Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 18 de 18
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862805

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is a chronical, systemic skeletal disorder characterized by an increase in bone resorption, which leads to reduced bone density. The reduction in bone mineral density and therefore low bone mass results in an increased risk of fractures. Osteoporosis is caused by an imbalance in the normally strictly regulated bone homeostasis. This imbalance is caused by overactive bone-resorbing osteoclasts, while bone-synthesizing osteoblasts do not compensate for this. In this review, the mechanism is presented, underlined by in vitro and animal models to investigate this imbalance as well as the current status of clinical trials. Furthermore, new therapeutic strategies for osteoporosis are presented, such as anabolic treatments and catabolic treatments and treatments using biomaterials and biomolecules. Another focus is on new combination therapies with multiple drugs which are currently considered more beneficial for the treatment of osteoporosis than monotherapies. Taken together, this review starts with an overview and ends with the newest approaches for osteoporosis therapies and a future perspective not presented so far.


Subject(s)
Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Animals , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Bone Resorption/drug therapy , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Humans , Osteoclasts/drug effects
2.
CMAJ ; 194(16): E587-E589, 2022 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808586
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662696

ABSTRACT

Magnesium (Mg) is a pivotal and very complex component of healthy aging in the cardiovascular-muscle-bone triad. Low Mg levels and low Mg intake are common in the general aging population and are associated with poorer outcomes than higher levels, including vascular calcification, endothelial dysfunction, osteoporosis, or muscle dysfunction/sarcopenia. While Mg supplementation appears to reverse these processes and benefit the triad, more randomized clinical trials are needed. These will allow improvement of preventive and curative strategies and propose guidelines regarding the pharmaceutical forms and the dosages and durations of treatment in order to optimize and adapt Mg prescription for healthy aging and for older vulnerable persons with comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Magnesium/metabolism , Osteoporosis/metabolism , Sarcopenia/metabolism , Aging/metabolism , Animals , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Healthy Aging/metabolism , Humans , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1534, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655627

ABSTRACT

It seems as though progressively more people are in the race to upload content, data, and information online; and hospitals haven't neglected this trend either. Hospitals are now at the forefront for multi-site medical data sharing to provide ground-breaking advancements in the way health records are shared and patients are diagnosed. Sharing of medical data is essential in modern medical research. Yet, as with all data sharing technology, the challenge is to balance improved treatment with protecting patient's personal information. This paper provides a novel split learning algorithm coined the term, "multi-site split learning", which enables a secure transfer of medical data between multiple hospitals without fear of exposing personal data contained in patient records. It also explores the effects of varying the number of end-systems and the ratio of data-imbalance on the deep learning performance. A guideline for the most optimal configuration of split learning that ensures privacy of patient data whilst achieving performance is empirically given. We argue the benefits of our multi-site split learning algorithm, especially regarding the privacy preserving factor, using CT scans of COVID-19 patients, X-ray bone scans, and cholesterol level medical data.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cholesterol/blood , Hospitals , Privacy , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , X-Rays
5.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(1): 38-39, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627339
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596156

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D-resistant rickets shows the resistance to vitamin D (Vit-D) therapy, which traditionally works well in cases with deficiency rickets. The signs start appearing as early as in the first month of life and are characterised by the defective mineralisation at the ends of cartilage and bones despite having normal Vit-D levels in the serum. This case report highlights the dental and maxillofacial manifestations in a 3-year-old girl diagnosed with pseudo-Vit-D deficiency rickets. The report also highlights the variations in the dental manifestations of the condition reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets , Rickets , Vitamin D Deficiency , Bone and Bones , Child , Child, Preschool , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets/complications , Female , Humans , Rickets/diagnosis , Rickets/etiology , Vitamin D , Vitamins
7.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 108(4): 452-460, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509222

