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1.
Pediatr Neurol ; 128: 33-44, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to characterize the frequency, early impact, and risk factors for neurological manifestations in hospitalized children with acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Multicenter, cross-sectional study of neurological manifestations in children aged <18 years hospitalized with positive SARS-CoV-2 test or clinical diagnosis of a SARS-CoV-2-related condition between January 2020 and April 2021. Multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for neurological manifestations was performed. RESULTS: Of 1493 children, 1278 (86%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 and 215 (14%) with MIS-C. Overall, 44% of the cohort (40% acute SARS-CoV-2 and 66% MIS-C) had at least one neurological manifestation. The most common neurological findings in children with acute SARS-CoV-2 and MIS-C diagnosis were headache (16% and 47%) and acute encephalopathy (15% and 22%), both P < 0.05. Children with neurological manifestations were more likely to require intensive care unit (ICU) care (51% vs 22%), P < 0.001. In multivariable logistic regression, children with neurological manifestations were older (odds ratio [OR] 1.1 and 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07 to 1.13) and more likely to have MIS-C versus acute SARS-CoV-2 (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.24), pre-existing neurological and metabolic conditions (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.37 to 5.15; and OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.66, respectively), and pharyngeal (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.64) or abdominal pain (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.00); all P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study, 44% of children hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2-related conditions experienced neurological manifestations, which were associated with ICU admission and pre-existing neurological condition. Posthospital assessment for, and support of, functional impairment and neuroprotective strategies are vitally needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , South America/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 981-986, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 infection can result in immunosuppression. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis is a frequent co-infection, even after recovery. METHODS: An ambispective interventional study was conducted of 41 coronavirus patients with rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis at a tertiary care centre from March to May 2021. RESULTS: There were 28 males and 13 females with a mean age of 48.2 years (range, 21-68 years). Twelve had long-standing diabetes mellitus and 28 had been recently diagnosed. Thirty-six had received systemic corticosteroids for coronavirus disease 2019. Nasal signs were present in 95 per cent of patients, ophthalmic symptoms and signs in 87 per cent, palatal necrosis in 46.3 per cent, facial signs in 24.3 per cent, nerve palsies in 60.9 per cent, and intracranial involvement in 21.9 per cent. Treatment with amphotericin B was based on clinical features and co-morbidities. Endonasal debridement was performed in 51.2 per cent of patients, total maxillectomy in 14.6 per cent and orbital exenteration in 9.7 per cent. At the last follow up, 37 patients (90.24 per cent) were on antifungal therapy; 4 (9.75 per cent) did not survive. CONCLUSION: Early detection may improve survival. Follow up of high-risk patients after coronavirus disease 2019 infection is paramount.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Epidemics , Mucorales , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/microbiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Debridement , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Young Adult
3.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(4): 968-979, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155205

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many neurological manifestations are associated with COVID-19, including a distinct form of encephalopathy related to cytokine storm, the acute systemic inflammatory syndrome present in a subgroup of COVID-19 patients. Cytokine storm is also associated with immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), a complication of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, a highly effective treatment for refractory hematological malignancies. We investigated whether COVID-19-related encephalopathy, ICANS, and other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, share clinical and investigative findings. METHODS: Narrative literature review. RESULTS: Comparisons between COVID-19-related encephalopathy and ICANS revealed several overlapping features. Clinically, these included dysexecutive syndrome, language disturbances, akinetic mutism and delirium. EEG showed a prevalence of frontal abnormalities. Brain MRI was often unrevealing. CSF elevated cytokine levels have been reported. A direct correlation between cytokine storm intensity and severity of neurological manifestations has been shown for both conditions. Clinical recovery occurred spontaneously or following immunotherapies in most of the patients. Similar clinical and investigative features were also reported in other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, sepsis, and febrile infection-associated encephalopathies. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19-related encephalopathy and ICANS are characterized by a predominant electro-clinical frontal lobe dysfunction and share several features with other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, which may represent the common denominator of a clinical spectrum of neurological disorders. Therefore, we propose a unifying definition of cytokine storm-associated encephalopathy (CySE), and its diagnostic criteria.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/trends
4.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(1): S42-S45, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112949

