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1.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(11): e13859, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this context, vascular impairment in COVID-19 might be associated with clinical manifestations and could refine risk stratification in these patients. METHODS: This systematic review aims to synthesize current evidence on the frequency and the prognostic value of vascular dysfunction during acute and post-recovery COVID-19. After systematically searching the MEDLINE, clinicaltrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from 1 December 2019 until 05 March 2022, we identified 24 eligible studies with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 and a thorough examination of vascular function. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed in 5 and 12 studies in acute and post-recovery phase respectively; pulse wave velocity (PWV) was the marker of interest in three studies in the acute and four studies in the post-recovery phase. RESULTS: All studies except for one in the acute and in the post-recovery phase showed positive association between vascular dysfunction and COVID-19 infection. Endothelial dysfunction in two studies and increased arterial stiffness in three studies were related to inferior survival in COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Overall, a detrimental effect of COVID-19 on markers of endothelial function and arterial stiffness that could persist even for months after the resolution of the infection and provide prognostic value was congruent across published studies. Further research is warranted to elucidate clinical implications of this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Stiffness , Brachial Artery , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Pulse Wave Analysis
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(33): e30001, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001502

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is a highly infectious pathogenic coronavirus, which has appeared toward the end of 2019. The virus seen all over the world caused a pandemic of an acute respiratory disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). It has been shown that the virus that uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors is causing endothelial dysfunction resulting in vascular inflammation and coagulopathy. It is possible to assess endothelial dysfunction by the flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) technique. Our study aimed to demonstrate the effect of endothelial dysfunction assessed using the FMD on prognosis and mortality in the patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of Covid-19. In this prospective observational study, endothelial functions of 94 patients hospitalized due to the Covid-19 in the ward or intensive care unit (ICU) were evaluated by FMD. The relationship among endothelial dysfunction and prognosis of disease, biochemical parameters, lung involvement, and mortality was investigated. We found that the FMD% values of the Covid-19 ICU patients compared to those followed up in the ward (2.66 ± 0.62 vs. 5.23 ± 1.46/P < .001) and those who died due to Covid-19 compared to those who were discharged alive (2.57 ± 0.22 vs. 4.66 ± 1.7/P < .001) were significantly lower. There were moderate negative correlation between FMD% and peak values of D-dimer (r = -0.52, P < .001), troponin (r = -0.45, P < .001), ferritin (r = -0.47, P < .001), lactate dehydrogenase (r = -0.49, P < .001), and white blood cells count (r = -0.23, P = .024). Lower FMD% was associated with higher lung parenchymal involvement (P < .001). The optimum cutoff point of FMD in predicting mortality was found to be 3.135% (sensitivity: 1, selectivity: 0.70). According to our results, lower FMD% was associated with higher lung parenchyma involvement, ICU admission, and mortality rate in Covid-19 patients. The best cutoff point for predicting mortality of FMD was 3.135%. Nevertheless, largescale, multicenter studies are needed to evaluate lower FMD values as a risk factor for mortality in Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Brachial Artery , COVID-19 , Dilatation , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Vasodilation/physiology
3.
Exp Physiol ; 107(7): 708-721, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909553