ABSTRACT

Bone is not only a mineralized and apparently non-vital structure that provides support for locomotion and protection to inner organs. An increasing number of studies are unveiling new biologic functions and connections to other systems, giving the rise to new fields of research, such as osteoimmunology. The bone marrow niche, a new entity in bone physiology, seems to represent the site where a complex crosstalk between bone and immune/inflammatory responses takes place. An impressive interplay with the immune system is realized in bone marrow, with reciprocal influences between bone cells and haematopoietic cells. In this way, systemic chronic inflammatory diseases realize a crosstalk with bone, resulting in bone disease. Thus, pathogenetic links between chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders and osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and ageing are common. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a general view of the progresses in the field of bone research and their potential clinical implications, with emphasis on the links with inflammation and the connections to osteoimmunology and chemokines.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Bone Marrow , Humans , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress
8.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 24, 2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions, MSK pain and MSK injury/trauma are the largest contributors to the global burden of disability, yet global guidance to arrest the rising disability burden is lacking. We aimed to explore contemporary context, challenges and opportunities at a global level and relevant to health systems strengthening for MSK health, as identified by international key informants (KIs) to inform a global MSK health strategic response. METHODS: An in-depth qualitative study was undertaken with international KIs, purposively sampled across high-income and low and middle-income countries (LMICs). KIs identified as representatives of peak global and international organisations (clinical/professional, advocacy, national government and the World Health Organization), thought leaders, and people with lived experience in advocacy roles. Verbatim transcripts of individual semi-structured interviews were analysed inductively using a grounded theory method. Data were organised into categories describing 1) contemporary context; 2) goals; 3) guiding principles; 4) accelerators for action; and 5) strategic priority areas (pillars), to build a data-driven logic model. Here, we report on categories 1-4 of the logic model. RESULTS: Thirty-one KIs from 20 countries (40% LMICs) affiliated with 25 organisations participated. Six themes described contemporary context (category 1): 1) MSK health is afforded relatively lower priority status compared with other health conditions and is poorly legitimised; 2) improving MSK health is more than just healthcare; 3) global guidance for country-level system strengthening is needed; 4) impact of COVID-19 on MSK health; 5) multiple inequities associated with MSK health; and 6) complexity in health service delivery for MSK health. Five guiding principles (category 3) focussed on adaptability; inclusiveness through co-design; prevention and reducing disability; a lifecourse approach; and equity and value-based care. Goals (category 2) and seven accelerators for action (category 4) were also derived. CONCLUSION: KIs strongly supported the creation of an adaptable global strategy to catalyse and steward country-level health systems strengthening responses for MSK health. The data-driven logic model provides a blueprint for global agencies and countries to initiate appropriate whole-of-health system reforms to improve population-level prevention and management of MSK health. Contextual considerations about MSK health and accelerators for action should be considered in reform activities.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones/injuries , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Muscles/injuries , Musculoskeletal Pain/therapy , Bone and Bones/physiopathology , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Muscles/physiopathology , World Health Organization
9.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(3): 250-254, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By nature of their specialty, otolaryngologists are disproportionately exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 through aerosol-generating procedures and close proximity to the oropharynx during examination. METHODS: Our single-centre, retrospective study analysed the pertinence of guidelines produced by ENT UK to improve the investigation and management of suspected upper aerodigestive fish bone foreign bodies during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated 43.3 per cent (n = 13) low-risk cases and 56.7 per cent (n = 17) moderate-risk cases. Nine fish bones (two low risk, seven moderate risk) were found; none of these were confirmed with X-ray and three (moderate risk) required nasoendoscopy for diagnosis. One patient required rigid pharyngoscopy. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that soft tissue neck X-ray and flexible nasoendoscopy are unnecessary in low-risk cases; however, early nasoendoscopy in higher suspicion cases is appropriate. Recommendations are made about the long-term sustainability of these guidelines, and additional measures are encouraged that relate to repeat attendances and varying prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 in the hospital catchment area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endoscopy , Foreign Bodies/diagnosis , Foreign Bodies/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Oropharynx , Adult , Animals , Bone and Bones , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Fishes , Humans , Male , Personal Protective Equipment , Retrospective Studies , Seafood , United Kingdom
10.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 40(2): 325-341, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067095

