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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20476, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469981

ABSTRACT

The increased frequency of neurological manifestations, including central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is consistent with the virus's neurotropic nature. In most patients, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive imaging modality in the diagnosis of viral encephalitides in the brain. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of brain lesion patterns on brain MRI in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia patients who developed focal and non-focal neurological manifestations. In addition, it will compare the impact of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as an index of deteriorating cerebral function on positive brain MRIs in both neurological manifestations. This retrospective study included an examination of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmation, admitted with clinicoradiologic evidence of COVID-19 pneumonia, and who were candidates for brain MRI due to neurological manifestations suggesting brain involvement. Brain imaging acquired on a 3.0 T MRI system (Skyra; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a 20-channel receive head coil. Brain MRI revealed lesions in 38 (82.6%) of the total 46 patients for analysis and was negative in the remaining eight (17.4%) of all finally enclosed patients with RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Twenty-nine (63%) patients had focal neurological manifestations, while the remaining 17 (37%) patients had non-focal neurological manifestations. The patients had a highly significant difference (p = 0.0006) in GCS, but no significant difference (p = 0.4) in the number of comorbidities they had. Brain MRI is a feasible and important imaging modality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who develop neurological manifestations suggestive of brain involvement, particularly in patients with non-focal manifestations and a decline in GCS.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , Brain/pathology , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(1): e16-e18, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is characterized predominantly by respiratory symptoms and has affected a small subset of children. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been reported in children following COVID-19. There is increasing report that COVID-19 may also lead to neurologic manifestations. Cerebellar lesions may be observed in viral infections. CASE REPORT: We report a child with MIS-C related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed cerebellar lesion during the disease course. Encephalopathy was the first central nervous system symptom. His consciousness improved but he developed clinical signs of cerebellar dysfunction including ataxia, dysarthria and nystagmus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed symmetrical pathological signal changes in both cerebellar hemispheres. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the first child with MIS-C to develop cerebellar lesion on brain MRI, suggestive of cerebellitis.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Preschool , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Disease Progression , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
3.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 34(12): 1611-1614, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The impact of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) on metabolic outcome in patients with inborn errors of metabolism has rarely been discussed. Herein, we report a case with an acute encephalopathic crisis at the course of COVID-19 disease as the first sign of glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1). CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-month-old patient was admitted with encephalopathy and acute loss of acquired motor skills during the course of COVID-19 disease. She had lethargy, hypotonia, and choreoathetoid movements. In terms of COVID-19 encephalopathy, the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay test for COVID-19 was negative in cerebral spinal fluid. Brain imaging showed frontotemporal atrophy, bilateral subcortical and periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, and thalamic involvement. Elevated glutarylcarnitine in plasma and urinary excretion of glutaric and 3-OH-glutaric acids was noted. A homozygote mutation in the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene led to the diagnosis of GA-1. CONCLUSIONS: With this report, neurological damage associated with COVID-19 has been reported in GA-1 patients for the first time in literature.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Brain Diseases, Metabolic/complications , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase/deficiency , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnostic imaging , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases, Metabolic/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases, Metabolic/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Carnitine/analogs & derivatives , Carnitine/blood , Carnitine/urine , Female , Genetic Testing , Glutarates/blood , Glutarates/urine , Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase/genetics , Humans , Infant , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Motor Skills , Movement Disorders/etiology , Muscle Hypotonia/etiology
4.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(4): 959-974, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365501

ABSTRACT

Neurologic involvement is well-recognized in COVID-19. This article reviews the neuroimaging manifestations of COVID-19 on CT and MRI, presenting cases from the New York City metropolitan region encountered by the authors during the first surge of the pandemic. The most common neuroimaging manifestations are acute infarcts with large clot burden and intracranial hemorrhage, including microhemorrhages. However, a wide range of additional imaging patterns occur, including leukoencephalopathy, global hypoxic injury, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum, olfactory bulb involvement, cranial nerve enhancement, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The described CNS abnormalities largely represent secondary involvement from immune activation that leads to a prothrombotic state and cytokine storm; evidence for direct neuroinvasion is scant. Comorbidities such as hypertension, complications of prolonged illness and hospitalization, and associated supportive treatments also contribute to the CNS involvement in COVID-19. Routine long-term neurologic follow-up may be warranted, given emerging evidence of long-term microstructural and functional changes on brain imaging after COVID-19 recovery.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neuroimaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Radiol ; 76(11): 812-819, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330728

