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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263375, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 disease burden continues to be high worldwide and vaccines continue to be developed to help combat the pandemic. Acceptance and risk perception for COVID-19 vaccines is unknown in Botswana despite the government's decision to roll out the vaccine nationally. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the acceptance rate and risk perception of COVID-19 vaccines amongst the general population in Botswana. METHODS: We interviewed 5300 adults in Botswana from 1-28 February 2021 using self-administered questionnaires. The main outcomes of the study were vaccine acceptance and hesitancy rates. Demographic, experiential and socio-cultural factors were explored for their association with outcome variables. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the participants were females (3199), with those aged 24-54 making the highest proportion (61%). The acceptance rate of COVID-19 vaccine was 73.4% (95% CI: 72.2%-74.6%) with vaccine hesitancy at 31.3% (95% CI: 30.0%-32.6%). When the dependent variable was vaccine acceptance, males had higher odds of accepting the vaccine compared to females (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). Individuals aged 55-64 had high odds of accepting the vaccine compared to those aged 65 and above (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.6, 2.5). The odds of accepting the vaccine for someone with primary school education were about 2.5 times that of an individual with post graduate level of education. Finally, individuals with comorbidities had higher odds (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.5) of accepting the vaccine compared to those without any underlying conditions. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a high acceptance rate for the COVID-19 vaccine and a low risk perception in Botswana. In order to achieve a high vaccine coverage and ensure a successful vaccination process, there is need to target populations with high vaccine hesitancy rates. A qualitative study to assess the factors associated with vaccine acceptance and hesitancy is recommended to provide an in-depth analysis of the findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/psychology , Intention , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e6, 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  The World Health Organization issued interim guidelines on essential health system preparedness and response measures for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The control of the pandemic requires healthcare system preparedness and response. AIM:  This study aimed to evaluate frontline COVID-19 primary health care professionals' (PHC-Ps) views on health system preparedness and response to the pandemic in the Mahalapye Health District (MHD). SETTING:  In March 2020, the Botswana Ministry of Health directed health districts to educate their health professionals about COVID-19. One hundred and seventy frontline PHC-Ps were trained in MHD; they evaluated the health system's preparedness and response. METHODS:  This was a cross-sectional study that involved a self-administered questionnaire using the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Health System response guidelines. RESULTS:  The majority (72.5%) of participants felt unprepared to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic at their level. Most of the participants (70.7%) acknowledged that the health system response plan has been followed. About half of the participants attributed a low score regarding the health system's preparedness (44.4%), its response (50.0%), and its overall performance (55.6%) to the COVID-19 pandemic. There was an association between participants' age and work experience and their overall perceptions of preparedness and response (p = 0.009 and p = 0.005, respectively). CONCLUSION:  More than half of the participants gave a low score to the MHD regarding the health system's preparedness and response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies are required to determine the causes of such attitudes and to be better prepared to respond effectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans
3.
Int J Drug Policy ; 102: 103590, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has seen the implementation of unprecedented legislation and policy, including drug control measures which in some countries, like Botswana, included a temporary full alcohol sales ban. However, the association of such absolute prohibition of alcohol sales on population drinking, including hazardous drinking, during the COVID-19 period has not yet been determined. This study investigated changes in retrospectively recalled alcohol use and hazardous drinking pre (prior 5th August 2020), during (5th August to 3rd September 2020) and post (after 4th September) the second alcohol sales ban in Botswana. Predictors of hazardous drinking across the three time points were also investigated. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 1318 adults with a past 12 months drinking history in Botswana was conducted in October 2020 following a month long alcohol sales prohibition. Participants completed a modified Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) alongside demographic questions. Participants were expected to retrospectively recall their alcohol use pre, during and post the second alcohol sales ban. RESULTS: The prevalence of alcohol use among participants with a past 12 months drinking history was 91.7% (95%CI= 90.1-93.1) before the second ban, 62.3% (95%CI= 59.7-64.9) during the second ban, and 90.4% (95%CI= 88.7-91.8) after the ban.. Hazardous drinking temporarily decreased by 30% during the second alcohol sales ban, and rose to the pre-ban levels of about 60% after the ban. Significant predictors of hazardous drinking at any of the three time points (pre, during and post the second ban) were being male (AOR ranging from 1.50 to 2.13 for all time points), earning between P3000-P6000 (AOR= 1.69 prior sales ban), being a student (AOR=0.56 during the sales ban), and being employed (AOR= 1.45 post the sales ban). CONCLUSION: The alcohol sales ban was associated with short-lived changes in alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking thereby likely contributed in providing the anticipated and much needed temporary relief to the health system sought by COVID-19 pandemic measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
4.
Nature ; 603(7902): 679-686, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638766

