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1.
S Afr Med J ; 111(11): 1050-1054, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538769

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy 10-year-old girl, living in a sheep-farming community in South Africa with exposure to dogs, presented to her local hospital with generalised tonic-clonic seizures. The initial clinical assessment and laboratory work-up were unremarkable. When she presented with further seizures 6 months later, attempts to arrange neuroimaging and specialist assessment were unsuccessful owing to restrictions on routine healthcare services during the SARS-CoV-2 nationwide lockdown. Subsequently, 11 months after her first presentation, she developed focal neurological signs suggestive of raised intracranial pressure. A brain computed tomography scan revealed a left-sided cerebral cyst and imminent tonsillar herniation. An emergency burr-hole procedure was performed to relieve the raised intracranial pressure, followed by definitive neurosurgical excision of cysts. Hydatid protoscolices and hooklets were seen on microscopy of cyst fluid, and treatment with albendazole and praziquantel was initiated. While her infection was treated successfully, long-term sequelae including permanent blindness and hemiparesis could potentially have been prevented with early neuroimaging and surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Anticestodal Agents/administration & dosage , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Albendazole/administration & dosage , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , Brain Diseases/parasitology , Child , Delayed Diagnosis , Echinococcosis/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension/parasitology , Praziquantel/administration & dosage , Seizures/parasitology , South Africa , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(10): 1127-1135, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270830

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To determine if neurologic symptoms at admission can predict adverse outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Electronic medical records of 1053 consecutively hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed infection of SARS-CoV-2 from one large medical center in the USA were retrospectively analyzed. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed with the calculation of areas under the curve (AUC) and concordance index (C-index). Patients were stratified into subgroups based on the presence of encephalopathy and its severity using survival statistics. In sensitivity analyses, patients with mild/moderate and severe encephalopathy (defined as coma) were separately considered. RESULTS: Of 1053 patients (mean age 52.4 years, 48.0% men [n = 505]), 35.1% (n = 370) had neurologic manifestations at admission, including 10.3% (n = 108) with encephalopathy. Encephalopathy was an independent predictor for death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.617, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.481-4.625) in multivariable Cox regression. The addition of encephalopathy to multivariable models comprising other predictors for adverse outcomes increased AUCs (mortality: 0.84-0.86, ventilation/ intensive care unit [ICU]: 0.76-0.78) and C-index (mortality: 0.78 to 0.81, ventilation/ICU: 0.85-0.86). In sensitivity analyses, risk stratification survival curves for mortality and ventilation/ICU based on severe encephalopathy (n = 15) versus mild/moderate encephalopathy (n = 93) versus no encephalopathy (n = 945) at admission were discriminative (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Encephalopathy at admission predicts later progression to death in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may have important implications for risk stratification in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/mortality , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Patient Admission/trends , Adult , Aged , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies
4.
Brain Dev ; 43(9): 919-930, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CLOCCs) are secondary lesions associated with entities like infection manifested by restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Our objectives are to evaluate the clinic-radiological spectrum of pediatric patients with cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CC). METHODS: Children (0-18 years) admitted between February 2017 and May 2020 with splenial lesions showing diffusion restriction on MRI, either isolated or within involvement of other parts of the brain, were included retrospectively. The primary lesions of the CC (e.g. acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, acute ischemic infarction, and glioblastoma multiforme) were excluded. CLOCCs were divided into infection-associated, metabolic disorder-associated, and trauma-associated lesions, as well as CLOCCs involving other entities. Data were collected from the medical databases. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were determined to have CLOCCs. Twenty-five (61%) were infection-associated, nine (22%) were trauma-associated, and three (7%) were metabolic disorder-associated cases, including 2 inherited disorders of metabolism. There were four (10%) patients with other entities, three with epilepsy, and one had an apparent life-threatening event. Six patients had a known etiology among the infection-associated group; one had multisystem inflammatory syndrome caused by COVID-19 and one had been infected by COVID-19 without any complications. All the infection-associated patients with isolated splenial lesions recovered totally, although six patients required intensive care hospitalization. Four trauma-associated patients had sequela lesions. CONCLUSIONS: CLOCCs are associated with a spectrum of diseases, including the new coronavirus, COVID-19 infection. Infection-associated CLOCCs has the best prognosis, although severe cases may occur. Sequelae are possible based on the etiology.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Infections/complications , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 206-222, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206776