ABSTRACT

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Are central and peripheral haemodynamics during handgrip exercise different in young adults 3-4 weeks following infection with of SARS-CoV-2 compared with young healthy adults. What is the main finding and its importance? Exercising heart rate was higher while brachial artery blood flow and vascular conductance were lower in the SARS-CoV-2 compared with the control group. These findings provide evidence for peripheral impairments to exercise among adults with SARS-CoV-2, which may contribute to exercise limitations. ABSTRACT: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can have a profound impact on vascular function. While exercise intolerance may accompany a variety of symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on exercising blood flow (BF) remains unclear. Central (photoplethysmography) and peripheral (Doppler ultrasound) haemodynamics were determined at rest and during rhythmic handgrip (HG) exercise at 30% and 45% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in young adults with mild symptoms 25 days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2: n = 8M/5F; age: 21 ± 2 years; height: 176 ± 11 cm; mass: 71 ± 11 kg) and were cross-sectionally compared with control subjects (Control: n = 8M/5F; age: 27 ± 6 years; height: 178 ± 8 cm; mass: 80 ± 25 kg). Systolic blood pressure, end systolic arterial pressure and rate pressure product were higher in the SARS-CoV-2 group during exercise at 45% MVC compared with controls. Brachial artery BF was lower in the SARS-CoV-2 group at both 30% MVC (Control: 384.8 ± 93.3 ml min-1 ; SARS-CoV-2: 307.8 ± 105.0 ml min-1 ; P = 0.041) and 45% MVC (Control: 507.4 ± 109.9 ml min-1 ; SARS-CoV-2: 386.3 ± 132.5 ml min-1 ; P = 0.002). Brachial artery vascular conductance was lower at both 30% MVC (Control: 3.93 ± 1.07 ml min-1  mmHg-1 ; SARS-CoV-2: 3.11 ± 0.98 ml min-1  mmHg-1 ; P = 0.022) and 45% MVC (Control: 4.74 ± 1.02 ml min-1  mmHg-1 ; SARS-CoV-2: 3.46 ± 1.10 ml min-1  mmHg-1 ; P < 0.001) in the SARS-CoV-2 group compared to control group. The shear-induced dilatation of the brachial artery increased similarly across exercise intensities in the two groups, suggesting the decrease in exercising BF may be due to microvascular impairments. Brachial artery BF is attenuated during HG exercise in young adults recently diagnosed with mild SARS-CoV-2, which may contribute to diminished exercise capacity among those recovering from SARS-CoV-2 like that seen in severe cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Brachial Artery/physiology , Hand Strength/physiology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Young Adult
4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 119(2): 319-325, 2022 08.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is known to play a crucial role in many diseases, including COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: Using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), we aimed to assess the effects of inflammation on endothelial function in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This study was conducted with a total of 161 subjects, of whom 80 were diagnosed with COVID-19 within the last six months (comprising 48 women and 32 men with a mean age of 32.10 ± 5.87 years) and 81 were healthy controls (comprising 45 women and 36 men with a mean age of 30.51 ± 7.33 years). We analyzed the findings of transthoracic echocardiography and FMD in all subjects. All results were considered statistically significant at the level of p < 0.05. RESULTS: The echocardiography and FMD of the COVID-19 group were performed 35 days (range: 25-178) after diagnosis. There was no statistically significant difference in echocardiographic parameters. Differently, FMD (%) was significantly higher in the control group (9.52 ± 5.98 vs. 12.01 ± 6.18, p=0.01). In multivariate analysis with the forward stepwise model, FMD was significantly different in the control group compared to the COVID-19 group (1.086 (1.026 - 1.149), p=0.04). A Spearman's correlation test indicated that FMD (r=0.27, p=0.006) had a weak positive correlation with the presence of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our findings point to COVID-19-induced endothelial dysfunction, as assessed by FMD, in the early recovery phase.


FUNDAMENTO: Sabe-se que a inflamação desempenha um papel crucial em muitas doenças, incluindo a COVID-19. OBJETIVO: Utilizando a dilatação fluxo-mediada (DFM), objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da inflamação na função endotelial de pacientes com COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi realizado com um total de 161 indivíduos, dos quais 80 foram diagnosticados com COVID-19 nos últimos seis meses (48 mulheres e 32 homens com idade média de 32,10±5,87 anos) e 81 eram controles saudáveis (45 mulheres e 36 homens com idade média de 30,51±7,33 anos). Os achados do ecocardiograma transtorácico e da DFM foram analisados em todos os indivíduos. Resultados com p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significantes. RESULTADOS: O ecocardiograma e a DFM do grupo COVID-19 foram realizados 35 dias (intervalo: 25­178) após o diagnóstico. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos. Em contraste, a DFM (%) foi significativamente maior no grupo controle (9,52±5,98 versus 12,01±6,18; p=0,01). Na análise multivariada com o modelo stepwise progressivo, a DFM foi significativamente diferente no grupo controle em relação ao grupo COVID-19 (1,086 (1,026­1,149), p=0,04). O teste de correlação de Spearman indicou que a DFM (r=0,27; p=0,006) apresentou correlação positiva fraca com a presença de COVID-19. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados deste estudo apontam para disfunção endotelial induzida por COVID-19, avaliada por DFM, na fase inicial de recuperação.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Diseases , Adult , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Dilatation , Dilatation, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Endothelium, Vascular , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Vasodilation , Young Adult
5.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 322(6): H906-H913, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765169