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in southern Africa has been characterized by three distinct waves. The first was associated with a mix of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, while the second and third waves were driven by the Beta (B.1.351) and Delta (B.1.617.2) variants, respectively1-3. In November 2021, genomic surveillance teams in South Africa and Botswana detected a new SARS-CoV-2 variant associated with a rapid resurgence of infections in Gauteng province, South Africa. Within three days of the first genome being uploaded, it was designated a variant of concern (Omicron, B.1.1.529) by the World Health Organization and, within three weeks, had been identified in 87 countries. The Omicron variant is exceptional for carrying over 30 mutations in the spike glycoprotein, which are predicted to influence antibody neutralization and spike function4. Here we describe the genomic profile and early transmission dynamics of Omicron, highlighting the rapid spread in regions with high levels of population immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Phylogeny , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , South Africa/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388478

ABSTRACT

We describe a cluster of six SARS-CoV-2 infections occurring in a crowded neonatal unit in Botswana, including presumed transmission among mothers, postnatal mother-to-neonate transmission and three neonate-to-healthcare worker transmissions. The affected neonate, born at 25 weeks' gestation weighing 785 g, had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test at 3 weeks of age which coincided with new onset of hypoxaemia and worsening respiratory distress. Because no isolation facility could accommodate both patient and mother, they were separated for 10 days, during which time the patient was switched from breastmilk to formula. Her subsequent clinical course was marked by several weeks of supplemental oxygen, sepsis-like presentations requiring additional antibiotics and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Despite these complications, adequate growth was achieved likely due to early initiation of nutrition. This nosocomial cluster highlights the vulnerabilities of neonates, caregivers and healthcare workers in an overcrowded environment, and underscores the importance of uninterrupted bonding and breast feeding, even during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Botswana/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 82, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357663

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020. Botswana reported its first case on 30th March 2020 and as of 31st January 2021 had 21,293 cases and 46 deaths. The University of Botswana Public Health Medicine Unit has made significant contributions to the national preparedness and response to COVID-19. The program alumni and Public Health Medicine residents have and continue to provide key technical support to the Ministry of Health and Wellness across the major pillars of COVID-19. This includes key roles in national and subnational coordination and planning, surveillance, case investigations and rapid response teams, points of entry, travel and transportation, infection prevention and control and case management. The unit is thus supporting the country in achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) primary objective of limiting human-to-human transmission, optimal care of the affected and maintaining essential services during the outbreak. The Public Health Medicine Unit has played a key role in capacity building including early rapid COVID-19 training of healthcare workers across the country. Furthermore faculty members and residents are involved in several COVID-19 research projects and collaborations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/education , Public Health/education , Botswana/epidemiology , Capacity Building , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Universities
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 398, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic may make them more susceptible to anxiety than the general population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and evaluate the potential effects of resilience, neuroticism, social support, and other sociodemographic factors on anxiety among HCWs from two African countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 373 HCWs was conducted in Botswana and Nigeria, using an anxiety rating scale, neuroticism subscale of Big Five Inventory, Oslo social support scale, and Resilience Scale. Data collection was done between May 1 and September 30, 2020. RESULTS: The participants' mean age (SD) was 38.42 (8.10) years, and 65.1% were females. Forty-nine (13.1%) of the HCWs reported clinical anxiety. In the final model of hierarchical multiple regression, neuroticism (B = 0.51, t = 10.59, p = p < 0.01), resilience (B = 0.34, t = - 7.11, p < 0.01), and social support (B = 0.079, t = - 2.11, p = 0.035) were associated with severe anxiety, after controlling for the significant sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Severe anxiety exists among HCWs in Africa, although the rate was lower than reported elsewhere. Neuroticism, resilience, and social support may be vital targets for psychological intervention in a pandemic as COVID-19; thus, their roles should be further explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety , Botswana/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Neuroticism , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e3, 2020 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089008

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted many lives worldwide. Training programmes in academic institutions have also been affected by the pandemic. Teaching and learning family medicine and public health medicine in the COVID-19 era require adjustments to training activities. At the University of Botswana, the pandemic presented an opportunity to steer training programmes in the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Medicine more towards service-learning. The department collaborated with the Ministry of Health and Wellness as well as the District Health Management teams in the national response to the pandemic as essential service providers. The increased demands for service provision were balanced with educational opportunities for trainees during the COVID-19 public health emergency. Including structured ongoing reflections for trainees involved in the COVID-19 response helps to connect service and the academic curriculum.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family Practice/education , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health/education , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Curriculum , Humans , Universities/organization & administration
9.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e3, 2020 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083050

