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1.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(6): 499-510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Till now, no meta-analysis is available to address the clinical profile, risk factors, different interventions, and outcomes among COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (C-ROCM) cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight literature databases were screened using appropriate keywords from November 1, 2019, to June 30, 2021. The objectives were to analyze the clinical and microbiological profile, risk factor/comorbidity, intervention, and outcome. "R-metafor package" was used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies were included. The mean age of presentation of C-ROCM was 54.6 years. The most common presentation was ptosis (72.7%), lid edema (60.6%), proptosis (60.6%), ophthalmoplegia (57.3%), loss of vision (53.7%), facial edema (34.7%), and nasal-blockage (11.8%). Evidence of intracranial spread was seen in 42.8% of cases. Rhizopus was the most common fungus (57.1%) isolated in fungal culture. Among C-ROCM patients, diabetes was the commonest comorbid condition, and the use of corticosteroids related to COVID-19 treatment was the most common risk factor (85.75%). Compared to controlled diabetics, C-ROCM was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetics (odds ratio [OR] 0.15, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 0.041-0.544, P = 0.0010). However, no significant association was seen between C-ROCM and COVID-19 severity (OR 0.930, 95% C.I. 0.212-4.087, P = 0.923). For treatment, amphotericin-B was the most common antifungal drug used which was followed by surgical options. However, mortality was high (prevalence 0.344, 95% C.I. 0.205-0.403) despite treatment. CONCLUSION: Although local rhino-orbito symptoms were the first to appear, rapid intracranial extension was seen in a significant number of C-ROCM cases. Uncontrolled diabetes and excessive use of corticosteroid were the most common risk factors present among the C-ROCM cases. High index clinical suspicion is imperative (specifically among COVID-19 patients with diabetes), and routine screening may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Nose Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 40(6): 443-462, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572769

ABSTRACT

The choroid plexus, located in the ventricular system of the central nervous system (CNS), obtains numerous roles critical for the proper development and operating of the CNS. The functions range from the best-known ones of the barrier and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) producer, through participation in immune answer, 'nourishment, detoxification and reparation of the rest of the CNS. Increase number of studies point out the association between choroid plexus dysfunction, characterized by alterations in secretory, transport and barrier capabilities, and the broad spectrum of clinical conditions, as well as physiological aging. We present a brief overview of pathological states known or speculated to be connected to choroid plexus dysfunction, ranging from neurodevelopmental, to autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. We also cover the topic of choroid plexus tumors, as well explained involvement of the choroid plexus in pathogen invasion of the CNS, also referring to the currently actual SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we have also touched conducted studies on the choroid plexus regenerative potential. With the information provided in the review we want to point out the importance and call for further research on the role of the choroid plexus in the sustainability of central nervous system health.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Blood-Brain Barrier , Choroid Plexus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
S Afr Med J ; 111(11): 1050-1054, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538769

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy 10-year-old girl, living in a sheep-farming community in South Africa with exposure to dogs, presented to her local hospital with generalised tonic-clonic seizures. The initial clinical assessment and laboratory work-up were unremarkable. When she presented with further seizures 6 months later, attempts to arrange neuroimaging and specialist assessment were unsuccessful owing to restrictions on routine healthcare services during the SARS-CoV-2 nationwide lockdown. Subsequently, 11 months after her first presentation, she developed focal neurological signs suggestive of raised intracranial pressure. A brain computed tomography scan revealed a left-sided cerebral cyst and imminent tonsillar herniation. An emergency burr-hole procedure was performed to relieve the raised intracranial pressure, followed by definitive neurosurgical excision of cysts. Hydatid protoscolices and hooklets were seen on microscopy of cyst fluid, and treatment with albendazole and praziquantel was initiated. While her infection was treated successfully, long-term sequelae including permanent blindness and hemiparesis could potentially have been prevented with early neuroimaging and surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Anticestodal Agents/administration & dosage , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Albendazole/administration & dosage , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , Brain Diseases/parasitology , Child , Delayed Diagnosis , Echinococcosis/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension/parasitology , Praziquantel/administration & dosage , Seizures/parasitology , South Africa , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6818-6821, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530184

