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies using Covidence software. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. We performed meta-analyses using RevMan 5.4 and subgroup analyses by study design, age group, and fortification levels. We included 20 studies of which 15 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), three were non-randomised studies and two were economic evaluations. Most RCTs had high risk of bias on randomization or blinding. Most represented groups were women and children from 1 to 72 months, most common intervention vehicles were milk and bakery products with a fortification levels between 96 and 1200 mg per 100 g of food. Calcium intake increased in the intervention groups between 460 mg (children) and 1200 mg (postmenopausal women). Most marked effects were seen in children. Compared to controls, height increased 0.83 cm (95% CI 0.00; 1.65), plasma parathyroid hormone decreased -1.51 pmol/L, (-2.37; -0.65), urine:calcium creatinine ratio decreased -0.05, (-0.07; -0.03), femoral neck and hip bone mineral density increased 0.02 g/cm2 (0.01; 0.04) and 0.03 g/cm2 (0.00; 0.06), respectively. The largest cost savings (43%) reported from calcium fortification programs came from prevented hip fractures in older women from Germany. Our study highlights that calcium fortification leads to a higher calcium intake, small benefits in children's height and bone health and also important evidence gaps for other outcomes and populations that could be solved with high quality experimental or quasi-experimental studies in relevant groups, especially as some evidence of calcium supplementation show controversial results on the bone health benefit on older adults.


Subject(s)
Calcium, Dietary , Calcium/administration & dosage , Food, Fortified , Aged , Bone Density , Calcium/blood , Calcium/deficiency , Calcium/urine , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hip Fractures/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , Male
14.
Endocrine ; 74(3): 461-469, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bone fragility has been linked to COVID-19 severity. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a diagnosis of vertebral fracture (VF) increased mortality risk in COVID-19 patients and whether this effect was greater than in those without COVID-19. METHODS: We assessed VFs by computed tomography (CT) in a cohort of 501 patients consecutively admitted to the emergency department (ED) for clinical suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave of pandemic emergency. Of those, 239 had a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. RESULTS: VF prevalence was similar between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups (22.2 vs. 19%; p = 0.458). Death rates were similar between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups at both 30 (15.8 vs. 12.2%; p = 0.234) and 120 days (21.8 vs. 17.6%; p = 0.236). The mortality risk was higher in COVID-19 patients either with one or multiple fractures compared to those without VFs, at 30 and 120 days, but statistical significance was reached only in those with multiple VFs (30-day HR 3.03, 95% CI 1.36-6.75; 120-day HR 2.91, 95% CI 1.43-5.91). In the non-COVID-19 group, the 30-day mortality risk was significantly higher in patients either with one (HR 7.46, 95% CI 3.12-17.8) or multiple fractures (HR 6.2, 95% CI 2.75-13.98) compared to those without VFs. A similar effect was observed at 120 days. After adjustment for age, sex and bone density, mortality risk remained associated with VFs in the non-COVID-19 group only. CONCLUSIONS: VFs were not independently associated with short-term mortality in patients with COVID-19, but they strongly increased mortality risk in those without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoporotic Fractures , Spinal Fractures , Bone Density , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Osteoporotic Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Osteoporotic Fractures/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Fractures/epidemiology
15.
Clin Ther ; 43(4): 711-719, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and severe hypercalcemia, parathyroidectomy remains the only curative therapy. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, when many hospital visits are suspended and surgeries cannot be performed, the management of these patients represents a challenging clinical situation. This article presents a literature review and discussion of the pharmacologic management of PHPT and severe hypercalcemia, which can be used as a temporary measure during the COVID-19 pandemic until parathyroidectomy can be performed safely. METHODS: This narrative review was conducted by searching literature on the PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar databases using the terms primary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, cinacalcet, bisphosphonates, denosumab, vitamin D, raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy, coronavirus, and COVID-19. FINDINGS: Appropriate monitoring and remote medical follow-up of these patients are essential until the resolution of the pandemic. Cinacalcet is the drug of choice for controlling hypercalcemia, whereas bisphosphonate or denosumab is the drug for improving bone mineral density. Combined therapy with cinacalcet and bisphosphonates or cinacalcet and denosumab should be considered when the effects on serum calcium and bone mineral density are simultaneously desired. IMPLICATIONS: Medical management of PHPT and severe hypercalcemia presents a reasonable alternative for parathyroid surgery during the COVID-19 outbreak and should be instituted until the pandemic ends and surgery can be performed safely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy , Hyperparathyroidism, Primary/drug therapy , Bone Density/drug effects , Calcium/blood , Cinacalcet/administration & dosage , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Parathyroidectomy , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/pharmacology
16.
J Clin Densitom ; 24(4): 506-515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345410