ABSTRACT

Studies have suggested a potential role of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Herein, we tested whether brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) measured upon hospital admission are associated with acute in-hospital outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. A total of 211 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were submitted to assessments of FMD and mean and maximum cIMT (cIMTmean and cIMTmax) within the first 72 h of hospital admission. Study primary outcome was a composite of intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, or death during the hospitalization. These outcomes were also considered independently. Thrombotic events were included as a secondary outcome. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unadjusted and adjusted multivariable logistic regression models. Eighty-eight (42%) participants demonstrated at least one of the composite outcomes. cIMTmean and cIMTmax were predictors of mortality and thrombotic events in the univariate analysis (cIMTmean and mortality: unadjusted OR 12.71 [95% CI 1.71-94.48]; P = 0.014; cIMTmean and thrombotic events: unadjusted OR 11.94 [95% CI 1.64-86.79]; P = 0.015; cIMTmax and mortality: unadjusted OR 8.47 [95% CI 1.41-51.05]; P = 0.021; cIMTmax and thrombotic events: unadjusted OR 12.19 [95% CI 2.03-73.09]; P = 0.007). However, these associations were no longer present after adjustment for potential confounders (P > 0.05). In addition, FMD% was not associated with any outcome. In conclusion, cIMT and FMD are not independent predictors of clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These results suggest that subclinical atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction may not be the main drivers of COVID-19 complications in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Studies have suggested a role of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in COVID-19 pathophysiology. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed the prognostic value of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in patients with COVID-19. Carotid IMT and FMD were not independent predictors of major outcomes. These results suggest that other risk factors may be the main drivers of clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Brachial Artery , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Dilatation , Endothelium, Vascular , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography , Vasodilation/physiology
6.
Hypertens Res ; 45(5): 846-855, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735235

ABSTRACT

To fight the COVID-19 pandemic, messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines were the first to be adopted by vaccination programs worldwide. We sought to investigate the short-term effect of mRNA vaccine administration on endothelial function and arterial stiffness. Thirty-two participants (mean age 37 ± 8 years, 20 men) who received the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine were studied in three sessions in a sequence-randomized, sham-controlled, assessor-blinded, crossover design. The primary outcome was endothelial function (assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD)), and the secondary outcomes were aortic stiffness (evaluated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV)) and inflammation (measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in blood samples). The outcomes were assessed prior to and at 8 h and 24 h after the 1st dose of vaccine and at 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h after the 2nd dose. There was an increase in hsCRP that was apparent at 24 h after both the 1st dose (-0.60 [95% confidence intervals [CI]: -1.60 to -0.20], p = 0.013) and the 2nd dose (maximum median difference at 48 h -6.60 [95% CI: -9.80 to -3.40], p < 0.001) compared to placebo. The vaccine did not change PWV. FMD remained unchanged during the 1st dose but decreased significantly by 1.5% (95% CI: 0.1% to 2.9%, p = 0.037) at 24 h after the 2nd dose. FMD values returned to baseline at 48 h. Our study shows that the mRNA vaccine causes a prominent increase in inflammatory markers, especially after the 2nd dose, and a transient deterioration of endothelial function at 24 h that returns to baseline at 48 h. These results confirm the short-term cardiovascular safety of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Stiffness , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , Brachial Artery , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pulse Wave Analysis , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(1): 165-171, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530202