ABSTRACT

A subset of diabetic COVID-19 patients treated with steroids, oxygen, and/or prolonged intensive care admission develop rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. Radiologists must have a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis, which prompts immediate institution of antifungal therapy that limits morbidity and mortality. Assessment of disease extent by imaging is crucial for planning surgical debridement. Complete debridement of necrotic tissue improves survival. Imaging features reflect the angioinvasive behaviour of fungal hyphae from the Mucoraceae family, which cause necrotising vasculitis and thrombosis resulting in extensive tissue infarction. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging technique of choice. The classic "black turbinate" on contrast-enhanced imaging represents localised invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS). A striking radiological feature of disseminated craniofacial disease is non-enhancing devitalised and necrotic soft tissue at the orbits and central skull base. Sinonasal and extrasinonasal non-enhancing lesions in IFRS are secondary to coagulative necrosis induced by fungal elements. Multicompartmental and extrasinonasal tissue infarction is possible without overt bone involvement and caused by the propensity of fungal elements to disseminate from the nasal cavity via perineural and perivascular routes. Fungal vasculitis can result in internal carotid artery occlusion and cerebral infarction. Remnant non-enhancing lesions after surgical debridement portend a poor prognosis. Assessment for the non-enhancing MRI lesion is crucial, as it is a sole independent prognostic factor for IFRS-specific mortality. In this review, we describe common and uncommon imaging presentations of biopsy-proven rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis in a cohort of nearly 40 COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/microbiology , Brain Diseases/microbiology , Humans , Orbit/diagnostic imaging , Orbit/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Neuroimmunol ; 358: 577661, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307055

ABSTRACT

We describe the first case of hyperacute reversible encephalopathy following COVID-19 vaccination. A patient presented with acute onset encephalopathy, mainly characterized by agitation and confusion, rapidly responsive to high dosage steroid therapy and complete remission within 3 days from onset. The clinical manifestation was related with systemic and CSF cytokine hyperproduction, responsive to steroid therapy. Although the occurrence of encephalopathy after vaccination may be just a casual temporal association, we speculate that the cytokine-storm could be the result of an excessive innate immune response against the vaccine, in a predisposed patient susceptible to autoimmunity.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/chemically induced , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cytokine Release Syndrome/chemically induced , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Aged , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Prednisone/administration & dosage
7.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1127): 20210149, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the literature to describe outcomes associated with abnormal neuroimaging findings among adult COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review using PubMed and Embase databases. We included all studies reporting abnormal neuroimaging findings among hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 and outcomes. Data elements including patient demographics, neuroimaging findings, acuity of neurological symptoms and/or imaging findings relative to COVID-19 onset (acute, subacute, chronic), and patient outcomes were recorded and summarized. RESULTS: After review of 775 unique articles, a total of 39 studies comprising 884 COVID-19 patients ≥ 18 years of age with abnormal neuroimaging findings and reported outcomes were included in our analysis. Ischemic stroke was the most common neuroimaging finding reported (49.3%, 436/884) among patients with mortality outcomes data. Patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) had the highest all-cause mortality (49.7%, 71/143), followed by patients with imaging features consistent with leukoencephalopathy (38.5%, 5/13), and ischemic stroke (30%, 131/436). There was no mortality reported among COVID-19 patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis without necrosis (0%, 0/8) and leptomeningeal enhancement alone (0%, 0/12). Stroke was a common acute or subacute neuroimaging finding, while leukoencephalopathy was a common chronic finding. CONCLUSION: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with abnormal neuroimaging findings, those with ICH had the highest all-cause mortality; however, high mortality rates were also seen among COVID-19 patients with ischemic stroke in the acute/subacute period and leukoencephalopathy in the chronic period. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Specific abnormal neuroimaging findings may portend differential mortality outcomes, providing a potential prognostic marker for hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Brain Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Inpatients , Neuroimaging/methods , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , North America , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
8.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; 73(1): 179-186, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197333