ABSTRACT

To assess the chondroprotective effect and influence of N,N'-bis(1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3-oxopyrazol-4-yl) sebacamide (dpdo) that was synthesized through the reaction of phenazone with sebacoyl chloride and screened for its biological activity especially as anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory agent in a monoiodoacetate (MA)-induced experimental osteoarthritis (OA) model. Thirty male albino rats weighing "190-200 g" were divided randomly into three groups (10 each): control, MA-induced OA, and MA-induced OA + dpdo. In MA-induced OA rat, the tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factors, reactive oxygen species, as well as all the mitochondrial markers such as mitochondria membrane potential, swelling mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), and serum oxidative/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde level and activities of myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase) are elevated. Also, the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II), levels of ATP, the level of glutathione (GSH), and thiol were markedly diminished in the MA-induced OA group compared to the normal control rats. These findings showed that mitochondrial function is associated with OA pathophysiological alterations and high gene expressions of (IL-6, TNF-a, and IL-1b) and suggests a promising use of dpdo as potential ameliorative agents in the animal model of OA and could act as anti-inflammatory agent in case of severe infection with COVID-19. It is clearly appeared in improving the bone cortex and bone marrow in the treated group with the novel compound in histological and transmission electron microscopic sections which is a very important issue today in fighting severe infections that have significant effects on the blood indices and declining of blood corpuscles like COVID-19, in addition to declining the genotoxicity and inflammation induced by MA in male rats. The novel synthesized compound was highly effective in improving all the above mentioned parameters.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone and Bones/ultrastructure , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione/metabolism , Iodoacetic Acid , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Mitochondria/drug effects , Mitochondria/physiology , Osteoarthritis/chemically induced , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Succinate Dehydrogenase/metabolism
11.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063435

ABSTRACT

Currently, the world is under a pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2), responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). This disease is characterized by a respiratory syndrome that can progress to an acute respiratory distress syndrome. To date, limited effective therapies are available for the prevention or treatment of COVID­19; therefore, it is necessary to propose novel treatment options with immunomodulatory effects. Vitamin D serves functions in bone health and has been recently reported to exert protective effects against respiratory infections. Observational studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and a poor prognosis of COVID­19; this is alarming as vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. In Latin America, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is unknown, and currently, this region is in the top 10 according to the number of confirmed COVID­19 cases. Supplementation with vitamin D may be a useful adjunctive treatment for the prevention of COVID­19 complications. The present review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the potential immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in the prevention of COVID­19 and sets out vitamin D recommendations for the Latin American population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Bone and Bones , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Latin America , Prevalence , Renin-Angiotensin System
12.
World Neurosurg ; 147: e272-e274, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Craniotomies/craniostomies have been categorized as aerosol-generating procedures and are presumed to spread coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the presence of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 virus in the generated bone dust has never been proved. Our objective is to evaluate the presence of virus in the bone dust (aerosol) generated during emergency neurosurgical procedures performed on patients with active COVID-19. This would determine the true risk of disease transmission during the surgery. METHODS: Ten patients with active COVID-19 infection admitted to our institute in 1 month required emergency craniotomy/craniostomy. The bone dust and mucosal scrapings form paranasal sinuses (if opened) collected during these procedures were tested for the virus using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The entire surgical team was observed for any symptoms related to COVID-19 for 14 days following surgery. RESULTS: Nine patients had moderate viral load in their nasopharyngeal cavity, as detected on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. None of the samples of bone dust from these 10 patients tested positive. Mucosal scrapping obtained in 1 patient in which mastoid air cells were inadvertently opened tested negative as well. No health workers from the operating room developed COVID-19-related symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The bone dust generated during craniotomy/stomy of active patients does not contain the virus. The procedure on an active patient is unlikely to spread the disease. However, a study with larger cohort would be confirmatory.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones/virology , COVID-19/transmission , Craniotomy , Dust , Nasopharynx/virology , Paranasal Sinuses/virology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brain Neoplasms/secondary , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Decompressive Craniectomy , Female , Hematoma, Epidural, Cranial/surgery , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic/surgery , Humans , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Mastoid , Middle Aged , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt , Viral Load , Young Adult
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831006

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is a steroid hormone classically involved in the calcium metabolism and bone homeostasis. Recently, new and interesting aspects of vitamin D metabolism has been elucidated, namely the special role of the skin, the metabolic control of liver hydroxylase CYP2R1, the specificity of 1α-hydroxylase in different tissues and cell types and the genomic, non-genomic and epigenomic effects of vitamin D receptor, which will be addressed in the present review. Moreover, in the last decades, several extraskeletal effects which can be attributed to vitamin D have been shown. These beneficial effects will be here summarized, focusing on the immune system and cardiovascular system.