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) first described in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has rapidly spread across the world and become a global public health emergency. Literature on the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 is limited. We report a 24-year-old male, who presented with vertigo, dysarthria, and bradyphrenia 3 weeks after being diagnosed with COVID-19 on nasopharyngeal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The patient was diagnosed with acute cerebellitis based on magnetic resonance imaging features and showed improvement posttreatment with intravenous methylprednisone for 5 days. The scope of this article is to highlight the importance of early identification of neurological symptoms and timely management as the outcomes may be catastrophic.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Acute Disease , Adult , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
5.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 426, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are increasingly recognized and include encephalopathy, although direct infection of the brain by SARS-CoV-2 remains controversial. We herein report the clinical course and cytokine profiles of a patient with severe SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy presenting aphasia. CASE PRESENTATION: An 81-year-old man developed acute consciousness disturbance and status epileptics several days after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Following treatment with remdesivir and dexamethasone, his consciousness and epileptic seizures improved; however, amnestic aphasia and agraphia remained. Two months after methylprednisolone pulse and intravenous immunoglobulin, his neurological deficits improved. We found increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), but not IL-2 and IL-10 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the levels of serum IL-6 and MCP-1 were much higher than those in the CSF. The level of IL-8 in the CSF after immunotherapy was four times higher than that before immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: The cytokine profile of our patient was similar to that seen in severe SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy. We demonstrated (i) that the characteristic aphasia can occur as a focal neurological deficit associated with SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy, and (ii) that IL8-mediated central nervous system inflammation follows systemic inflammation in SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy and can persist and worsen even after immunotherapy. Monitoring IL-8 in CSF, and long-term corticosteroids may be required for treating SARS-CoV-2-related encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Aphasia , Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Interleukin-8 , Male , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): 1744, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501058
8.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 128(12): 1899-1906, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491158

ABSTRACT

Encephalopathy is a neurological complication of COVID-19. The objective of this exploratory study is to investigate the link between systemic inflammation and brain microstructural changes (measured by diffusion-weighted imaging) in patients with COVID-19 encephalopathy. 20 patients with COVID-19 encephalopathy (age: 67.3 [Formula: see text] 10.0 years; 90% men) hospitalized in the Geneva University Hospitals for a SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and May 2020 were included in this retrospective cohort study. COVID-19 encephalopathy was diagnosed following a comprehensive neurobiological evaluation, excluding common causes of delirium, such as hypoxemic or metabolic encephalopathy. We investigated the correlation between systemic inflammation (measured by systemic C-reactive protein (CRP)) and brain microstructural changes in radiologically normal white matter (measured by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)) in nine spatially widespread regions of the white matter previously associated with delirium. Systemic inflammation (CRP = 60.8 ± 50.0 mg/L) was positively correlated with ADC values in the anterior corona radiata (p = 0.0089), genu of the corpus callosum (p = 0.0064) and external capsule (p = 0.0086) after adjusting for patients' age. No statistically significant association between CRP and ADC was found in the other six white matter regions. Our findings indicate high risk of white matter abnormalities in COVID-19 encephalopathy patients with high peripheral inflammatory markers, suggesting aggressive imaging monitoring may be warranted in these patients. Future studies should clarify a possible specificity of the spatial patterns of CRP-white matter microstructure association in COVID-19 encephalopathy patients and disentangle the role of individual cytokines on brain inflammatory mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , White Matter , Brain/diagnostic imaging , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
9.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3870-3872, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470416

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of published reports on SARS-CoV-2 neurological manifestations have revealed a wide spectrum of symptoms, diagnostic features, and outcomes. We report a fatal case of a COVID-19-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). CASE REPORT: We report a 70-year-old man brought to the hospital after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. He was confused and disoriented. Nasopharyngeal swab testing for SARS-CoV-2 was positive. A head computed tomography (CT) scan and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed no signs of acute pathology. After recurrent seizures, he was sedated and intubated. Throughout the days that followed he remained in a therapeutic coma. After discontinuation of sedatives, he remained unconscious. A repeated head CT scan showed signs of pontine edema, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed inhomogeneous hyperintensities with microhemorrhages and small autonecrotic cavities in both thalami, brain stem, and cerebellar peduncles. With a high suspicion of a COVID-19-associated ANE, the patient was started on high-dose glucocorticoids; however, he died the next day. The CSF tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. DISCUSSION: A variety of COVID-19 neurological manifestations have been reported to date, including various forms of encephalitis and encephalopathy. In our patient, encephalopathy with seizures was the presenting symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The radiological findings on days 8 and 9 were consistent with an ANE. The precise pathogenesis of ANE remains unclear; however, an immune-mediated mechanism is suspected. Early diagnostics with prompt administration of immunomodulators may be lifesaving. Suspicion of a COVID-19-related encephalopathy/encephalitis should be raised in all patients with altered mental status, seizures, and/or coma.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/chemically induced
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20476, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469981