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of the vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) on chest computed tomography (CT) in COVID-19 patients. The chest CT of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated for Pneumonia Severity Score (PSS) as the ratio of the volume of involved lung parenchyma to the total lung volume. In addition, BMD was manually measured from the vertebral corpus using axial CT images. The relationships of clinical variables, PSS and vertebral BMD with patient outcomes, namely mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation were investigated. Lower BMD was defined as ≤100 HU. The study included 209 patients (118 males, 56.4%). As a result of the univariate analysis, the rates of mortality, ICU admission and mechanical ventilation were 17.2% (n = 36), 24.8% (n = 52), and 20.6% (n = 43), respectively, and they were significantly higher among the patients with lower BMD (38.1 vs 13.0%, p < 0.001; 33.4 vs 21.2%, p = 0.002; and 38.1 vs 8.2%, p < 0.001, respectively). In the mortality group, PSS was significantly higher (median, 9 vs 5; p < 0.001) and vertebral BMD was significantly lower (median, 83 vs 139; p < 0.001). Severe clinical incidence was significantly higher in patients with lower BMD compared to those with higher BMD (39.7 vs 24.7% and p = 0.028). There was a significant correlation between clinical classification and lower BMD (r = 0.152 and p = 0.028). The multivariate analysis revealed vertebral BMD [odds ratio (OR), 1.028; 95% CI, 1.011-1.045, p = 0.001) and lower BMD (OR, 4.682; 95% CI, 1.784-12.287, p = 0.002) as significant independent predictors of mortality. Vertebral BMD is a strong independent predictor of mortality that is reproducible and can be easily evaluated on the chest CT images of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Singapore Med J ; 62(4): 159-166, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326002

ABSTRACT

Screening for osteoporosis in women can be based on age and weight, using the Osteoporosis Screening Tool for Asians and assessment for other risk factors such as early menopause, Chinese ethnicity and other secondary factors. Based on the resulting risk profile, women can be triaged to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning for definite diagnosis of osteoporosis. Treatment should be considered in women with previous fragility fractures, DEXA-diagnosed osteoporosis and high risk of fracture. Exercise improves muscle function, can help prevent falls and has moderate effects on improvements in bone mass. Women should ensure adequate calcium intake and vitamin D. Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) effectively prevents osteoporosis and fractures, and should be encouraged in those aged < 50 years. For women aged < 60 years, MHT or tibolone can be considered, especially if they have vasomotor or genitourinary symptoms. Risedronate or bisphosphonates may then be reserved for those aged over 60 years.


Subject(s)
Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Osteoporosis , Bone Density , Diphosphonates , Female , Humans , Menopause , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/diagnosis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/prevention & control
18.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(3): 591-604, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298500

ABSTRACT

As the most successful therapy for missing teeth, dental implant has become increasingly prevalent around the world. A lot of papers have reported diverse local risk factors affecting the success and survival rate of dental implants, either for a short or a long period. However, there are also many types of systemic disorders or relatively administrated medicine that may jeopardize the security and success of dental implant treatment. Additionally, the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic also poses a challenge to dental implant clinicians. Some of these risk factors are clinically common but to some extent unfamiliar to dentists, thus optimal measurements are often lacking when they occur in dental clinics. In this review, we analyze potential systemic risk factors that may affect the success rate of dental implants. Some of them may affect bone mineral density or enhance the likelihood of local infection, thus impeding osseointegration. Others may even systemically increase the risk of the surgery and threaten patients' life. In order to help novices receive high-risk patients who need to get dental implant treatment in a more reasonable way, we accordingly review recent research results and clinical experiments to discuss promising precautions, such as stopping drugs that impact bone mineral density or the operation, and addressing any perturbations on vital signs.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Dental Implants/standards , Dental Restoration Failure/statistics & numerical data , Osseointegration , Humans , Risk Factors
19.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 571-582, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186647