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify determinants of endothelial dysfunction in patients hospitalized with acute COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 109 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in noncritical status were cross-sectionally studied. Clinical data (age, sex, comorbidities, and medications) and BMI were assessed. Laboratory tests included serum hemoglobin, leukocytes, lymphocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein, ferritin, D-dimer, and creatinine. Physical status was evaluated using a handgrip dynamometer. Endothelial function was assessed noninvasively using the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) method. RESULTS: The sample average age was 51 years, 51% of patients were male, and the most frequent comorbidity was obesity (62%). Univariate analysis showed association of lower FMD with higher BMI, hypertension, use of oral antihypertensive, higher blood levels of creatinine, and larger baseline artery diameter. After adjusting for confounders, the multivariate analysis showed BMI (95% CI: -0.26 to -0.11; p < 0.001) as the major factor associated with FMD. Other factors associated with FMD were baseline artery diameter (95% CI: -1.77 to -0.29; p = 0.007) and blood levels of creatinine (95% CI: -1.99 to -0.16; p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Increased BMI was the major factor associated with endothelial dysfunction in noncritically hospitalized COVID-19 patients. This may explain one of the pathways in which obesity may increase the risk for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brachial Artery , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endothelium, Vascular , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasodilation
8.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 320(1): H404-H410, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388544

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the lungs, the virus may be inflicting detriments to the cardiovascular system, both directly through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and initiating systemic inflammation. Persistent systemic inflammation may be provoking vascular dysfunction, an early indication of cardiovascular disease risk. To establish the potential effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the systemic vasculature in the arms and legs, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of young healthy adults (control: 5 M/15 F, 23.0 ± 1.3 y, 167 ± 9 cm, 63.0 ± 7.4 kg) and young adults who, 3-4 wk prior to testing, had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2: 4 M/7 F, 20.2 ± 1.1 y, 172 ± 12 cm, 69.5 ± 12.4 kg) (means ± SD). Using Doppler ultrasound, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the arm and single passive limb movement (sPLM) in the leg were assessed as markers of vascular function. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) was asvsessed as a marker of arterial stiffness. FMD was lower in the SARS-CoV-2 group (2.71 ± 1.21%) compared with the control group (8.81 ± 2.96%) (P < 0.01) and when made relative to the shear stimulus (SARS-CoV-2: 0.04 ± 0.02 AU, control: 0.13 ± 0.06 AU, P < 0.01). The femoral artery blood flow response, as evidenced by the area under the curve, from the sPLM was lower in the SARS-CoV-2 group (-3 ± 91 mL) compared with the control group (118 ± 114 mL) (P < 0.01). PWVcf was higher in the SARS-CoV-2 group (5.83 ± 0.62 m/s) compared with the control group (5.17 ± 0.66 m/s) (P < 0.01). Significantly lower systemic vascular function and higher arterial stiffness are evident weeks after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 among young adults compared with controls.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study was the first to investigate the vascular implications of contracting SARS-CoV-2 among young, otherwise healthy adults. Using a cross-sectional design, this study assessed vascular function 3-4 wk after young adults tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The main findings from this study were a strikingly lower vascular function and a higher arterial stiffness compared with healthy controls. Together, these results suggest rampant vascular effects seen weeks after contracting SARS-CoV-2 in young adults.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels/physiopathology , Brachial Artery/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity , Femoral Artery/physiopathology , Hyperemia/physiopathology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Vasodilation/physiology , Adolescent , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Area Under Curve , Blood Vessels/metabolism , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hyperemia/diagnostic imaging , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Young Adult
9.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 77: 83-85, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356139

ABSTRACT

The novel pandemic of coronavirus infection (COVID-19) has been linked with coagulopathy and thromboembolic events, causing limb loss and finally death. The present report describes a case of upper limb ischemia in a patient with COVID-19 infection, who lacked conventional risk factors for acute limb ischemia (ALI).mAn 83 year-old man with intraluminal thrombus and the occlusion of the axillary and brachial arteries, ceasing blood supply to the distal part of the body, was tested positive for the COVID-19 infection. The patient received therapeutic anticoagulation and underwent open thromboembolectomy, which failed to save the patient's life. The link between COVID-19 and thromboembolism remains unknown and needs further studies to be disclosed.