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with neurologic sequelae and neuroimaging abnormalities in several case series previously. In this study, the neuroimaging findings and clinical course of adult patients admitted with COVID-19 to a tertiary care hospital network in Canada were characterized. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study conducted at a tertiary hospital network in Ontario, Canada. All adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 admitted from February 1, 2020 to July 22, 2020 who received neuroimaging related to their COVID-19 admission were included. CT and MR images were reviewed and categorized by fellowship-trained neuroradiologists. Demographic and clinical data were collected and correlated with imaging findings. RESULTS: We identified 422 patients admitted with COVID-19 during the study period. 103 (24.4%) met the inclusion criteria and were included: 30 ICU patients (29.1%) and 73 non-ICU patients (70.9%). A total of 198 neuroimaging studies were performed: 177 CTs and 21 MRIs. 17 out of 103 imaged patients (16.8%) had acute abnormalities on neuroimaging: 10 had macrohemorrhages (58.8%), 9 had acute ischemia (52.9%), 4 had SWI abnormalities (23.5%), and 1 had asymmetric sulcal effacement suggesting possible focal encephalitis (5.8%). ICU patients were more likely to have positive neuroimaging findings, more specifically acute ischemia and macrohemorrhages (P < 0.05). Macrohemorrhages were associated with increased mortality (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Macrohemorrhages, acute ischemia and SWI abnormalities were the main neuroimaging abnormalities in our cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Acute ischemia and hemorrhage were associated with worse clinical status.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Neuroimaging/methods , Adult , Canada , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 32(1): 287-293, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with several complications of the central nervous system (CNS), including acute encephalopathy. METHODS: In this pilot study, we report a series of 39 patients (66.5 ± 9.2 years; 10.3% female) with acute encephalopathy, who underwent a standard brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 T during the acute symptomatic phase. In addition to diffusion-weighted imaging, MR angiography and susceptibility-weighted images, high-resolution vascular black blood sequences (in 34 cases) were used to investigate the vasculature of the brain. RESULTS: In 29 out of 34 patients with COVID-19 encephalopathy (85%) with high-resolution vessel wall imaging, we found a circular enhancement and thickening of the basilar and vertebral arteries, without any correlation with ischemia or microbleeds (reported in 21% and 59%, respectively). CONCLUSION: We report a high prevalence of vascular changes suggestive of endotheliitis as reported in other organs. This could suggest an inflammatory mechanism underlying this encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211489, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130417

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is evidence of central nervous system impairments associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, including encephalopathy. Multimodal monitoring of patients with COVID-19 may delineate the specific features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy and guide clinical management. Objectives: To investigate clinical, biological, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in association with electroencephalographic (EEG) features for patients with COVID-19, and to better refine the features of COVID-19-related encephalopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study conducted in Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France, enrolled 78 hospitalized adults who received a diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2) and underwent EEG between March 30 and June 11, 2020. Exposures: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 from a nasopharyngeal specimen using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay or, in the case of associated pneumonia, on a computed tomography scan of the chest. Main Outcomes and Measures: Data on the clinical and paraclinical features of the 78 patients with COVID-19 were retrieved from electronic patient records. Results: Of 644 patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19, 78 (57 men [73%]; mean [SD] age, 61 [12] years) underwent EEG. The main indications for EEG were delirium, seizure-like events, and delayed awakening in the intensive care unit after stopping treatment with sedatives. Sixty-nine patients showed pathologic EEG findings, including metabolic-toxic encephalopathy features, frontal abnormalities, periodic discharges, and epileptic activities. Of 57 patients who underwent brain MRI, 41 showed abnormalities, including perfusion abnormalities, acute ischemic lesions, multiple microhemorrhages, and white matter-enhancing lesions. Fifty-five patients showed biological abnormalities, including dysnatremia, kidney failure, and liver dysfunction, the same day as the EEG. The results of cerebrospinal fluid analysis were negative for SARS-Cov-2 for all tested patients. Nine patients who had no identifiable cause of brain injury outside COVID-19 were further isolated; their brain injury was defined as COVID-19-related encephalopathy. They represented 1% (9 of 644) of patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Six of these 9 patients had movement disorders, 7 had frontal syndrome, 4 had brainstem impairment, 4 had periodic EEG discharges, and 3 had MRI white matter-enhancing lesions. Conclusions and Relevance: The results from this cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 suggest there are clinical, EEG, and MRI patterns that could delineate specific COVID-19-related encephalopathy and guide treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Electroencephalography , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged
12.
J Infect Dis ; 223(4): 600-609, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations are common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known about pathophysiological mechanisms. In this single-center study, we examined neurological manifestations in 58 patients, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and neuroimaging findings. METHODS: The study included 58 patients with COVID-19 and neurological manifestations in whom severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction screening and on CSF analysis were performed. Clinical, laboratory, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Patients were mostly men (66%), with a median age of 62 years. Encephalopathy was frequent (81%), followed by pyramidal dysfunction (16%), seizures (10%), and headaches (5%). CSF protein and albumin levels were increased in 38% and 23%, respectively. A total of 40% of patients displayed an elevated albumin quotient, suggesting impaired blood-brain barrier integrity. CSF-specific immunoglobulin G oligoclonal band was found in 5 patients (11%), suggesting an intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin G, and 26 patients (55%) presented identical oligoclonal bands in serum and CSF. Four patients (7%) had a positive CSF SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Leptomeningeal enhancement was present on brain MR images in 20 patients (38%). CONCLUSIONS: Brain MR imaging abnormalities, especially leptomeningeal enhancement, and increased inflammatory markers in CSF are frequent in patients with neurological manifestations related to COVID-19, whereas SARS-CoV-2 detection in CSF remained scanty.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Blood-Brain Barrier/diagnostic imaging , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , France , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099756

