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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 151, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than one-third of the total world population is infected by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). T. gondii has been linked to various diseases, such as cancer, mental disorders, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), etc. However, the effects of T. gondii infection on the risk of osteoporosis are unclear. Our study aimed to uncover evidence to determine whether patients exposed to T. gondii have an increased or decreased risk of osteoporosis in people with abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) by using case-control study. METHODS: A total of 729 patients, including 316 osteopenia and 413 osteoporosis patients of Han Chinese ancestry were selected in the study. Their blood samples were collected and the levels of specific IgG antibodies against T. gondii were measured using ELISA assay. We obtained some information about the patients from the medical record that included demographic indexes and clinical data. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of T. gondii infection on femur osteoporosis, lumbar osteoporosis and compound osteoporosis. Potential interaction was analyzed using multifactor dimensionality reduction software 1.0.0 (MDR 1.0.0). RESULTS: 113 positive patients with T. gondii infections have been detected, including 80 cases of osteoporosis and 33 cases of osteopenia, the infection rates of T. gondii were 19.37% (80/413) and 10.44% (33/316), respectively. The patients with T.gondii infections were at a 2.60 times higher risk of suffering from compound osteoporosis than those without T. gondii infections (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.54-4.39, P < 0.001), but not associated with femur osteoporosis (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.43-2.34, P = 0.989) and lumbar osteoporosis (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.34-2.07, P = 0.705) after adjusting for the covariates. Moreover, a significantly higher risk of compound osteoporosis in the individuals with all two factors (T. gondii infection, Female) was observed compared with reference group (without T. gondii infection, male) under the interaction model (OR = 11.44, 95%CI = 5.44-24.05, P < 0.001). And the individuals with all two factors (T. gondii infection, over 70 years) exhibited a 8.14-fold higher possibility of developing compound osteoporosis compared with reference group (without T. gondii infection, under 70 years) (OR = 8.14, 95% CI 3.91-16.93, P < 0.001). We further stratified by age and sex, and found that women with T. gondii infection was more likely to develop compound osteoporosis than those without infection(OR = 3.12, 95% CI 1.67-5.81, P < 0.001), but we not found the association between T. gondii infection and compound osteoporosis in males (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 0.37-4.94, P = 0.645). CONCLUSIONS: T. gondii infection is a risk factor for osteoporosis, especially compound osteoporosis. Meanwhile, it is very necessary for patients with osteoporosis to further diagnose and treat T. gondii infection, especially women.


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Osteoporosis , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Osteoporosis/etiology , Risk Factors , Toxoplasmosis/complications , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(8): 3046-3056, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The number patients surviving COVID-19 hospitalization is steadily increasing. Follow-up management for these patients relies on an understanding of the long-term effects of COVID-19. Specifically, there are insufficient data about the lasting effects of COVID-19 on bone health. We aim in this study to evaluate whether COVID-19 illness and treatment adversely affect the bone health of surviving patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed the bone mineral density (BMD) of hospitalized COVID-19 patients at diagnosis and at follow-up visits. Using the chest computed tomography (CT) scans of patients that were obtained for clinical management at diagnosis and follow-up visits, BMD was retrospectively measured by quantitative CT. The effect of COVID-19 severity markers and treatment-related factors on BMD were also assessed. RESULTS: BMD decreased by a mean of 8.6% (± 10.5%) from diagnosis to follow-up. The follow-up visits occurred at a mean of 81 (± 48) days after hospital discharge. The BMD decrease was significantly greater than expected for age-related annual BMD loss. The osteoporosis ratio increased two-fold after hospitalization for COVID-19 because of this substantial bone loss. On multivariable linear regression, only severity of COVID-19 pneumonia on initial chest CT and total steroid dose were predictive of change in BMD after COVID-19 hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary osteoporosis may occur as a post-acute sequela of COVID-19. Therefore, the bone health status of patients surviving COVID-19 hospitalization should be monitored closely at follow-up visits, to facilitate the prevention and early treatment of osteoporosis complications.


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases, Metabolic , COVID-19 , Osteoporosis , Bone Density , Humans , Osteoporosis/etiology , Retrospective Studies
3.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 571-582, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186647

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Temporary cessation of exercise but maintenance of habitual physical activity might be a frequent situation in older people's lives. Particularly the COVID-19 induced lockdown of exercise training facilities with individual outdoor activities still being allowed might be a blueprint for this potentially harmful scenario. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of 6 months of detraining after 18 months of high-intensity resistance exercise (HIT-RT) on body composition and cardiometabolic outcomes in predominately obese older men with osteosarcopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Community-dwelling predominately obese men 72-91 years old with low muscle and bone mass (n=43) were randomly assigned to an 18-month HIT-RT (EG: n=21) or a non-training control group (CG, n=22). After the intervention, participants of the EG discontinued HIT-RT for 6 months, but increased their habitual physical activity. Study outcomes were group differences in detraining changes ("effects") for lean body mass (LBM), total and abdominal body fat rate (determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and the Metabolic Syndrome Z-Score (MetSZ). We applied an intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation to analyze the data. RESULTS: After the 18-month HIT-RT, we observed significant positive training effects for LBM, total and abdominal body fat rate and the MetSZ (all p<0.001). Abrupt cessation of HIT-RT for 6 months resulted in significantly higher unfavorable changes in the HIT-RT compared with the CG for LBM (p=0.001), total body fat (p=0.003) and the MetSZ (p=0.003), apart from abdominal body fat (p=0.059). However, significant overall effects were still present after 24 months for LBM and body fat indices but not for the MetSZ. CONCLUSION: The present study clearly indicates the unfavorable effects of 6 months of detraining after HIT-RT. Correspondingly, exercise protocols particularly for older people should focus on continuous exercise with short regeneration periods rather than on intermitted protocols with pronounced training breaks.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Sarcopenia/physiopathology , Abdominal Fat , Absorptiometry, Photon , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise/physiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Independent Living , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Obesity/complications , Resistance Training , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/complications
4.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 80(3): 344-355, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159771