ABSTRACT

The aim of this retrospective observational study was to describe the neuroimaging manifestations of patients with COVID-19. This study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from March to July 2020. COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms and positive neuroimaging were included after confirmation of COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction test (PCR). In the 12 included patients, seizures and altered mentation were predominant neurological manifestations. Three cases had acute watershed infarcts (25%), two cases had posterior cerebral artery territorial infarcts (16.7%), two cases had periventricular corona radiata infarcts (16.7%), three cases had hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (25%), two cases had posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (16.7%), and there was one case each of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, pontine infarct, and bithalamic lesions (8.3%). This study highlights the diagnostic approaches in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy and the variable imaging features that clinicians and neuroradiologists should be aware of, as the pandemic progresses.  Key Words: COVID-19, Neuroimaging, Encephalopathy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neuroimaging/methods , Pandemics , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nephrol Ther ; 17(4): 226-232, 2021 Aug.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on end stage renal disease patient who should initiated dialysis are limited in Sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. We sought to describe the epidemiologic and clinical profile of newly admitted patient in chronic haemodialysis during the COVID-19 pandemic in Cameroon and evaluate their survival between 90days of dialysis initiation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We conducted a cohort study of 6months from April to October 2020. End stage renal disease patients newly admitted in the haemodialysis facility of the General Hospital of Douala were included. Patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 were identified. Socio-demographic, clinical and biological data at dialysis initiation as well as mortality between the 90days of dialysis initiation were registered. RESULTS: A total of 57 incident patients were recorded from April to October 2020 with a monthly mean of 9.5 patients. The mean age was 46.95±13.12years. Twenty-four COVID-19 were identified with a frequency of 49% among emergency admission. Pulmonary œdema (79.2% vs. 42.4%; P=0.006) and uremic encephalopathy (83.4% vs. 53.6%; P=0.022) were more common in COVID-19. The overall survival at 90days was 48% with a tendency to poor survival among COVID-19 and patients with low socioeconomic level. In Cox regression, low socioeconomic level increase the risk of instant death by 3.08. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV2 seem to increase nephrology emergency and poor survival in haemodialysis at 90days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Renal Dialysis , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Pulmonary Edema/virology , Social Class , Uremia/epidemiology , Uremia/virology
6.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 36(2): 127-134, 2021 Mar.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Spanish Society of Neurology has run a registry of patients with neurological involvement for the purpose of informing clinical neurologists. Encephalopathy and encephalitis were among the most frequently reported complications. In this study, we analyse the characteristics of these complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, observational, multicentre study of patients with symptoms compatible with encephalitis or encephalopathy, entered in the Spanish Society of Neurology's COVID-19 Registry from 17 March to 6 June 2020. RESULTS: A total of 232 patients with neurological symptoms were registered, including 51 cases of encephalopathy or encephalitis (21.9%). None of these patients were healthcare professionals. The most frequent syndromes were mild or moderate confusion (33%) and severe encephalopathy or coma (9.8%). The mean time between onset of infection and onset of neurological symptoms was 8.02 days. Lumbar puncture was performed in 60.8% of patients, with positive PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 in only one case. Brain MRI studies were performed in 47% of patients, with alterations detected in 7.8% of these. EEG studies were performed in 41.3% of cases, detecting alterations in 61.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Encephalopathy and encephalitis are among the complications most frequently reported in the registry. More than one-third of patients presented mild or moderate confusional syndrome. The mean time from onset of infection to onset of neurological symptoms was 8 days (up to 24hours earlier in women than in men). EEG was the most sensitive test in these patients, with very few cases presenting alterations in neuroimaging studies. All patients treated with boluses of corticosteroids or immunoglobulins progressed favourably.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Coma/epidemiology , Coma/etiology , Coma/virology , Comorbidity , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neuroimaging , Registries , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology
7.
Neurology ; 96(4): e575-e586, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated mortality of well-defined neurologic diagnoses among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we prospectively followed hospitalized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients and recorded new neurologic disorders and hospital outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study of consecutive hospitalized adults in the New York City metropolitan area with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of new neurologic disorders (as diagnosed by a neurologist) was recorded and in-hospital mortality and discharge disposition were compared between patients with COVID-19 with and without neurologic disorders. RESULTS: Of 4,491 patients with COVID-19 hospitalized during the study timeframe, 606 (13.5%) developed a new neurologic disorder in a median of 2 days from COVID-19 symptom onset. The most common diagnoses were toxic/metabolic encephalopathy (6.8%), seizure (1.6%), stroke (1.9%), and hypoxic/ischemic injury (1.4%). No patient had meningitis/encephalitis or myelopathy/myelitis referable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and 18/18 CSF specimens were reverse transcriptase PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with neurologic disorders were more often older, male, white, hypertensive, diabetic, intubated, and had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, SOFA scores, intubation, history, medical complications, medications, and comfort care status, patients with COVID-19 with neurologic disorders had increased risk of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.62, p < 0.001) and decreased likelihood of discharge home (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.85, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Neurologic disorders were detected in 13.5% of patients with COVID-19 and were associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality and decreased likelihood of discharge home. Many observed neurologic disorders may be sequelae of severe systemic illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Neurotoxicity Syndromes , New York City/epidemiology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Sex Factors , Spinal Cord Diseases/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Diseases/etiology , Young Adult
8.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(5): 951-954, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016050