ABSTRACT

Neurological conditions are being more recognised in patients with COVID-19, with encephalopathy being the most prevalent problem. Posterior reversible encephalopathy is suspected to occur due to elevated blood pressure and overproduction of inflammatory markers, both of which have been reported in the setting of COVID-19 infection. Encephalopathy was the main presentation in this case, without respiratory dysfunction initially, and with imaging findings indicative of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome as an aetiology. Follow-up imaging showed resolution of the abnormal results with mental status returning to baseline upon discharge.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Diseases/virology , Humans , Hypertension/virology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/virology
14.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(1): S42-S45, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068274

ABSTRACT

The aim of this retrospective observational study was to describe the neuroimaging manifestations of patients with COVID-19. This study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from March to July 2020. COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms and positive neuroimaging were included after confirmation of COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction test (PCR). In the 12 included patients, seizures and altered mentation were predominant neurological manifestations. Three cases had acute watershed infarcts (25%), two cases had posterior cerebral artery territorial infarcts (16.7%), two cases had periventricular corona radiata infarcts (16.7%), three cases had hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (25%), two cases had posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (16.7%), and there was one case each of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, pontine infarct, and bithalamic lesions (8.3%). This study highlights the diagnostic approaches in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy and the variable imaging features that clinicians and neuroradiologists should be aware of, as the pandemic progresses. Key Words: COVID-19, Neuroimaging, Encephalopathy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(5): 831-837, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe respiratory distress in patients with COVID-19 has been associated with higher rate of neurologic manifestations. Our aim was to investigate whether the severity of chest imaging findings among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) correlates with the risk of acute neuroimaging findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients with COVID-19 who received care at our hospital between March 3, 2020, and May 6, 2020, and underwent chest imaging within 10 days of neuroimaging. Chest radiographs were assessed using a previously validated automated neural network algorithm for COVID-19 (Pulmonary X-ray Severity score). Chest CTs were graded using a Chest CT Severity scoring system based on involvement of each lobe. Associations between chest imaging severity scores and acute neuroimaging findings were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Twenty-four of 93 patients (26%) included in the study had positive acute neuroimaging findings, including intracranial hemorrhage (n = 7), infarction (n = 7), leukoencephalopathy (n = 6), or a combination of findings (n = 4). The average length of hospitalization, prevalence of intensive care unit admission, and proportion of patients requiring intubation were significantly greater in patients with acute neuroimaging findings than in patients without them (P < .05 for all). Compared with patients without acute neuroimaging findings, patients with acute neuroimaging findings had significantly higher mean Pulmonary X-ray Severity scores (5.0 [SD, 2.9] versus 9.2 [SD, 3.4], P < .001) and mean Chest CT Severity scores (9.0 [SD, 5.1] versus 12.1 [SD, 5.0], P = .041). The pulmonary x-ray severity score was a significant predictor of acute neuroimaging findings in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 and acute neuroimaging findings had more severe findings on chest imaging on both radiographs and CT compared with patients with COVID-19 without acute neuroimaging findings. The severity of findings on chest radiography was a strong predictor of acute neuroimaging findings in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aged , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
16.
Seizure ; 84: 66-68, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065590

