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1.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 19(1): 108, 2022 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064818

ABSTRACT

We diagnosed 66 peripheral nerve injuries in 34 patients who survived severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We combine this new data with published case series re-analyzed here (117 nerve injuries; 58 patients) to provide a comprehensive accounting of lesion sites. The most common are ulnar (25.1%), common fibular (15.8%), sciatic (13.1%), median (9.8%), brachial plexus (8.7%) and radial (8.2%) nerves at sites known to be vulnerable to mechanical loading. Protection of peripheral nerves should be prioritized in the care of COVID-19 patients. To this end, we report proof of concept data of the feasibility for a wearable, wireless pressure sensor to provide real time monitoring in the intensive care unit setting.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus , COVID-19 , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Wearable Electronic Devices , Brachial Plexus/injuries , COVID-19/diagnosis , Feasibility Studies , Humans
2.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 45(4): 574-577, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794593

ABSTRACT

A middle-aged woman presented with symptomatic complete heart block and underwent an uneventful dual chamber pacemaker implantation. Three weeks post procedure, she developed left arm pain and weakness, with neurological localization to the lower trunk of left brachial plexus. Possibilities of traumatic compression by the device/leads or postoperative idiopathic brachial plexopathy were considered. After ruling out traumatic causes, she was started on oral steroids, to which she responded remarkably. This case highlights the importance of recognizing this rare cause of brachial plexopathy following pacemaker implantation, because not only does an expedited diagnosis and medical treatment lead to prompt recovery with minimal neurological deficits, but it also circumvents an unnecessary surgical re-exploration.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuropathies , Brachial Plexus , Pacemaker, Artificial , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/diagnosis , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/etiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pacemaker, Artificial/adverse effects
3.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 164(5): 1317-1328, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the need for social distancing created challenges for accessing and providing health services. Telemedicine enables prompt evaluation of patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury, even at a distance, without prejudice to the prognosis. The present study aimed to verify the validity of range of motion, muscle strength, sensitivity, and Tinel sign tele-assessment in adults with traumatic brachial plexus injury (TBPI). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of twenty-one men and women with TBPI admitted for treatment at a Rehabilitation Hospital Network was conducted. The participants were assessed for range of motion, muscle strength, sensitivity, and Tinel sign at two moments: in-person assessment (IPA) and tele-assessment (TA). RESULTS: The TA muscle strength tests presented significant and excellent correlations with the IPA (the intra-rater intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC ranged between 0.79 and 1.00 depending on the muscle tested). The agreement between the TA and IPA range of motion tests ranged from substantial to moderate (weighted kappa coefficient of 0.47-0.76 (p < 0.05) depending on the joint), and the kappa coefficient did not indicate a statistically significant agreement in the range of motion tests of supination, wrist flexors, shoulder flexors, and shoulder external rotators. The agreement between the IPA andTA sensitivity tests of all innervations ranged from substantial to almost perfect (weighted kappa coefficient 0.61-0.83, p < 0.05) except for the C5 innervation, where the kappa coefficient did not indicate a statistically significant agreement. The IPA versus TA Tinel sign test showed a moderate agreement (weighted kappa coefficient of 0.57, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that muscle strength tele-assessment is valid in adults with TBPI and presented a strong agreement for many components of TA range of motion, sensitivity, and Tinel sign tests.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuropathies , Brachial Plexus , COVID-19 , Adult , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Muscle Strength , Pandemics , Range of Motion, Articular
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546474

ABSTRACT

Brachial plexus injury is a rare but potentially serious complication of laparoscopic surgery. Loss of motor and/or sensory innervation can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life following otherwise successful surgery. A 38-year-old underwent elective laparoscopic management of severe endometriosis during which she was placed in steep head-down tilt Lloyd-Davies position for a prolonged period. On awakening from anaesthesia, the patient had no sensation or movement of her dominant right arm. A total plexus brachialis injury was suspected. As advised by a neurologist, an MRI brachial plexus, nerve conduction study and electromyography were requested. She was managed conservatively and made a gradual recovery with a degree of residual musculocutaneous nerve neuropathy. The incidence of brachial plexus injury following laparoscopy is unknown but the brachial plexus is particularly susceptible to injury as a result of patient positioning and prolonged operative time. Patient positioning in relation to applied clinical anatomy is explored and risk reduction strategies described.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuropathies , Brachial Plexus , Endometriosis , Adult , Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/etiology , Endometriosis/surgery , Female , Humans , Musculocutaneous Nerve , Quality of Life
5.
Hand Surg Rehabil ; 41(1): 78-84, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466360