Subject(s)
Vitamin D/metabolism , 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase/metabolism , Animals , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Calcitriol/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Cytochrome P450 Family 2/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Mixed Function Oxygenases/metabolism , Receptors, Calcitriol/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase/metabolism
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 145: 110332, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816834

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a new kind of pneumonia which was proven to be supported by novel coronaviruses named SARS-CoV-2 emerges and it seems to be more complicate in its clinical course and management. Related researches have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 serves roles in respiratory, intestinal and neuronal diseases. Given the growing cases of COVID-19, analyzing the relevance between COVID-19 and fragile patients who suffer from bone destruction is entirely indispensable. Accordingly, the recapitulatory commentary is necessary to advance our knowledge on COVID-19 and orthopedics. In this article, we particularly clarify the possible relationship between the newly COVID-19 infection and bone lesions from the standpoints of dysimmunity and inflammatory storm.


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/blood , Hypoxia , Inflammation/physiopathology , Bone Diseases/pathology , Bone and Bones/pathology , Humans , Immune System Diseases/physiopathology , Models, Theoretical , Orthopedics , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteoclasts/cytology , Risk Factors
16.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110178, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704009

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a severe threat to global health management system since it has been detected in the human body. This pandemic was prompted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and rapidly developed into a public emergency with an alarming increase in cases and deaths. The increasing explorations to SARS-CoV-2 infection guide us to consider whether bone lesion is followed by this pathologic process. We especially focus on the underlying pathobiology that SARS-CoV-2 possibly mediated in bone remodeling and analyze the association of bone destruction with ACE2 in COVID-19 incidence, for preferable understanding the pathogenesis and providing necessary clinical management in orthopedics.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bone Diseases/complications , Bone and Bones/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bone Diseases/virology , Bone and Bones/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System , Mice , Models, Theoretical , Muscles/pathology , Orthopedics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(12): 2447-2455, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622381

ABSTRACT

This study compared the laboratory indexes in 40 non-severe COVID-19 patients with those in 57 healthy controls. In the peripheral blood system of non-severe symptom COVID-19 patients, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, osteocalcin N-terminal, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 significantly decreased, and total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, fibrinogen degradation products, human epididymal protein 4, serum ferritin, and C-reactive protein were elevated. SARS-CoV-2 infection can affect hematopoiesis, hemostasis, coagulation, fibrinolysis, bone metabolism, thyroid, parathyroid glands, the liver, and the reproductive system.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone and Bones/virology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinolysis , Hematopoiesis , Hemostasis , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Ovary/metabolism , Ovary/pathology , Ovary/virology , Parathyroid Glands/metabolism , Parathyroid Glands/pathology , Parathyroid Glands/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology , Testis/virology , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Gland/virology
18.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(14): 1197-1204, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594092

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging pandemic disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the majority of patients who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms, some patients develop severe symptoms that can permanently detract from their quality of life. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to SARS-CoV-1, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Both viruses infect the respiratory system, and there are direct and indirect effects of this infection on multiple organ systems, including the musculoskeletal system. Epidemiological data from the SARS pandemic of 2002 to 2004 identified myalgias, muscle dysfunction, osteoporosis, and osteonecrosis as common sequelae in patients with moderate and severe forms of this disease. Early studies have indicated that there is also considerable musculoskeletal dysfunction in some patients with COVID-19, although long-term follow-up studies have not yet been conducted. The purpose of this article was to summarize the known musculoskeletal pathologies in patients with SARS or COVID-19 and to combine this with computational modeling and biochemical signaling studies to predict musculoskeletal cellular targets and long-term consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Musculoskeletal System/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , Bone and Bones/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Humans , Joints/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/virology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Myalgia/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL