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1.
Dis Model Mech ; 14(1)2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910406

ABSTRACT

Human lifespan is now longer than ever and, as a result, modern society is getting older. Despite that, the detailed mechanisms behind the ageing process and its impact on various tissues and organs remain obscure. In general, changes in DNA, RNA and protein structure throughout life impair their function. Haematopoietic ageing refers to the age-related changes affecting a haematopoietic system. Aged blood cells display different functional aberrations depending on their cell type, which might lead to the development of haematologic disorders, including leukaemias, anaemia or declining immunity. In contrast to traditional bulk assays, which are not suitable to dissect cell-to-cell variation, single-cell-level analysis provides unprecedented insight into the dynamics of age-associated changes in blood. In this Review, we summarise recent studies that dissect haematopoietic ageing at the single-cell level. We discuss what cellular changes occur during haematopoietic ageing at the genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic and metabolomic level, and provide an overview of the benefits of investigating those changes with single-cell precision. We conclude by considering the potential clinical applications of single-cell techniques in geriatric haematology, focusing on the impact on haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the elderly and infection studies, including recent COVID-19 research.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , Hematopoietic System/physiology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Aging/genetics , Animals , Bone Marrow/physiology , DNA Damage , Epigenome , Glycolysis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Mutation , Transcriptome
2.
Nat Immunol ; 23(5): 679-691, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878539

ABSTRACT

Here we report the identification of human CD66b-CD64dimCD115- neutrophil-committed progenitor cells (NCPs) within the SSCloCD45dimCD34+ and CD34dim/- subsets in the bone marrow. NCPs were either CD45RA+ or CD45RA-, and in vitro experiments showed that CD45RA acquisition was not mandatory for their maturation process. NCPs exclusively generated human CD66b+ neutrophils in both in vitro differentiation and in vivo adoptive transfer experiments. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis indicated NCPs fell into four clusters, characterized by different maturation stages and distributed along two differentiation routes. One of the clusters was characterized by an interferon-stimulated gene signature, consistent with the reported expansion of peripheral mature neutrophil subsets that express interferon-stimulated genes in diseased individuals. Finally, comparison of transcriptomic and phenotypic profiles indicated NCPs represented earlier neutrophil precursors than the previously described early neutrophil progenitors (eNePs), proNeus and COVID-19 proNeus. Altogether, our data shed light on the very early phases of neutrophil ontogeny.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD , Bone Marrow , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Cell Differentiation , Neutrophils , Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Receptors, IgG , Bone Marrow Cells , COVID-19 , GPI-Linked Proteins , Humans , Interferons , Neutrophils/cytology
5.
Reumatismo ; 73(4)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674966

ABSTRACT

Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a new acute-onset systemic inflammatory disease, which mainly affects children. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is characterized by the presence of immune sensitization to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in the absence of any clinical or radiological evidence of active disease. We present a child with MIS-C related to COVID-19, with latent TB in the bone marrow, and satisfactory response to tocilizumab. It is important to pay attention in the investigation of TB cases in countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, especially when opting for immunusuppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Latent Tuberculosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Bone Marrow , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Latent Tuberculosis/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(12): 1003.e1-1003.e13, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575018

ABSTRACT

In the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the number of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) with peripheral blood (PB) grafts increased significantly compared with HCTs with bone marrow (BM) grafts, which may be associated with adverse outcomes. We compared outcomes of HCT in BM graft and PB graft recipients age ≥18 years with hematologic malignancies who underwent T cell- replete haploidentical HCT and received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Among the 264 patients, 180 (68%) received a BM graft and 84 (32%) received a PB graft. The median patient age was 50 years in both groups. The majority (n = 199; 75%) received reduced-intensity conditioning. The rate of acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was higher in the BM graft recipients compared with the PB graft recipients (85% [n = 152] versus 55% [n = 46]; P < .01). The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment and the incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were comparable in the 2 groups. Among the patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, the rate of steroid-refractory aGVHD was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5% to 18%) in the BM group versus 32% (95% CI, 19% to 54%) in the PB group (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7, 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.3; P = .006). At 1 year post-HCT, the rate of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 8% (95% CI, 4% to 13%) in the BM group versus 22% (95% CI, 14% to 36%) in the PB group (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4-6.6; P = .005), and the rate of systemic therapy-requiring cGVHD was 2.5% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) versus 14% (95% CI, 7% to 27%), respectively (HR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 18; P = .004). The PB group had a significantly higher risk of bacterial and viral infections, with no appreciable advantage in the duration of hospitalization, immune reconstitution, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or survival. Our data suggest a benefit of the use of BM grafts over PB grafts for haplo-HCT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adolescent , Bone Marrow , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
8.
STAR Protoc ; 2(4): 100903, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514330

ABSTRACT

Determining how hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can be infected by viruses is necessary to understand and predict how the immune system will drive the host response. We present here a protocol to analyze the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to infect different subsets of human HSPCs, inlcuding procedures for SARS-CoV-2 production and titration, isolation of human HSPCs from different sources (bone marrow, umbilical cord, or peripheral blood), and quantification of SARS-Cov-2 infection capacity by RT-qPCR and colony forming unit assay. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Huerga Encabo et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/virology , Colony-Forming Units Assay/methods , Fetal Blood/virology , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/pathology , Humans
9.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(12): 1003.e1-1003.e13, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510070

ABSTRACT

In the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the number of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) with peripheral blood (PB) grafts increased significantly compared with HCTs with bone marrow (BM) grafts, which may be associated with adverse outcomes. We compared outcomes of HCT in BM graft and PB graft recipients age ≥18 years with hematologic malignancies who underwent T cell- replete haploidentical HCT and received graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. Among the 264 patients, 180 (68%) received a BM graft and 84 (32%) received a PB graft. The median patient age was 50 years in both groups. The majority (n = 199; 75%) received reduced-intensity conditioning. The rate of acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome was higher in the BM graft recipients compared with the PB graft recipients (85% [n = 152] versus 55% [n = 46]; P < .01). The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment and the incidence of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were comparable in the 2 groups. Among the patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, the rate of steroid-refractory aGVHD was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5% to 18%) in the BM group versus 32% (95% CI, 19% to 54%) in the PB group (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7, 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.3; P = .006). At 1 year post-HCT, the rate of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 8% (95% CI, 4% to 13%) in the BM group versus 22% (95% CI, 14% to 36%) in the PB group (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4-6.6; P = .005), and the rate of systemic therapy-requiring cGVHD was 2.5% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) versus 14% (95% CI, 7% to 27%), respectively (HR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 18; P = .004). The PB group had a significantly higher risk of bacterial and viral infections, with no appreciable advantage in the duration of hospitalization, immune reconstitution, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or survival. Our data suggest a benefit of the use of BM grafts over PB grafts for haplo-HCT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adolescent , Bone Marrow , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 108(4): 452-460, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509222

ABSTRACT

Bone is not only a mineralized and apparently non-vital structure that provides support for locomotion and protection to inner organs. An increasing number of studies are unveiling new biologic functions and connections to other systems, giving the rise to new fields of research, such as osteoimmunology. The bone marrow niche, a new entity in bone physiology, seems to represent the site where a complex crosstalk between bone and immune/inflammatory responses takes place. An impressive interplay with the immune system is realized in bone marrow, with reciprocal influences between bone cells and haematopoietic cells. In this way, systemic chronic inflammatory diseases realize a crosstalk with bone, resulting in bone disease. Thus, pathogenetic links between chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders and osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and ageing are common. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a general view of the progresses in the field of bone research and their potential clinical implications, with emphasis on the links with inflammation and the connections to osteoimmunology and chemokines.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Bone Marrow , Humans , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress
11.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e932765, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Constant stimulation of lymphocytes and histiocytes can result in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), which can be primary or secondary (sHLH). The main causes of sHLH are infections and hematological malignancies, especially non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite new insights into the pathogenesis of HLH, the diagnosis and treatment of this immune disorder remain a great challenge. CASE REPORT We present a case of a young adult without comorbidities whose clinical course was nonspecific for several months and resulted in late diagnosis of HLH secondary to peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). The etiological factor of recurring fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and deteriorating condition was unidentified for a long time before fatal sHLH was finally diagnosed. The patient was treated according to the HLH-2004 protocol; however, he did not achieve any response. Unfortunately, due to nonspecific symptoms, lack of lymphadenopathy for a long time, and negative positron emission tomography results, the diagnosis of PTCL was established only after the patient's death. CONCLUSIONS It should be emphasized that early diagnosis is crucial for better prognosis of patients with sHLH. Bone marrow biopsy is worth considering in patients with prolonged fever of unknown origin, hyperferritinemia, splenomegaly, and unexplained cytopenia of 2 or more lineages. Despite the existence of diagnostic and therapeutic protocols available in the literature, the prompt diagnosis and treatment of HLH remains a great challenge. More precise and specific diagnostic tools for HLH are needed.