ABSTRACT

The increased frequency of neurological manifestations, including central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is consistent with the virus's neurotropic nature. In most patients, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive imaging modality in the diagnosis of viral encephalitides in the brain. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of brain lesion patterns on brain MRI in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia patients who developed focal and non-focal neurological manifestations. In addition, it will compare the impact of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as an index of deteriorating cerebral function on positive brain MRIs in both neurological manifestations. This retrospective study included an examination of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmation, admitted with clinicoradiologic evidence of COVID-19 pneumonia, and who were candidates for brain MRI due to neurological manifestations suggesting brain involvement. Brain imaging acquired on a 3.0 T MRI system (Skyra; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a 20-channel receive head coil. Brain MRI revealed lesions in 38 (82.6%) of the total 46 patients for analysis and was negative in the remaining eight (17.4%) of all finally enclosed patients with RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Twenty-nine (63%) patients had focal neurological manifestations, while the remaining 17 (37%) patients had non-focal neurological manifestations. The patients had a highly significant difference (p = 0.0006) in GCS, but no significant difference (p = 0.4) in the number of comorbidities they had. Brain MRI is a feasible and important imaging modality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who develop neurological manifestations suggestive of brain involvement, particularly in patients with non-focal manifestations and a decline in GCS.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , Brain/pathology , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(1): e16-e18, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is characterized predominantly by respiratory symptoms and has affected a small subset of children. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been reported in children following COVID-19. There is increasing report that COVID-19 may also lead to neurologic manifestations. Cerebellar lesions may be observed in viral infections. CASE REPORT: We report a child with MIS-C related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed cerebellar lesion during the disease course. Encephalopathy was the first central nervous system symptom. His consciousness improved but he developed clinical signs of cerebellar dysfunction including ataxia, dysarthria and nystagmus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed symmetrical pathological signal changes in both cerebellar hemispheres. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the first child with MIS-C to develop cerebellar lesion on brain MRI, suggestive of cerebellitis.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Preschool , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Disease Progression , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
14.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 981-986, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 infection can result in immunosuppression. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis is a frequent co-infection, even after recovery. METHODS: An ambispective interventional study was conducted of 41 coronavirus patients with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis at a tertiary care centre from March to May 2021. RESULTS: There were 28 males and 13 females with a mean age of 48.2 years (range, 21-68 years). Twelve had long-standing diabetes mellitus and 28 had been recently diagnosed. Thirty-six had received systemic corticosteroids for coronavirus disease 2019. Nasal signs were present in 95 per cent of patients, ophthalmic symptoms and signs in 87 per cent, palatal necrosis in 46.3 per cent, facial signs in 24.3 per cent, nerve palsies in 60.9 per cent, and intracranial involvement in 21.9 per cent. Treatment with amphotericin B was based on clinical features and co-morbidities. Endonasal debridement was performed in 51.2 per cent of patients, total maxillectomy in 14.6 per cent and orbital exenteration in 9.7 per cent. At the last follow up, 37 patients (90.24 per cent) were on antifungal therapy; 4 (9.75 per cent) did not survive. CONCLUSION: Early detection may improve survival. Follow up of high-risk patients after coronavirus disease 2019 infection is paramount.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Epidemics , Mucorales , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/microbiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Debridement , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Young Adult
16.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390541

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 presents with a wide range of clinical neurological manifestations. It has been recognized that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects both the central and peripheral nervous system, leading to smell and taste disturbances; acute ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease; encephalopathies and seizures; and causes most surviving patients to have long lasting neurological symptoms. Despite this, typical neuropathological features associated with the infection have still not been identified. Studies of post-mortem examinations of the cerebral cortex are obtained with difficulty due to laboratory safety concerns. In addition, they represent cases with different neurological symptoms, age or comorbidities, thus a larger number of brain autoptic data from multiple institutions would be crucial. Histopathological findings described here are aimed to increase the current knowledge on neuropathology of COVID-19 patients. We report post-mortem neuropathological findings of ten COVID-19 patients. A wide range of neuropathological lesions were seen. The cerebral cortex of all patients showed vascular changes, hyperemia of the meninges and perivascular inflammation in the cerebral parenchyma with hypoxic neuronal injury. Perivascular lymphocytic inflammation of predominantly CD8-positive T cells mixed with CD68-positive macrophages, targeting the disrupted vascular wall in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and pons were seen. Our findings support recent reports highlighting a role of microvascular injury in COVID-19 neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/virology , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Microvessels/pathology , Microvessels/virology , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(240): 808-811, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389988

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease has become a global pandemic after its emergence at the end of 2019 as a cluster of pneumonia. Apart from respiratory symptoms, neurologic complications are also common, mostly in hospitalized patients. More than 80 percent of patients have neurological symptoms during their disease course of which most common is encephalopathy. However, data on neurological complications like Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with coronavirus-2019 are scarce. Here, we report a case of a 64-years-old female patient with typical clinical and electrophysiological manifestations of Acute motor axonal neuropathy variant, who was reported positive with polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, 13 days before the onset of acute bilateral weakness of extremities, areflexia, and normal sensory examination. Cerebrospinal fluid and electrophysiological examination were also suggestive. The neurological symptoms improved during treatment with immunoglobulins. Quick recognition of symptoms and diagnosis is important in the management of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with coronavirus-2019.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Neurol Sci ; 42(10): 3991-3994, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384482
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