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Temporary cessation of exercise but maintenance of habitual physical activity might be a frequent situation in older people's lives. Particularly the COVID-19 induced lockdown of exercise training facilities with individual outdoor activities still being allowed might be a blueprint for this potentially harmful scenario. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of 6 months of detraining after 18 months of high-intensity resistance exercise (HIT-RT) on body composition and cardiometabolic outcomes in predominately obese older men with osteosarcopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Community-dwelling predominately obese men 72-91 years old with low muscle and bone mass (n=43) were randomly assigned to an 18-month HIT-RT (EG: n=21) or a non-training control group (CG, n=22). After the intervention, participants of the EG discontinued HIT-RT for 6 months, but increased their habitual physical activity. Study outcomes were group differences in detraining changes ("effects") for lean body mass (LBM), total and abdominal body fat rate (determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and the Metabolic Syndrome Z-Score (MetSZ). We applied an intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation to analyze the data. RESULTS: After the 18-month HIT-RT, we observed significant positive training effects for LBM, total and abdominal body fat rate and the MetSZ (all p<0.001). Abrupt cessation of HIT-RT for 6 months resulted in significantly higher unfavorable changes in the HIT-RT compared with the CG for LBM (p=0.001), total body fat (p=0.003) and the MetSZ (p=0.003), apart from abdominal body fat (p=0.059). However, significant overall effects were still present after 24 months for LBM and body fat indices but not for the MetSZ. CONCLUSION: The present study clearly indicates the unfavorable effects of 6 months of detraining after HIT-RT. Correspondingly, exercise protocols particularly for older people should focus on continuous exercise with short regeneration periods rather than on intermitted protocols with pronounced training breaks.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Sarcopenia/physiopathology , Abdominal Fat , Absorptiometry, Photon , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise/physiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Independent Living , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Obesity/complications , Resistance Training , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/complications
20.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 109(1): 1-11, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130753

ABSTRACT

Periods of absence from supervised group exercise while maintaining physical activity might be a frequent pattern in adults' exercise habits. The aim of the present study was to determine detraining effects on musculoskeletal outcomes after a 3-month detraining period in early post-menopausal, osteopenic women. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we terminated the 18-month randomized controlled ACTLIFE exercise intervention immediately after the 13-month follow-up assessment. This put an abrupt stop to the high-intensity aerobic and resistance group exercise sessions undertaken three times per week by the exercise group (EG: n = 27) and the gentle exercise program performed once per week for the attention control group (CG: n = 27); but both groups were permitted to conduct individual outdoor activity for the 3-month lock-down period. Study endpoints were lean body mass (LBM), bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), maximum hip-/leg extension strength and power. Detraining-induced reductions of LBM, hip/leg strength and power (but not BMD-LS) were significantly greater (p < 0.001 to p = 0.044) compared with the CG. Significant exercise effects, i.e. differences between EG and CG, present after 13 months of exercise, were lost after 3 months of detraining for LBM (p = 0.157) and BMD-LS (p = 0.065), but not for strength (p < 0.001) and power (p < 0.001). Of note, self-reported individual outdoor activities and exercise increased by about 40% in both groups during the lock-down period. Three months' absence from a supervised group exercise protocol resulted in considerable detraining effects for musculoskeletal parameters. Thus, exercise programs for adults should be continuous rather than intermittent.Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04420806, 06.05.2020.


Subject(s)
Bone Density , Exercise , Musculoskeletal System , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Adult , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Postmenopause
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