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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 24(4): 212-214, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart rate disorders and in particular sinus arrhythmias are known to accompany viral infections. Sinus tachycardia is prevalent in the presence of increased body temperature and respiratory rate. However, bradycardia has also been described for centuries to complicate viral illnesses.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia , COVID-19 , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Heart Rate , Humans
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(11)2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502464

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Prematurity of birth occurs before the 37th week of gestation and affects up to 10% of births worldwide. It is correlated with critical outcomes; therefore, constant monitoring in neonatal intensive care units or home environments is required. The aim of this work was to develop solutions for remote neonatal intensive supervision systems, which should assist medical diagnosis of premature infants and raise alarm at cardiac abnormalities, such as bradycardia. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has put a worldwide stress upon the medical staff and the management of healthcare units. Materials and Methods: A traditional medical diagnosing scheme was set up, implemented with the aid of powerful mathematical operators. The algorithm was tailored to the infants' personal ECG characteristics and was tested on real ECG data from the publicly available PhysioNet database "Preterm Infant Cardio-Respiratory Signals Database". Different processing problems were solved: noise filtering, baseline drift removal, event detection and compression of medical data using the à trous wavelet transform. Results: In all 10 available clinical cases, the bradycardia events annotated by the physicians were correctly detected using the RR intervals. Compressing the ECG signals for remote transmission, we obtained compression ratios (CR) varying from 1.72 to 7.42, with the median CR value around 3. Conclusions: We noticed that a significant amount of noise can be added to a signal while monitoring using standard clinical sensors. We tried to offer solutions for these technical problems. Recent studies have shown that persons infected with the COVID-19 disease are frequently reported to develop cardiovascular symptoms and cardiac arrhythmias. An automatic surveillance system (both for neonates and adults) has a practical medical application. The proposed algorithm is personalized, no fixed reference value being applied, and the algorithm follows the neonate's cardiac rhythm changes. The performance depends on the characteristics of the input ECG. The signal-to-noise ratio of the processed ECG was improved, with a value of up to 10 dB.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia , COVID-19 , Adult , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003766, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial similar to chloroquine that is used extensively for the treatment and prevention of malaria. Data on the cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine are scarce, although transient effects on cardiac electrophysiology (electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation and sinus bradycardia) have been observed. We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis to characterise the cardiovascular effects of amodiaquine and thereby support development of risk minimisation measures to improve the safety of this important antimalarial. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies of amodiaquine for the treatment or prevention of malaria were identified from a systematic review. Heart rates and QT intervals with study-specific heart rate correction (QTcS) were compared within studies and individual patient data pooled for multivariable linear mixed effects regression. The meta-analysis included 2,681 patients from 4 randomised controlled trials evaluating artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) containing amodiaquine (n = 725), lumefantrine (n = 499), piperaquine (n = 716), and pyronaridine (n = 566), as well as monotherapy with chloroquine (n = 175) for uncomplicated malaria. Amodiaquine prolonged QTcS (mean = 16.9 ms, 95% CI: 15.0 to 18.8) less than chloroquine (21.9 ms, 18.3 to 25.6, p = 0.0069) and piperaquine (19.2 ms, 15.8 to 20.5, p = 0.0495), but more than lumefantrine (5.6 ms, 2.9 to 8.2, p < 0.001) and pyronaridine (-1.2 ms, -3.6 to +1.3, p < 0.001). In individuals aged ≥12 years, amodiaquine reduced heart rate (mean reduction = 15.2 beats per minute [bpm], 95% CI: 13.4 to 17.0) more than piperaquine (10.5 bpm, 7.7 to 13.3, p = 0.0013), lumefantrine (9.3 bpm, 6.4 to 12.2, p < 0.001), pyronaridine (6.6 bpm, 4.0 to 9.3, p < 0.001), and chloroquine (5.9 bpm, 3.2 to 8.5, p < 0.001) and was associated with a higher risk of potentially symptomatic sinus bradycardia (≤50 bpm) than lumefantrine (risk difference: 14.8%, 95% CI: 5.4 to 24.3, p = 0.0021) and chloroquine (risk difference: 8.0%, 95% CI: 4.0 to 12.0, p < 0.001). The effect of amodiaquine on the heart rate of children aged <12 years compared with other antimalarials was not clinically significant. Study limitations include the unavailability of individual patient-level adverse event data for most included participants, but no serious complications were documented. CONCLUSIONS: While caution is advised in the use of amodiaquine in patients aged ≥12 years with concomitant use of heart rate-reducing medications, serious cardiac conduction disorders, or risk factors for torsade de pointes, there have been no serious cardiovascular events reported after amodiaquine in widespread use over 7 decades. Amodiaquine and structurally related antimalarials in the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended dose regimens alone or in ACTs are safe for the treatment and prevention of malaria.