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to investigate families' concerns and service requirements during the Covid-19 lockdown. In case of tele-consultation, we also aimed to assess the effects of this service on coping and the family's worries. At end of lockdown, we contacted the parents of 67 obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients (0-10 years age) by e-mail. During lockdown, 42 of the families had had a tele-consultation with our team, while 25 reported that not receiving any service. A questionnaire consisting of 6 questions was sent to the families, and data were analyzed according to 4 age-groups. Parents' concerns varied according to the children's age group (p = 0.001). All families replied that their children should receive remote services during Covid-19-like situations (p = 0.173). Parents of the 42 children who had tele-consultations reported that this had alleviated their worries, independently of age-group (p = 0.160). The usefulness of tele-consultation to manage the lockdown situation differed according to age-group (p = 0.002). The parents of under-3-year-olds experienced more worry during lockdown, but all respondents reported needing remote services. Although the tele-consultation alleviated the worries of almost all families, it was most useful in managing lockdown in families with under-3-year-olds.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Paralysis , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Radiology ; 302(1): 84-87, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360578

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the several known triggers of Parsonage-Turner syndrome (PTS). This case series describes two individuals with clinical presentations of PTS whose symptoms began 13 hours and 18 days following receipt of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 and Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine, respectively. The diagnosis of PTS was confirmed by using both electrodiagnostic testing and 3.0-T MR neurography. Although research is needed to understand the association between PTS and COVID-19 vaccination, MR neurography may be used to help confirm suspected cases of PTS as COVID-19 vaccines continue to be distributed worldwide.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuritis/diagnostic imaging , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/etiology , Brachial Plexus/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Adult , Analgesics , Brachial Plexus Neuritis/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gabapentin/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prednisone/therapeutic use
7.
Phys Ther ; 101(1)2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The use of the prone position to treat patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who are critically ill and mechanically ventilated is well documented. This case series reports the location, severity, and prevalence of focal peripheral nerve injuries involving the upper limb identified in an acute COVID-19 rehabilitation setting. The purpose of this study was to report observations and to explore the challenges in assessing these patients. METHODS: Participants were patients with suspected peripheral nerve injuries following discharge from COVID-19 critical care who were referred to the peripheral nerve injury multidisciplinary team. Data were collected retrospectively on what peripheral neuropathies were observed, with reference to relevant investigation findings and proning history. RESULTS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, 256 patients were admitted to COVID-19 critical care of Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom. From March to June 2020, a total of 114 patients required prone ventilation. In this subgroup, a total of 15 patients were identified with clinical findings of peripheral nerve injuries within the upper limb. In total, 30 anatomical nerve injuries were recorded. The most commonly affected nerve was the ulnar nerve (12/30) followed by the cords of the brachial plexus (10/30). Neuropathic pain and muscle wasting were identified, signifying a high-grade nerve injury. CONCLUSION: Peripheral nerve injuries can be associated with prone positioning on intensive care units, although other mechanisms, such as those of a neuroinflammatory nature, cannot be excluded. IMPACT: Proning-related upper limb peripheral nerve injuries are not discussed widely in the literature and could be an area of further consideration when critical care units review their proning protocols. Physical therapists treating these patients play a key part in the management of this group of patients by optimizing the positioning of patients during proning, making early identification of peripheral nerve injuries, providing rehabilitation interventions, and referring to specialist services if necessary. LAY SUMMARY: During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients who are very ill can be placed for long periods of time on their stomach to improve their chances of survival. The potential consequences of prolonged time in this position are weakness and pain in the arms due to potential nerve damage. There are some recommended treatments to take care of these problems.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuropathies/epidemiology , Brachial Plexus/injuries , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Positioning , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom , Upper Extremity/innervation
8.
J Intensive Care Med ; 35(12): 1576-1582, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788461

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prone positioning is deployed as a critical treatment for improving oxygenation in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. This regimen is currently highly prevalent in the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has brought about increased concern about how best to safely avoid brachial plexus injuries when caring for unconscious proned patients. METHODS: A review of the published literature on brachial plexus injuries secondary to proning ventilated patients was performed. This was combined with a review of available international critical care guidelines in order to produce a succinct set of guidelines to aid critical care departments in reducing brachial plexus injuries during these challenging times. DISCUSSION: There is no one manner in which prone positioning an unconscious patient can be made universally safe. This paper provides 6 key steps to reducing the incidence of brachial plexus injuries while proning and suggests a safe and sensible management and referral pathway for the conscious patient in which a brachial plexus injury is identified. CONCLUSION: There is in truth no completely safe position for every patient and certainly there will be anomalies in anatomy that will predispose certain individuals to nerve injury. Thus the injury rate cannot be reduced to zero but an understanding of the principles of protection will inform those undertaking positioning.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus/injuries , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Patient Positioning/methods , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prone Position , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/etiology , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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