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1.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 63(6): 642-644, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132062
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 123: 76-79, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049305

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global health crisis that has impacted the world with heavy economic and social losses. In the early days of the pandemic, pediatric COVID-19 was well-known for its low infectivity and mortality rates as well as its benign clinical outcomes. Herein, we report the case of a 6-year-old girl with COVID-19-associated encephalopathy without respiratory symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first child reported from Saudi Arabia with COVID-19-induced encephalopathy. A 6-year-old patient with COVID-19 was presented to the Abha Maternity and Child Hospital in southeastern Saudi Arabia. Routine clinical and laboratory examinations revealed normal findings. Despite the absence of COVID-19 respiratory manifestations, the patient manifested COVID-19-related encephalopathy. The patient responded well to pulse steroid, favipiravir, and symptomatic seizure therapies. The patient recovered completely without any neurologic morbidities. A COVID-19-related encephalopathy was observed for the first time in Saudi Arabia among pediatric patients. Clinicians should be alert to potential neurologic complications associated with COVID-19. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with acute encephalopathy, even in the absence of respiratory symptoms. To avoid long-term neurologic sequelae, prompt seizure and immunosuppressive therapies are essential.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Saudi Arabia , Seizures/etiology
3.
Brain Nerve ; 74(7): 845-851, 2022 Jul.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954937

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes neurological symptoms in a high percentage of patients and is associated with various types of encephalitides and encephalopathies, which are etiologically classified into (a)direct infection of the central nervous system with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and resultant meningoencephalitis (this is a rare presentation), (b)COVID-19-induced cytokine storms, which trigger endothelial cell injury, blood-brain barrier disruption, and microangiopathy and consequent encephalopathy and, (c)autoimmune encephalitis secondary to para- or post-infectious mechanisms that play a key role during the acute or post-COVID-19 phase. Notably, some patients present with neurological symptoms as the first manifestation. Radiologically characteristic encephalitides and encephalopathies, such as acute necrotizing encephalopathy, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion are also complicated by COVID-19. Further investigations and appropriate treatments are warranted in patients with COVID-19, who develop new neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Meningoencephalitis , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Encephalitis/etiology , Humans , Meningoencephalitis/complications
4.
Brain Dev ; 44(10): 743-747, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926245

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including the Omicron variant, is less severe in children than in adults. To date, there has been no detailed description of COVID-19-associated severe encephalopathy due to the Omicron variant during the neonatal and early infantile periods. CASE PRESENTATION: During the outbreak of the Omicron variant, a 29-day-old male presented with a pale and ill appearance. The patient was intubated for mechanical ventilation owing to recurrent apnea, which subsequently turned out to be a breath-holding that may have been caused by seizure. In addition, nonconvulsive status epilepticus was observed. Total duration of repetitive seizure activities was approximately 30 min per hour when seizures were most severe. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on day 14 revealed extensive hyperintensity in the T2 sequence, hypointensity in the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence in the deep and subcortical white matter, and diffusion restriction in the corpus callosum. The Omicron BA.1 variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was detected in his respiratory sample. Follow-up MRI on day 45 revealed multiple cystic cavitations. CONCLUSION: Although COVID-19 is not severe in most children, life-threatening conditions such as COVID-19-associated severe encephalopathy can occur during the neonatal and early infantile periods.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Child , Humans , Male , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/complications , Seizures/etiology
5.
Indian J Pediatr ; 89(11): 1110-1112, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864490

ABSTRACT

Children account for 1% to 5% of diagnosed COVID-19 infection with relatively mild presentation compared to adults. The frequency of neurological involvement in acute COVID-19 infection in children is unclear. COVID-19 is also considered to be a neurotropic virus, but so far, in the pediatric age group, very few cases with involvement of basal ganglia and no case of dentate nucleus involvement have been reported in the literature. The present paper reports two cases of acute encephalopathy with COVID-19, the first case with basal ganglia involvement and the second with dentate nucleus involvement. Both cases required aggressive management and had complete neurological recovery on follow-up. Hence, these cases are reported to make everyone aware of the neurological presentation with atypical neuroimaging finding of acute COVID-19 infection in the pediatric age group; timely management improves the outcome.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Adult , Basal Ganglia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cerebellar Nuclei , Child , Humans , Neuroimaging
7.
Med Arch ; 75(6): 471-474, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 caused a pandemic that threatened all aspects of life and health while worsening the socio-economic situation of the entire population. COVID-19 affects all organs and organ systems. The symptoms of the affected organs can last for a long time after the acute infection. About 1/3 of patients develop neuropsychiatric signs in the clinical course of the disease. The most common symptoms are mental fog, headache, cognitive changes, behavior changes, muscle weakness, anosmia and ageusia. These symptoms may develop due to a direct effect of the virus on the neurons or hyper reactive immune response. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to describe 2 young adults who developed neuropsychiatric symptoms in the course of Long COVID-19 syndrome. Ischemic vasculitis was proved using CT imaging. CASE REPORT: We collected data of two younger females who had previously recovered from the acute form of COVID-19 without respiratory complications. They developed in the next 1-2 months a clinical picture of a brain disorder. In both cases, CT and angiography scans of the brain showed signs of ischemic vasculitis. Neurological therapy has led to an improvement of the neuropsychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSION: Neuropsychiatric disorders in Long Covid syndrome are common and diverse. Two cases of young adults who developed signs of neurological disorder in the post COVID-19 period were presented, and CT scans of the brain showed signs of ischemic vasculitis.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Vasculitis , Brain , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasculitis/complications , Young Adult
9.
J Pediatr ; 247: 160-162, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796441