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus disease 2 (SARS CoV-2) most commonly presents with respiratory disease, but neurologic complications are being reported. We aimed to investigate the rate of positive neuroimaging findings in children positive for SARS-CoV-2 referred for neuroimaging between March 18 and September 30, 2020. We found that 10% (n = 2) had acute findings. Our results may suggest that in children, neurologic involvement in COVID-19 is rare, neuroimaging has a low yield in diagnosis, and acute neuroimaging should involve careful risk-benefit analysis.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Neuroimaging , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 12(1): 170, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004349

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease but up to two thirds of hospitalised patients show evidence of central nervous system (CNS) damage, predominantly ischaemic, in some cases haemorrhagic and occasionally encephalitic. It is unclear how much of the ischaemic damage is mediated by direct or inflammatory effects of virus on the CNS vasculature and how much is secondary to extracranial cardiorespiratory disease. Limited data suggest that the causative SARS-CoV-2 virus may enter the CNS via the nasal mucosa and olfactory fibres, or by haematogenous spread, and is capable of infecting endothelial cells, pericytes and probably neurons. Extracranially, SARS-CoV-2 targets endothelial cells and pericytes, causing endothelial cell dysfunction, vascular leakage and immune activation, sometimes leading to disseminated intravascular coagulation. It remains to be confirmed whether endothelial cells and pericytes in the cerebral vasculature are similarly targeted. Several aspects of COVID-19 are likely to impact on cognition. Cerebral white matter is particularly vulnerable to ischaemic damage in COVID-19 and is also critically important for cognitive function. There is accumulating evidence that cerebral hypoperfusion accelerates amyloid-ß (Aß) accumulation and is linked to tau and TDP-43 pathology, and by inducing phosphorylation of α-synuclein at serine-129, ischaemia may also increase the risk of development of Lewy body disease. Current therapies for COVID-19 are understandably focused on supporting respiratory function, preventing thrombosis and reducing immune activation. Since angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2 is a receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are predicted to increase ACE-2 expression, it was initially feared that their use might exacerbate COVID-19. Recent meta-analyses have instead suggested that these medications are protective. This is perhaps because SARS-CoV-2 entry may deplete ACE-2, tipping the balance towards angiotensin II-ACE-1-mediated classical RAS activation: exacerbating hypoperfusion and promoting inflammation. It may be relevant that APOE ε4 individuals, who seem to be at increased risk of COVID-19, also have lowest ACE-2 activity. COVID-19 is likely to leave an unexpected legacy of long-term neurological complications in a significant number of survivors. Cognitive follow-up of COVID-19 patients will be important, especially in patients who develop cerebrovascular and neurological complications during the acute illness.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 177(1-2): 51-64, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978380