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory disease caused by the virus now called as SARS-CoV-2 and first identified in Wuhan, China, has spread to all regions of the world. At the time of this write-up, over 5.1 million people had been infected by the virus globally. The World Health Organization estimates that in Africa over 5 million people would need hospital admission during the course of the pandemic. Interventions to prevent the disease include social distancing and nationwide lockdowns, which, whilst necessary, have had negative effects not only on the economic status of many but also on primary care and especially the management of chronic illnesses. There are opportunities for primary care physicians to continue learning, lend humanitarian aid and provide the needed care in this context. Social media has promising applications in this rapidly changing context.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Physician's Role , Physicians, Family , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family Practice , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Primary Health Care
10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(6): 615.e1-615.e12, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Widespread lockdowns imposed during the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis may impact birth outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the association between the COVID-19 lockdown and the risk of adverse birth outcomes in Botswana. STUDY DESIGN: In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis, Botswana enforced a lockdown that restricted movement within the country. We used data from an ongoing nationwide birth outcomes surveillance study to evaluate adverse outcomes (stillbirth, preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age fetuses, and neonatal death) and severe adverse outcomes (stillbirth, very preterm birth, very-small-for-gestational-age fetuses, and neonatal death) recorded prelockdown (January 1, 2020-April 2, 2020), during lockdown (April 3, 2020-May 7, 2020), and postlockdown (May 8, 2020-July 20, 2020). Using difference-in-differences analyses, we compared the net change in each outcome from the prelockdown to lockdown periods in 2020 relative to the same 2 periods in 2017-2019 with the net change in each outcome from the prelockdown to postlockdown periods in 2020 relative to the same 2 periods in 2017-2019. RESULTS: In this study, 68,448 women delivered a singleton infant in 2017-2020 between January 1 and July 20 and were included in our analysis (mean [interquartile range] age of mothers, 26 [22-32] years). Across the included calendar years and periods, the risk of any adverse outcome ranged from 27.92% to 31.70%, and the risk of any severe adverse outcome ranged from 8.40% to 11.38%. The lockdown period was associated with a 0.81 percentage point reduction (95% confidence interval, -2.95% to 1.30%) in the risk of any adverse outcome (3% relative reduction) and a 0.02 percentage point reduction (95% confidence interval, -0.79% to 0.75%) in the risk of any severe adverse outcome (0% relative reduction). The postlockdown period was associated with a 1.72 percentage point reduction (95% confidence, -3.42% to 0.02%) in the risk of any adverse outcome (5% relative reduction) and a 1.62 percentage point reduction (95% confidence interval, -2.69% to -0.55%) in the risk of any severe adverse outcome (14% relative reduction). Reductions in adverse outcomes were largest among women with human immunodeficiency virus and among women delivering at urban delivery sites, driven primarily by reductions in preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age fetuses. CONCLUSION: Adverse birth outcomes decreased from the prelockdown to postlockdown periods in 2020, relative to the change during the same periods in 2017-2019. Our findings may provide insights into associations between mobility and birth outcomes in Botswana and other low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Quarantine , Adult , Botswana/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Perinatal Death , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013699, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reducing the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global priority. Contact tracing identifies people who were recently in contact with an infected individual, in order to isolate them and reduce further transmission. Digital technology could be implemented to augment and accelerate manual contact tracing. Digital tools for contact tracing may be grouped into three areas: 1) outbreak response; 2) proximity tracing; and 3) symptom tracking. We conducted a rapid review on the effectiveness of digital solutions to contact tracing during infectious disease outbreaks. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits, harms, and acceptability of personal digital contact tracing solutions for identifying contacts of an identified positive case of an infectious disease. SEARCH METHODS: An information specialist searched the literature from 1 January 2000 to 5 May 2020 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase. Additionally, we screened the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs, cohort studies, cross-sectional studies and modelling studies, in general populations. We preferentially included studies of contact tracing during infectious disease outbreaks (including COVID-19, Ebola, tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, and Middle East respiratory syndrome) as direct evidence, but considered comparative studies of contact tracing outside an outbreak as indirect evidence. The digital solutions varied but typically included software (or firmware) for users to install on their devices or to be uploaded to devices provided by governments or third parties. Control measures included traditional or manual contact tracing, self-reported diaries and surveys, interviews, other standard methods for determining close contacts, and other technologies compared to digital solutions (e.g. electronic medical records). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened records and all potentially relevant full-text publications. One review author extracted data for 50% of the included studies, another extracted data for the remaining 50%; the second review author checked all the extracted data. One review author assessed quality of included studies and a second checked the assessments. Our outcomes were identification of secondary cases and close contacts, time to complete contact tracing, acceptability and accessibility issues, privacy and safety concerns, and any other ethical issue identified. Though modelling studies will predict estimates of the effects of different contact tracing solutions on outcomes of interest, cohort studies provide empirically measured estimates of the effects of different contact tracing solutions on outcomes of interest. We used GRADE-CERQual to describe certainty of evidence from qualitative data and GRADE for modelling and cohort studies. MAIN RESULTS: We identified six cohort studies reporting quantitative data and six modelling studies reporting simulations of digital solutions for contact tracing. Two cohort studies also provided qualitative data. Three cohort studies looked at contact tracing during an outbreak, whilst three emulated an outbreak in non-outbreak settings (schools). Of the six modelling studies, four evaluated digital solutions for contact tracing in simulated COVID-19 scenarios, while two simulated close contacts in non-specific outbreak settings. Modelling studies Two modelling studies provided low-certainty evidence of a reduction in secondary cases using digital contact tracing (measured as average number of secondary cases per index case - effective reproductive number (R eff)). One study estimated an 18% reduction in R eff with digital contact tracing compared to self-isolation alone, and a 35% reduction with manual contact-tracing. Another found a reduction in R eff for digital contact tracing compared to self-isolation alone (26% reduction) and a reduction in R eff for manual contact tracing compared to self-isolation alone (53% reduction). However, the certainty of evidence was reduced by unclear specifications of their models, and assumptions about the effectiveness of manual contact tracing (assumed 95% to 100% of contacts traced), and the proportion of the population who would have the app (53%). Cohort studies Two cohort studies provided very low-certainty evidence of a benefit of digital over manual contact tracing. During an Ebola outbreak, contact tracers using an app found twice as many close contacts per case on average than those using paper forms. Similarly, after a pertussis outbreak in a US hospital, researchers found that radio-frequency identification identified 45 close contacts but searches of electronic medical records found 13. The certainty of evidence was reduced by concerns about imprecision, and serious risk of bias due to the inability of contact tracing study designs to identify the true number of close contacts. One cohort study provided very low-certainty evidence that an app could reduce the time to complete a set of close contacts. The certainty of evidence for this outcome was affected by imprecision and serious risk of bias. Contact tracing teams reported that digital data entry and management systems were faster to use than paper systems and possibly less prone to data loss. Two studies from lower- or middle-income countries, reported that contact tracing teams found digital systems simpler to use and generally preferred them over paper systems; they saved personnel time, reportedly improved accuracy with large data sets, and were easier to transport compared with paper forms. However, personnel faced increased costs and internet access problems with digital compared to paper systems. Devices in the cohort studies appeared to have privacy from contacts regarding the exposed or diagnosed users. However, there were risks of privacy breaches from snoopers if linkage attacks occurred, particularly for wearable devices. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of digital solutions is largely unproven as there are very few published data in real-world outbreak settings. Modelling studies provide low-certainty evidence of a reduction in secondary cases if digital contact tracing is used together with other public health measures such as self-isolation. Cohort studies provide very low-certainty evidence that digital contact tracing may produce more reliable counts of contacts and reduce time to complete contact tracing. Digital solutions may have equity implications for at-risk populations with poor internet access and poor access to digital technology. Stronger primary research on the effectiveness of contact tracing technologies is needed, including research into use of digital solutions in conjunction with manual systems, as digital solutions are unlikely to be used alone in real-world settings. Future studies should consider access to and acceptability of digital solutions, and the resultant impact on equity. Studies should also make acceptability and uptake a primary research question, as privacy concerns can prevent uptake and effectiveness of these technologies.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Contact Tracing/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Patient Isolation/statistics & numerical data , Privacy , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Secondary Prevention/methods , Secondary Prevention/statistics & numerical data , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(7)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662420

ABSTRACT

School closures affecting more than 1.5 billion children are designed to prevent the spread of current public health risks from the COVID-19 pandemic, but they simultaneously introduce new short-term and long-term health risks through lost education. Measuring these effects in real time is critical to inform effective public health responses, and remote phone-based approaches are one of the only viable options with extreme social distancing in place. However, both the health and education literature are sparse on guidance for phone-based assessments. In this article, we draw on our pilot testing of phone-based assessments in Botswana, along with the existing literature on oral testing of reading and mathematics, to propose a series of preliminary practical lessons to guide researchers and service providers as they try phone-based learning assessments. We provide preliminary evidence that phone-based assessments can accurately capture basic numeracy skills. We provide guidance to help teams (1) ensure that children are not put at risk, (2) test the reliability and validity of phone-based measures, (3) use simple instructions and practice items to ensure the assessment is focused on the target skill, not general language and test-taking skills, (4) adapt the items from oral assessments that will be most effective in phone-based assessments, (5) keep assessments brief while still gathering meaningful learning data, (6) use effective strategies to encourage respondents to pick up the phone, (7) build rapport with adult caregivers and youth respondents, (8) choose the most cost-effective medium and (9) account for potential bias in samples.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Educational Measurement/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telephone , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
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