ABSTRACT

Encephalopathy and encephalitis are major and devastating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus-associated central nervous system complications. Hypoxic/metabolic changes produced by intense inflammatory response against the virus triggers cytokine storm and subsequently acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Hypoxic/metabolic changes result in encephalopathy. The presence of comorbidities predisposes to hypoxic/metabolic changes responsible for encephalopathy. Altered consciousness, ranging from mild confusion, delirium, to deep coma, is hallmark clinical features. Cortical and subcortical T2/FLAIR signal changes are common neuroimaging abnormalities. In a few isolated case reports of SARS-CoV-2 encephalitis, the virus has been demonstrated in cerebrospinal fluid. The presence of anosmia and ageusia can help in differentiation from other encephalopathies. We analyzed published reports on coronavirus disease 2019-associated encephalopathy. Encephalopathy is common in older patients, the majority are more than 50 years of age. The patients having encephalopathy/encephalitis are either severely or critically ill. Many patients were already on mechanical ventilation. Lung abnormalities are noted in almost all of the patients, presenting with encephalopathy. Encephalopathy is always preceded by commoner clinical features, like, fever, cough, dyspnoea, and headache. In majority, patients are already in the intensive care unit, when encephalopathy develops.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Age Factors , Ageusia , Brain Diseases/complications , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Headache , Humans
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 139, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175753

ABSTRACT

Case numbers reported in literature with neurological manifestations potentially linked to COVID-19 is constantly increasing. Most often it is sudden anosmia, headache, encephalopathy or stroke. Pathophysiology of this neurological involvement is still poorly understood. While viral genome is very rarely detected in cerebrospinal fluid, inflammatory involvement is often very significant. We report a case of SARS-CoV-2 encephalopathy without respiratory distress or cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Male
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150215

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has now emerged from a respiratory illness to a systemic viral illness with multisystem involvement. There is still a lot to learn about this illness as new disease associations with COVID-19 emerge consistently. We present a unique case of a neurological manifestation of a patient with structural brain disease who was COVID-19 positive and developed mental status changes, new-onset seizures and findings suggestive of viral meningitis on lumbar puncture. We also review the literature and discuss our case in the context of the other cases reported. We highlight the value of considering seizures and encephalopathy as one of the presenting features of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Seizures/etiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Confusion/complications , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Radiography/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/therapy , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(1): S42-S45, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112949

ABSTRACT

The aim of this retrospective observational study was to describe the neuroimaging manifestations of patients with COVID-19. This study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from March to July 2020. COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms and positive neuroimaging were included after confirmation of COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction test (PCR). In the 12 included patients, seizures and altered mentation were predominant neurological manifestations. Three cases had acute watershed infarcts (25%), two cases had posterior cerebral artery territorial infarcts (16.7%), two cases had periventricular corona radiata infarcts (16.7%), three cases had hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (25%), two cases had posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (16.7%), and there was one case each of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, pontine infarct, and bithalamic lesions (8.3%). This study highlights the diagnostic approaches in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy and the variable imaging features that clinicians and neuroradiologists should be aware of, as the pandemic progresses.  Key Words: COVID-19, Neuroimaging, Encephalopathy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neuroimaging/methods , Pandemics , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Rom J Intern Med ; 59(1): 88-92, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887570

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to overwhelm global healthcare systems. While the disease primarily causes pulmonary complications, reports of central nervous system (CNS) involvement have recently emerged ranging from encephalopathy to stroke. This raises a practical dilemma for clinicians as to when to pursue neuroimaging and lumbar tap with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms. We present a case of an encephalopathic patient infected with SARS-CoV-2 with no pulmonary symptoms. We propose a three-tier risk stratification for CNS COVID-19 aiming to help clinicians to decide which patients should undergo CSF analysis. The neurological examination remains an integral component of screening and evaluating patients for COVID-19 considering the range of emerging CNS complications.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/virology , Humans , Neurologic Examination , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Puncture
14.
Seizure ; 81: 198-200, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733627

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 infection include impaired consciousness, strokes, and seizures. Limited reports describing EEG abnormalities in patients with COVID-19 have been published. These articles reported nonspecific encephalopathic patterns, epileptiform discharges, and rarely seizures. Our primary aim was to assess EEG abnormalities in patients with COVID-19 and evaluate for epileptiform activity or seizures. METHODS: We identified five critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 who underwent EEG monitoring. All patients had Ceribell™ rapid response EEG initially and two continued with conventional long-term video EEG. RESULTS: All 5 patients had encephalopathy and 3 also had seizure-like movements, thus prompting EEG monitoring. EEGs all showed nonspecific markers of encephalopathy including diffuse slowing and generalized rhythmic delta activity. Two also had epileptiform discharges reaching 2-3 Hz at times, with one patient in nonconvulsive status epilepticus and the other developing clinical status epilepticus with myoclonic movements. EEG and clinical symptoms improved with anti-seizure medications. CONCLUSION: Status epilepticus was present in 2 out of our cohort of 5 critically ill patients who underwent EEG monitoring. These findings highlight the importance of EEG monitoring in high-risk patients with COVID-19 and encephalopathy. EEG recordings in such patients can identify pathological patterns that will benefit from treatment with anti-seizure medications.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Status Epilepticus/physiopathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/diagnosis , Status Epilepticus/diagnosis
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