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The past two decades have been marked by three epidemics linked to emerging coronaviruses. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the existence of neurological manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and raised the question of the neuropathogenicity of coronaviruses. The aim of this review was to summarize the current data about neurological manifestations and diseases linked to human coronaviruses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Articles have been identified by searches of PubMed and Google scholar up to September 25, 2020, using a combination of coronavirus and neurology search terms and adding relevant references in the articles. RESULTS: We found five cohorts providing prevalence data of neurological symptoms among a total of 2533 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and articles focusing on COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations including a total of 580 patients. Neurological symptoms involved up to 73% of COVID-19 hospitalized patients, and were mostly headache, myalgias and impaired consciousness. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations reported in COVID-19 were mostly non-specific encephalopathies that represented between 13% and 40% of all neurological manifestations; post-infectious syndromes including acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM, n=13), acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE, n=4), Bickerstaff's encephalitis (n=5), generalized myoclonus (n=3) and acute transverse myelitis (n=7); other encephalitis including limbic encephalitis (n=9) and miscellaneous encephalitis with variable radiologic findings (n=26); acute cerebrovascular diseases including ischemic strokes (between 1.3% and 4.7% of COVID-19 patients), hemorrhagic strokes (n=17), cerebral venous thrombosis (n=8) and posterior reversible encephalopathy (n=5). Peripheral nervous system (PNS) manifestations reported in COVID-19 were the following: Guillain-Barré syndrome (n=31) and variants including Miller Fisher syndrome (n=3), polyneuritis cranialis (n=2) and facial diplegia (n=2); isolated oculomotor neuropathy (n=6); critical illness myopathy (n=6). Neuropathological studies in COVID-19 patients demonstrated different patterns of CNS damage, mostly ischemic and hemorrhagic changes with few cases of inflammatory injuries. Only one case suggested SARS-CoV-2 infiltration in endothelial and neural cells. We found 10 case reports or case series describing 22 patients with neurological manifestations associated with other human coronaviruses. Among them we found four MERS patients with ADEM or Bickerstaff's encephalitis, two SARS patients with encephalitis who had a positive SARS-CoV PCR in cerebrospinal fluid, five patients with ischemic strokes associated with SARS, eight MERS patients with critical illness neuromyopathy and one MERS patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome. An autopsy study on SARS-CoV patients demonstrated the presence of the virus in the brain of eight patients. CONCLUSION: The wide range of neurological manifestations and diseases associated with SARS-CoV-2 is consistent with multiple pathogenic pathways including post-infectious mechanisms, septic-associated encephalopathies, coagulopathy or endothelitis. There was no definite evidence to support direct neuropathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Myelitis/epidemiology , Myelitis/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology
11.
Cell ; 183(1): 16-27.e1, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720449