Subject(s)
Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral , Bone Marrow , Fever , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral/complications , Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral/diagnosis , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Young Adult
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5376, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402068

ABSTRACT

Natural killer (NK) cells are important early responders against viral infections. Changes in metabolism are crucial to fuel NK cell responses, and altered metabolism is linked to NK cell dysfunction in obesity and cancer. However, very little is known about the metabolic requirements of NK cells during acute retroviral infection and their importance for antiviral immunity. Here, using the Friend retrovirus mouse model, we show that following infection NK cells increase nutrient uptake, including amino acids and iron, and reprogram their metabolic machinery by increasing glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism. Specific deletion of the amino acid transporter Slc7a5 has only discrete effects on NK cells, but iron deficiency profoundly impaires NK cell antiviral functions, leading to increased viral loads. Our study thus shows the requirement of nutrients and metabolism for the antiviral activity of NK cells, and has important implications for viral infections associated with altered iron levels such as HIV and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Retroviridae Infections/immunology , Animals , Bone Marrow , COVID-19 , Cytokines , HIV , HIV Infections , Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1/genetics , Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mitochondria , Retroviridae , Retroviridae Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
16.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(8): 762, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338531

ABSTRACT

While vaccination is the single most effective intervention to drastically reduce severe disease and death following SARS-CoV-2 infection, as shown in UK and Israel, some serious concerns have been raised for an unusual adverse drug reaction (ADR), including vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) with concurrent low platelets as well as capillary leak syndrome. In fact, the overall safety of the vaccine is highlighted by the low frequency of ADR considering that in UK, by the early June, 40 million first doses and 29 million second doses have been injected; nonetheless, 390 thrombotic events, including 71 fatal events have been reported. Interestingly, the cases reported low platelet counts with the presence of anti-platelet factor-4 (PF4) antibodies, indicating an abnormal clotting reaction. Here, out of three referred cases, we report a post-vaccine clinical case of fatal thrombosis with postmortem examination and whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis, whose pathogenesis appeared associated to a preexisting condition of thrombocytopenia due to myelodysplasia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thromboembolism/etiology , Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Middle Aged , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/complications , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/pathology
19.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273393

ABSTRACT

The bone marrow (BM) is key to protective immunological memory because it harbors a major fraction of the body's plasma cells, memory CD4+ and memory CD8+ T-cells. Despite its paramount significance for the human immune system, many aspects of how the BM enables decade-long immunity against pathogens are still poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the relationship between BM survival niches and long-lasting humoral immunity, how intrinsic and extrinsic factors define memory cell longevity and show that the BM is also capable of adopting many responsibilities of a secondary lymphoid organ. Additionally, with more and more data on the differentiation and maintenance of memory T-cells and plasma cells upon vaccination in humans being reported, we discuss what factors determine the establishment of long-lasting immunological memory in the BM and what we can learn for vaccination technologies and antigen design. Finally, using these insights, we touch on how this holistic understanding of the BM is necessary for the development of modern and efficient vaccines against the pandemic SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/physiology , Bone Marrow/physiology , Plasma Cells/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Vaccinology , Bone Marrow Cells/cytology , Bone Marrow Cells/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/physiology , Immunologic Memory/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccinology/methods , Vaccinology/trends
20.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 17(2): 547-550, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268381

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Health emergency due to COVID-19 started in Uruguay on March 13, 2020; our mastology unit tried to ensure adequate oncological care, and protect patients from the virus infection and complications. OBJECTIVE: To assess the health care activities in the "peak" of the pandemic during 3 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we collected data from the electronic health record. RESULTS: There were a total of 293 medical appointments from 131 patients (221 face-to-face), that decreased by 16.7% compared to the same period in 2019 (352 appointments). The medical appointments were scheduled to evaluate the continuity of systemic treatment or modifications (95 patients; 72.5%), follow-up (17; 12.9%), first-time consultation (12; 9.1%), and assess paraclinical studies (7; 5.3%). The patients were on hormone therapy (81 patients; 74%), chemotherapy (CT) (21; 19%), and anti-HER2 therapies (9; 8%). New twenty treatments were initiated. Of the 14 patients that were on adjuvant/neoadjuvant CT, 9 (64.3%) continued with the same regimen with the addition of prophylactic granulocyte-colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF), and 5 (35.7%), who were receiving weekly paclitaxel, continued the treatment with no changes. Of the seven patients that were on palliative CT, 2 (28.5%) continued the treatment with the addition of G-CSF, 3 (42.8%) continued with weekly capecitabine or paclitaxel with no treatment changes, and 2 (28.5%) changed their treatment regimen (a less myelosuppressive regimen was selected for one and due to progression of the disease in the other patient). The ninety patients who were receiving adjuvant, neoadjuvant, or palliative criteria hormone therapy and/or anti-HER2 therapies, continued the treatment with no changes. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that, although medical appointments decreased by approximately 17%, we could maintain healthcare activities, continued most of the treatments while the most modified was CT with G-CSF to avoid myelosuppression.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Bone Marrow/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Continuity of Patient Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/administration & dosage , Hematopoiesis/drug effects , Hematopoiesis/immunology , Humans , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Medical Oncology/standards , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Referral and Consultation/standards , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Triage/organization & administration , Triage/standards , Uruguay/epidemiology
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