Subject(s)
Amodiaquine/adverse effects , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Adolescent , Adult , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/physiopathology , Cardiotoxicity , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Humans , Infant , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Young Adult
5.
Am Heart J ; 241: 83-86, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384824

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with cardiovascular disease in children, but which children need cardiac evaluation is unclear. We describe our experience evaluating 206 children for cardiac disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection (one of whom had ventricular ectopy) and propose a new guideline for management of these children. Routine cardiac screening after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children without any cardiac signs or symptoms does not appear to be high yield.


Subject(s)
Aftercare , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Referral and Consultation , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care , Atrioventricular Block/diagnosis , Atrioventricular Block/etiology , Atrioventricular Block/physiopathology , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/etiology , Bradycardia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiology , Chest Pain/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Fatigue/physiopathology , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnosis , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/etiology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/physiopathology , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/diagnosis , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/etiology , Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular/physiopathology , Implementation Science , Male , Pediatrics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Syncope/physiopathology , Ventricular Premature Complexes/diagnosis , Ventricular Premature Complexes/etiology , Ventricular Premature Complexes/physiopathology , Young Adult
7.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(12): 1559-1564, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334105

ABSTRACT

Background: Remdesivir has been used for treating patients with moderate to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) although there is conflicting evidence regarding its usefulness. Data regarding its safety largely come from the clinical trials conducted to support its emergency use authorization (EUA). This study aimed to identify the adverse events of remdesivir with disproportionately high reporting using real-world data.Research design and methods: The adverse event reports submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) by health-care professionals for drugs that have received EUA or approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in the US were studied. Adisproportionality analysis was performed to determine adverse events more frequently reported with remdesivir compared with other COVID-19 drugs in the database.Results: Elevated liver enzymes, acute kidney injury, raised blood creatinine levels, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, and death had disproportionately higher reporting with remdesivir as asuspect drug compared with other drugs. There is no significant difference in the reporting of these events based on patient sex or age.Conclusions: Our study confirms the drug label information regarding liver enzyme elevation. The renal and cardiac safety signals identified necessitate reevaluation for potential drug-labeling changes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Bradycardia , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Liver Function Tests , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Bradycardia/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Approval/methods , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Female , Humans , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration/statistics & numerical data
14.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(8): 1069, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272171
15.
Pediatrics ; 147(5)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256104

ABSTRACT

A male individual aged 18 years with no significant past medical history presented with fever, headache, dry cough, and chest pain. On clinical examination, he had tachycardia and hypotension needing intravenous fluid resuscitation and inotropic support. A chest radiograph revealed streaky lung opacities, and he was treated with antibiotics for suspected community-acquired pneumonia complicated by septic shock. Significant elevation of cardiac enzymes was noted, and there was a continued need for inotropes to maintain normotension. He also developed intermittent bradycardia, with serial electrocardiograms showing first-degree atrioventricular block, low-voltage QRS complexes, and ST-T wave changes and telemetry demonstrating junctional and ventricular escape rhythm. A complete workup for sepsis and acute myocarditis were performed to find the etiologic agent. Intravenous immunoglobulins were started to treat myocarditis, with eventual clinical improvement. He was eventually diagnosed with an unusual etiology for his illness. He was noted to still have intermittent ventricular escape rhythm on electrocardiograms on follow-up 2 weeks after discharge but continues to remain asymptomatic and in good health.