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of COVID-19, as reported during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2019-2020, are primarily respiratory and gastrointestinal, with sparse reports on neurological manifestations. We describe the case of a 17-year old female with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and well controlled epilepsy, who sustained significant cortical injury during a COVID-19 associated multi-inflammatory syndrome.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , De Lange Syndrome/complications , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Airway Extubation , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/complications , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Necrosis , Phenobarbital/therapeutic use , Pseudomonas Infections/complications , Respiration, Artificial , Rhabdomyolysis/complications , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy
17.
Eur J Radiol ; 133: 109393, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060227

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To comprehensively evaluate the incidences of abnormal neuroimaging findings in patients with COVID-19 via a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHOD: PubMed-MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for original articles reporting imaging findings of the brain in adult patients with COVID-19 between January 1, 2020 and October 9, 2020. Abnormal neuroimaging findings were categorized as (1) cerebral microhemorrhages, (2) acute spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), (3) acute to subacute infarcts, and (4) encephalitis or encephalopathy. Pooled incidences of neuroimaging findings were assessed using random-effects modeling. Between-study heterogeneity was explored by using the χ2 statistic for pooled incidences and the inconsistency index I2. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies. Subgroup meta-regression analysis was performed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-one eligible papers, including 2125 patients, were identified. The pooled incidences of cerebral microhemorrhages, acute spontaneous ICH, acute/subacute infarcts, and encephalitis/encephalopathy were 6.9 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 4.9 %-8.9 %), 5.4 % (95 % CI, 3.1 %-7.6 %), 24.0 % (95 % CI, 16.1 %-31.8 %), and 3.3 % (95 % CI, 1.9 %-4.7 %), respectively. Substantial heterogeneities were noted for all neuroimaging findings (I2 = 87 %-97 %). Significant publication biases were present in the pooled incidences. In the subgroup meta-regression analysis, patients with mean or median ages over 65 years showed a significantly lower incidence of encephalitis/encephalopathy (P < 0.001). Furthermore, studies reported that patients in ICU had significantly higher incidences of cerebral microhemorrhages (P < 0.001) and encephalitis/encephalopathy (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Considerable incidences of abnormal neuroimaging findings have been reported in patients with COVID-19. Acute to subacute cerebral infarction was the most prevalent neuroimaging finding.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neuroimaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans
18.
Emerg Radiol ; 27(6): 755-759, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1018337

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations and complications are increasingly reported in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients. Although pulmonary manifestations are more common, patients with severe disease may present with neurological symptoms such as in our case. We describe a case report of a 50-year-old male without previous known comorbidity who was found unresponsive due to COVID-19-related neurological complications. During this pandemic, an emergency radiologist should be well acquainted with various neurological manifestations of COVID-19. In this article, we will discuss the pathogenesis, imaging findings, and differentials of this disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(5): 951-954, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016050

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus disease 2 (SARS CoV-2) most commonly presents with respiratory disease, but neurologic complications are being reported. We aimed to investigate the rate of positive neuroimaging findings in children positive for SARS-CoV-2 referred for neuroimaging between March 18 and September 30, 2020. We found that 10% (n = 2) had acute findings. Our results may suggest that in children, neurologic involvement in COVID-19 is rare, neuroimaging has a low yield in diagnosis, and acute neuroimaging should involve careful risk-benefit analysis.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Neuroimaging , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Neurol Sci ; 42(2): 479-489, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012221

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, neurological, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with encephalopathy in patients admitted to a COVID-19 tertiary reference center. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of consecutive patients with COVID-19 evaluated by a consulting neurology team from March 30, 2020 through May 15, 2020. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were included, 43 of whom showed encephalopathy, and were further divided into mild, moderate, and severe encephalopathy groups. Nineteen patients (44%) had undergone mechanical ventilation and received intravenous sedatives. Eleven (26%) patients were on dialysis. Laboratory markers of COVID-19 severity were very common in encephalopathy patients, but did not correlate with the severity of encephalopathy. Thirty-nine patients underwent neuroimaging studies, which showed mostly non-specific changes. One patient showed lesions possibly related to CNS demyelination. Four had suffered an acute stroke. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by RT-PCR in only one of 21 CSF samples. Two CSF samples showed elevated white blood cell count and all were negative for oligoclonal bands. In our case series, the severity of encephalopathy correlated with higher probability of death during hospitalization (OR = 5.5 for each increment in the degree of encephalopathy, from absent (0) to mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3), p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In our consecutive series with 43 encephalopathy cases, neuroimaging and CSF analysis did not support the role of direct viral CNS invasion or CNS inflammation as the cause of encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers
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