Subject(s)
Axillary Artery , Brachial Artery , COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Acute Disease , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography, Doppler
10.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 38(1): 25-32, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318779

ABSTRACT

The systemic effects of COVID-19 disease are still largely uncertain and needs to be scrutinized with further trials. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is responsible for the majority of adverse cardiovascular events. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is easily obtainable method to assess ED accurately. It is aimed to evaluate ED by measuring FMD following COVID-19 disease. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 disease were recruited to the hospital two month after the discharge. Sex and age-matched healthy subjects were determined as the control group. Blood samples and FMD measurements were obtained from each participant. All subjects were divided into two groups according to the presence of ED determined by FMD measurements. These two groups were compared in terms of demographic features and the presence of recovered COVID-19 disease. A total of 92 subjects consisting of 59 without ED and 33 with ED were included in the study. ED (+) group was older (p = 0.015) and more likely to have hypertension (p = 0.044) and COVID-19 rate was higher in ED (+) group (p = 0.009). While neutrophil count (p = 0.047) and CRP (p = 0.036) were higher, eGFR (p = 0.044) was lower in ED (+) group. In the backward multivariable regression analysis, COVID-19 disease [OR = 3.611, 95% CI 1.069-12.198, p = 0.039] and BMI [OR = 1.122, 95% CI 1.023-1.231, p = 0.015] were independent predictors of ED. COVID-19 disease may cause ED which is the major underlying factor of cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, COVID-19 disease may deteriorate the existing cardiovascular disease course. Detecting ED in the early phase or preventing by new treatment modalities may improve short and long-term outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Dilatation , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasodilation
11.
Jt Dis Relat Surg ; 32(2): 551-555, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279005

ABSTRACT

Although novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) primarily affects the respiratory system, it can affect multiple organ systems, leading to serious complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure. Nearly 20 to 55% of patients with COVID-19 experience coagulation disorders that cause high mortality in line with the severity of the clinical picture. Thromboembolism can be observed in both venous and arterial systems. The vast majority of thromboembolic events are associated with the venous system and are often observed as pulmonary embolism. Arterial thromboembolisms often involve the arteries in the lower extremities, followed by those in the upper extremities. Herein, we report a rare case of COVID-19 pneumonia whose left arm was amputated at the forearm level after arterial thromboembolism in the left upper extremity. This case report is valuable, as it is the first reported case of upper extremity arterial thromboembolism in Turkey, as well as the only case in the literature in which the patient underwent four surgical interventions and is still alive.


Subject(s)
Amputation/methods , Brachial Artery , COVID-19 , Reoperation/methods , Thrombectomy , Thromboembolism , Upper Extremity , Aged , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Brachial Artery/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Humans , Male , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombectomy/methods , Thromboembolism/complications , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Upper Extremity/pathology , Upper Extremity/surgery
12.
Respir Med ; 185: 106469, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prothrombotic phenotype and diffuse intravascular coagulation observed in COVID-19 reflect endothelial dysfunction, which is linked to blood flow delivery deficiencies and cardiovascular risk. Assessments of detect vascular deficiencies among newly diagnosed and hospitalized patients due to COVID-19 have yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess endothelial function characteristics in relation to length of hospitalization and mortality in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and compare to patients without COVID-19. METHODS: A prospective observational study involving 180 patients with confirmed COVID-19 (COVID-19 group) or suspected and ruled out COVID-19 (Non-COVID-19 group). Clinical evaluation and flow mediated vasodilation (FMD) were performed between the first 24-48 h of hospitalization. Patients were followed until death or discharge. RESULTS: We evaluated 98 patients (COVID-19 group) and 82 (Non-COVID-19 group), COVID-19 group remained hospitalized longer and more deaths occurred compared to the Non-COVID-19 group (p = 0.01; and p < 0.01). Patients in COVID-19 group also had a significantly greater reduction in both FMDmm and FMD% (p < 0.01 in both). We found that absolute FMD≤0.26 mm and relative FMD≤3.43% were the ideal cutoff point to predict mortality and longer hospital stay. In Kaplan Meyer's analysis patients had a high probability of death within a period of up to 10 days of hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Patients hospitalized for COVID-19 present endothelial vascular dysfunction early, remained hospitalized longer and had a higher number of deaths, when compared with patients without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brachial Artery/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Vasodilation/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 130(6): 1961-1970, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232371