Subject(s)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Myocarditis/microbiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Adolescent , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hypotension/etiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/immunology , Neutropenia/etiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/complications , Shock, Septic/microbiology , Tachycardia/etiology
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 465, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic since March 11th, 2020. Despite emerging reports and literature covering a broad spectrum of COVID-19 clinical manifestations, facets of COVID-19 have not been fully elucidated. To the authors' concern, sinus bradycardia as a manifestation of COVID-19-induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) has never been reported before. CASE PRESENTATION: In this paper, we report a case of a 59-year-old male patient with confirmed COVID-19 initially presented with presyncope. Further investigations reveal sinus bradycardia related to COVID-19-induced SIADH. This case highlights the possibility of immuno-neuroendocrino-cardiovascular crosstalk resulting in an atypical manifestation of COVID-19: near syncope due to sinus bradycardia. CONCLUSIONS: Another possible cause of sinus bradycardia in COVID-19 is electrolyte imbalance due to COVID-19-related SIADH.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Bradycardia/complications , Bradycardia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , Humans , Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Water-Electrolyte Balance
17.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211013185, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221733

ABSTRACT

There has been an accumulating evidence of association between COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) infection and cardiovascular complications. We describe a case of a 58-year-old lady with a history of systolic heart failure and COVID-19 infection, who developed persistent symptomatic bradycardia, requiring pacemaker placement as unusual conductive tissue involvement of this novel coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Bradycardia/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pacemaker, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(6): 857-862, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV2 has affected more than 73.8 million individuals. While SARS-CoV2 is considered a predominantly respiratory virus, we report a trend of bradycardia among hospitalized patients, particularly in association with mortality. METHODOLOGY: The multi-center retrospective analysis consisted of 1053 COVID-19 positive patients from March to August 2020. A trend of bradycardia was noted in the study population. Absolute bradycardia and profound bradycardia was defined as a sustained heart rate < 60 BPM and < 50 BPM, respectively, on two separate occasions, a minimum of 4 h apart during hospitalization. Each bradycardic event was confirmed by two physicians and exclusion criteria included: less than 18 years old, end of life bradycardia, left AMA, or taking AV Nodal blockers. Data was fetched using a SQL program through the EMR and data was analyzed using SPSS 27.0. A logistic regression was done to study the effect of bradycardia, age, gender, and BMI on mortality in the study group. RESULTS: 24.9% patients had absolute bradycardia while 13.0% had profound bradycardia. Patients with absolute bradycardia had an odds ratio of 6.59 (95% CI [2.83-15.36]) for mortality compared with individuals with a normal HR response. The logistic regression model explained 19.6% (Nagelkerke R2 ) of variance in the mortality, correctly classified 88.6% of cases, and was statistically significant X2 (5)=47.10, p < .001. For each year of age > 18, the odds of dying increased 1.048 times (95% CI [1.25-5.27]). CONCLUSION: The incidence of absolute bradycardia was found in 24.9% of the study cohort and these individuals were found to have a significant increase in mortality.


Subject(s)
Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/mortality , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
20.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(7): 555-558, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) has caused an infectious disease that affects multiple organs. Recently, the cardiological effects of the virus have also been striking. To the best of our knowledge, there are no SARS CoV-2 positive paediatric cases reported with sinus bradycardia in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old male patient presented with complaints of abdominal pain and fatigue. The heart rate of the patient, whose grandmother was found to be positive for SARS CoV-2 test, ranged between 43 and 60/min, the heart sounds were normal. There was no known history of cardiological disorder in the patient and his family. His laboratory findings were; normal Troponin I, elevated C Reactive protein, normal Haemoglobin, normal CK-MB, mildly elevated D-Dimer. Electrocardiography of the patient was evaluated as sinus bradycardia. There was no pathological finding in his echocardiography. The SARS CoV-2 PCR test was positive. In his follow-up, the heart rate decreased to 50 beats per minute while awake and 43 beats per minute while sleeping. The patient had a bradycardic course until the 4th day of hospitalisation. Control SARS CoV-2 PCR test was negative. He was discharged on the 8th day. CONCLUSION: It's understood that SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for multiple cardiac manifestations. The most common bradyarrhythmia associated with SARS CoV-2 reported worldwide is sinus bradycardia and complete heart block. In order to contribute to the literature, we present a 14-year-old paediatric patient with positive SARS CoV-2 PCR test who has normal cardiac tests and sinus bradycardia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Adolescent , Bradycardia/diagnosis , Bradycardia/etiology , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
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