ABSTRACT

The objectives are to present an updated synopsis on osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome and evaluate the roles of selected micronutrients in its prevention and management. OSA refers to the concurrent deterioration of bone (osteopenia/osteoporosis), muscle (sarcopenia) and adipose tissue expansion. It portrays the most advanced stage in a continuum of body composition disorders. Although OSA has been widely studied involving the populations of different backgrounds, its prevalence is hard to collate because different methodologies and criteria were used for its diagnosis. Another critical health aspect is the presence of low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) which contributes to OSA and vice versa. Nutrition is important in the prevention and management of both OSA and LGCI. Although micronutrients act in numerous metabolic and physiological processes, their roles here are presented in relation to OSA (and its components) and LGCI in general and relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. These include calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and vitamins D and K; their interactions, physiological ratios and synergism/antagonism are discussed as well. In conclusion, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D have a profound impact on OSA and its components, and the latter two also on LGCI. Potassium and vitamin K are vital in bone, muscle functioning and possibly adipose tissue modification. Both, but particularly vitamin D, surfaced as important modulators of immune system with application in COVID-19 infections. While both phosphorus and sodium have important roles in bone, muscle and can impact adiposity, due to their abundance in food, their intake should be curbed to prevent possible damaging effects.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Obesity , Osteoporosis , Sarcopenia , Trace Elements , Vitamins , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diet therapy , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Humans , Obesity/diet therapy , Obesity/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/diet therapy , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Sarcopenia/diet therapy , Sarcopenia/prevention & control , Syndrome , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/metabolism , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/physiology
5.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 83-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067507

ABSTRACT

The menopausal transition is a critical period in women's lives. Exercise might be the most promising non-pharmaceutic intervention to address the large variety of risk factors related to the pronounced estradiol decline during peri- and early-postmenopause. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 18-month multipurpose exercise program on risk factors and symptoms related to the menopausal transition. Fifty-four women 1-5 years postmenopause with osteopenia or osteoporosis were randomly assigned 1) to a high impact weight-bearing/high-intensity/velocity resistance training group (EG: n=27) exercising three times a week or 2) to an attendance control group (CG: n=27) that performed low-intensity exercise once a week. Both groups were supplemented with cholecalciferol and calcium. The primary study endpoint was bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and total hip, secondary outcomes were lean body mass (LBM), total and abdominal body percentage, metabolic syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z), menopausal symptoms and muscle strength and power. Due to COVID-19, the study was stopped after 13 months. We observed significant effects for BMD-LS (EG: 0.002±.018 versus CG: -.009±0.018 mg/cm2, p=0.027) but not for BMD total hip (EG: -0.01±.016 versus CG: -.009±0.020 mg/cm2, p=0.129). LBM improved significantly in the EG and decreased in the CG (0.39±1.08 vs -0.37±1.34 kg, p=0.026). Total and abdominal body fat improved significantly in the EG and was maintained in the CG (-1.44±1.49 vs -0.02±1.55 kg, p=0.002 and -1.50±2.33 vs 0.08±2.07 kg, p=0.011). Significant effects in favor of the EG were also determined for menopausal symptoms (p=0.029), hip/leg extension strength (p<0.001) and power (p<0.001). However, changes of the MetS-Z did not differ significantly (p=0.149) between EG and CG. In summary, with minor exceptions, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a multipurpose exercise protocol dedicated to early-postmenopausal women on various risk factors and complaints related to the menopausal transition.


Subject(s)
Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , High-Intensity Interval Training/methods , Metabolic Syndrome/prevention & control , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Postmenopause , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/diagnosis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/therapy , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior
6.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028881

ABSTRACT

As more insight is gained into personalized health care, the importance of personalized nutritional and behavioral approaches is even more relevant in the COVID-19 era, in addition to the need for further elucidation regarding several diseases/conditions. One of these concerning body composition (in this context; bone, lean and adipose tissue) is osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome. OSA occurs most often with aging, but also in cases of some chronic diseases and is exacerbated with the presence of low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI). OSA has been associated with poor nutrition, metabolic disorders and diminished functional abilities. This paper addresses various influences on OSA and LGCI, as well as their mutual action on each other, and provides nutritional and behavioral approaches which could be personalized to help with either preventing or managing OSA and LGCI in general, and specifically in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Addressed in more detail are nutritional recommendations for and roles of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive food components; the microbiome; and optimal physical activity regimens. Other issues, such as food insecurity and nutritional inadequacy, circadian misalignment and shift workers are addressed as well. Since there is still a lack of longer-term primary studies in COVID-19 patients (either acute or recovered) and interventions for OSA improvement, this discussion is based on the existing knowledge, scientific hypotheses and observations derived from similar conditions or studies just being published at the time of this writing.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/therapy , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Adiposity/physiology , Aged , Aging , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/complications , Diet/standards , Food Supply , Humans , Malnutrition , Sarcopenia/complications , Syndrome
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