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications have emerged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Beside respiratory insufficiency, many hospitalized patients exhibit neurological manifestations ranging from headache and loss of smell, to confusion and disabling strokes. COVID-19 is also anticipated to take a toll on the nervous system in the long term. Here, we will provide a critical appraisal of the potential for neurotropism and mechanisms of neuropathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 as they relate to the acute and chronic neurological consequences of the infection. Finally, we will examine potential avenues for future research and therapeutic development.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/etiology , Animals , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology
12.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 491, 2020 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2 and its neurological manifestations have now been confirmed. We aimed at describing delirium and neurological symptoms of COVID-19 in ICU patients. METHODS: We conducted a bicentric cohort study in two French ICUs of Strasbourg University Hospital. All the 150 patients referred for acute respiratory distress syndrome due to SARS-CoV-2 between March 3 and May 5, 2020, were included at their admission. Ten patients (6.7%) were excluded because they remained under neuromuscular blockers during their entire ICU stay. Neurological examination, including CAM-ICU, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in some of the patients with delirium and/or abnormal neurological examination. The primary endpoint was to describe the incidence of delirium and/or abnormal neurological examination. The secondary endpoints were to describe the characteristics of delirium, to compare the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay in patients with and without delirium and/or abnormal neurological symptoms. RESULTS: The 140 patients were aged in median of 62 [IQR 52; 70] years old, with a median SAPSII of 49 [IQR 37; 64] points. Neurological examination was normal in 22 patients (15.7%). One hundred eighteen patients (84.3%) developed a delirium with a combination of acute attention, awareness, and cognition disturbances. Eighty-eight patients (69.3%) presented an unexpected state of agitation despite high infusion rates of sedative treatments and neuroleptics, and 89 (63.6%) patients had corticospinal tract signs. Brain MRI performed in 28 patients demonstrated enhancement of subarachnoid spaces in 17/28 patients (60.7%), intraparenchymal, predominantly white matter abnormalities in 8 patients, and perfusion abnormalities in 17/26 patients (65.4%). The 42 electroencephalograms mostly revealed unspecific abnormalities or diffuse, especially bifrontal, slow activity. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed inflammatory disturbances in 18/28 patients, including oligoclonal bands with mirror pattern and elevated IL-6. The CSF RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 was positive in one patient. The delirium/neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients were responsible for longer mechanical ventilation compared to the patients without delirium/neurological symptoms. Delirium/neurological symptoms could be secondary to systemic inflammatory reaction to SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Delirium/neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients are a major issue in ICUs, especially in the context of insufficient human and material resources. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NA.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delirium/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(5): e2118, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656901

ABSTRACT

Human Coronaviruses (HCoVs) have long been known as respiratory viruses. However, there are reports of neurological findings in HCoV infections, particularly in patients infected with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) amid Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Therefore, it is essential to interpret the interaction of HCoVs and the nervous system and apply this understanding to the COVID-19 pandemic. This review of the literature analyses how HCoVs, in general, and SARS-CoV-2, in particular, affect the nervous system, highlights the various underlying mechanisms, addresses the associated neurological and psychiatric manifestations, and identifies the neurological risk factors involved. This review of literature shows the magnitude of neurological conditions associated with HCoV infections, including SARS-CoV-2. This review emphasises, that, during HCoV outbreaks, such as COVID-19, a focus on early detection of neurotropism, alertness for the resulting neurological complications, and the recognition of neurological risk factors are crucial to reduce the workload on hospitals, particularly intensive-care units and neurological departments.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Nervous System/physiopathology , Nervous System/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
14.
Eur J Neurol ; 27(11): 2322-2328, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess the neurological manifestations in a series of consecutive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients, comparing their frequency with a population hospitalized in the same period for flu/respiratory symptoms, finally not related to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Patients with flu/respiratory symptoms admitted to Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli hospital from 14 March 2020 to 20 April 2020 were retrospectively enrolled. The frequency of neurological manifestations of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was compared with a control group. RESULTS: In all, 213 patients were found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2, after reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on nasal or throat swabs, whilst 218 patients were found to be negative and were used as a control group. Regarding central nervous system manifestations, in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients a higher frequency of headache, hyposmia and encephalopathy always related to systemic conditions (fever or hypoxia) was observed. Furthermore, muscular involvement was more frequent in SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 commonly have neurological manifestations but only hyposmia and muscle involvement seem more frequent compared with other flu diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Neuromuscular Diseases/epidemiology , Neuromuscular Diseases/etiology , Patients , Retrospective Studies
15.
J Neurol ; 267(9): 2485-2489, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378307

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic disease globally. While it mostly presents with respiratory symptoms, it has already been found that it could manifest with a series of neurological symptoms as well, either at presentation or during the course of the disease. Symptoms vary from non-specific such as headache or dizziness to more specific such as convulsions and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to give an overview of the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 and discuss the potential pathogenetic mechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Clinicians and especially internists, neurologists, and infectious disease specialists should be aware of these symptoms and able to recognize them early. Prompt diagnosis and immediate management of the neurological manifestations of the novel coronavirus will not only improve the prognosis of COVID-19 patients but will also prevent the dissemination of the disease due to misdiagnosed cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Brain Diseases/blood , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/blood , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Radiology ; 297(1): E232-E235, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209618
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