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 has been largely described after symptom development. Although the SARS-CoV-2 virus elevates heart rate (HR) prior to symptom onset, whether this virus evokes other presymptomatic alterations is unknown. This case study details the presymptomatic impact of COVID-19 on vascular and skeletal muscle function in a young woman [24 yr, 173.5 cm, 89 kg, body mass index (BMI): 29.6 kg·m-2]. Vascular and skeletal muscle function were assessed as part of a separate study with the first and second visits separated by 2 wk. On the evening following the second visit, the participant developed a fever and a rapid antigen test confirmed a positive COVID-19 diagnosis. Compared with the first visit, the participant presented with a markedly elevated HR (∼30 beats/min) and a lower mean blood pressure (∼8 mmHg) at the second visit. Vascular function measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, reactive hyperemia, and passive leg movement were all noticeably attenuated (25%-65%) as was leg blood flow during knee extension exercise. Muscle strength was diminished as was ADP-stimulated respiration (30%), assessed in vitro, whereas there was a 25% increase in the apparent Km. Lastly, an elevation in IL-10 was observed prior to symptom onset. Notably, 2.5 mo after diagnosis symptoms of fatigue and cough were still present. Together, these findings provide unique insight into the physiological responses immediately prior to onset of COVID-19 symptoms; they suggest that SARS-CoV-2 negatively impacts vascular and skeletal muscle function prior to the onset of common symptoms and may set the stage for the widespread sequelae observed following COVID-19 diagnosis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This unique case study details the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on vascular and skeletal muscle function in a young predominantly presymptomatic woman. Prior to COVID-19 diagnosis, substantial reductions in vascular, skeletal muscle, and mitochondrial function were observed along with an elevation in IL-10. This integrative case study indicates that the presymptomatic impact of COVID-19 is widespread and may help elucidate the acute and long-term sequelae of this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brachial Artery , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Intern Med ; 290(2): 437-443, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) interferes with the vascular endothelium. It is not known whether COVID-19 additionally affects arterial stiffness. METHODS: This case-control study compared brachial-ankle pulse wave (baPWV) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocities (cfPWV) of acutely ill patients with and without COVID-19. RESULTS: Twenty-two COVID-19 patients (50% females, 77 [67-84] years) were compared with 22 age- and sex-matched controls. In COVID-19 patients, baPWV (19.9 [18.4-21.0] vs. 16.0 [14.2-20.4], P = 0.02) and cfPWV (14.3 [13.4-16.0] vs. 11.0 [9.5-14.6], P = 0.01) were higher than in the controls. In multiple regression analysis, COVID-19 was independently associated with higher cfPWV (ß = 3.164, P = 0.004) and baPWV (ß = 3.532, P = 0.003). PWV values were higher in nonsurvivors. In survivors, PWV correlated with length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 appears to be related to an enhanced PWV reflecting an increase in arterial stiffness. Higher PWV might be related to an increased length of hospital stay and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brachial Artery/physiopathology , Carotid Arteries/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Femoral Artery/physiopathology , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Pulse Wave Analysis , Survivors
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