ABSTRACT

A 5-week-old infant born at term was diagnosed with acute necrotizing encephalopathy associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 as evidenced by clinical presentation, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid studies. Our patient was treated with high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, tocilizumab, and intravenous immunoglobulin with significant short-term clinical improvement but long-term sequelae.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Humans , Infant , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Neuroimaging
10.
JAMA ; 327(14): 1321-1322, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756511
11.
Crit Care Med ; 50(7): 1103-1115, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684854

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Describe the prevalence of acute cerebral dysfunction and assess the prognostic value of an early clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) assessment in ICU COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Two tertiary critical care units in Paris, France, between April and December 2020. PATIENTS: Adult critically ill patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Neurologic examination and EEG at two time points during the ICU stay, first under sedation and second 4-7 days after sedation discontinuation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Association of EEG abnormalities (background reactivity, continuity, dominant frequency, and presence of paroxystic discharges) with day-28 mortality and neurologic outcomes (coma and delirium recovery). Fifty-two patients were included, mostly male (81%), median (interquartile range) age 68 years (56-74 yr). Delayed awakening was present in 68% of patients (median awakening time of 5 d [2-16 d]) and delirium in 74% of patients who awoke from coma (62% of mixed delirium, median duration of 5 d [3-8 d]). First, EEG background was slowed in the theta-delta range in 48 (93%) patients, discontinuous in 25 patients (48%), and nonreactive in 17 patients (33%). Bifrontal slow waves were observed in 17 patients (33%). Early nonreactive EEG was associated with lower day-28 ventilator-free days (0 vs 16; p = 0.025), coma-free days (6 vs 22; p = 0.006), delirium-free days (0 vs 17; p = 0.006), and higher mortality (41% vs 11%; p = 0.027), whereas discontinuous background was associated with lower ventilator-free days (0 vs 17; p = 0.010), coma-free days (1 vs 22; p < 0.001), delirium-free days (0 vs 17; p = 0.001), and higher mortality (40% vs 4%; p = 0.001), independently of sedation and analgesia. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and neurophysiologic cerebral dysfunction is frequent in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Early severe EEG abnormalities with nonreactive and/or discontinuous background activity are associated with delayed awakening, delirium, and day-28 mortality.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Delirium , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Aged , Brain , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Coma/diagnosis , Coma/etiology , Critical Illness , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/etiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
12.
Pediatr Neurol ; 128: 33-44, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to characterize the frequency, early impact, and risk factors for neurological manifestations in hospitalized children with acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Multicenter, cross-sectional study of neurological manifestations in children aged <18 years hospitalized with positive SARS-CoV-2 test or clinical diagnosis of a SARS-CoV-2-related condition between January 2020 and April 2021. Multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for neurological manifestations was performed. RESULTS: Of 1493 children, 1278 (86%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 and 215 (14%) with MIS-C. Overall, 44% of the cohort (40% acute SARS-CoV-2 and 66% MIS-C) had at least one neurological manifestation. The most common neurological findings in children with acute SARS-CoV-2 and MIS-C diagnosis were headache (16% and 47%) and acute encephalopathy (15% and 22%), both P < 0.05. Children with neurological manifestations were more likely to require intensive care unit (ICU) care (51% vs 22%), P < 0.001. In multivariable logistic regression, children with neurological manifestations were older (odds ratio [OR] 1.1 and 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07 to 1.13) and more likely to have MIS-C versus acute SARS-CoV-2 (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.24), pre-existing neurological and metabolic conditions (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.37 to 5.15; and OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.66, respectively), and pharyngeal (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.64) or abdominal pain (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.00); all P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study, 44% of children hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2-related conditions experienced neurological manifestations, which were associated with ICU admission and pre-existing neurological condition. Posthospital assessment for, and support of, functional impairment and neuroprotective strategies are vitally needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , South America/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6818-6821, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530184

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) first described in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has rapidly spread across the world and become a global public health emergency. Literature on the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 is limited. We report a 24-year-old male, who presented with vertigo, dysarthria, and bradyphrenia 3 weeks after being diagnosed with COVID-19 on nasopharyngeal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The patient was diagnosed with acute cerebellitis based on magnetic resonance imaging features and showed improvement posttreatment with intravenous methylprednisone for 5 days. The scope of this article is to highlight the importance of early identification of neurological symptoms and timely management as the outcomes may be catastrophic.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Acute Disease , Adult , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20476, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469981

ABSTRACT

The increased frequency of neurological manifestations, including central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is consistent with the virus's neurotropic nature. In most patients, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive imaging modality in the diagnosis of viral encephalitides in the brain. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of brain lesion patterns on brain MRI in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia patients who developed focal and non-focal neurological manifestations. In addition, it will compare the impact of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as an index of deteriorating cerebral function on positive brain MRIs in both neurological manifestations. This retrospective study included an examination of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmation, admitted with clinicoradiologic evidence of COVID-19 pneumonia, and who were candidates for brain MRI due to neurological manifestations suggesting brain involvement. Brain imaging acquired on a 3.0 T MRI system (Skyra; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a 20-channel receive head coil. Brain MRI revealed lesions in 38 (82.6%) of the total 46 patients for analysis and was negative in the remaining eight (17.4%) of all finally enclosed patients with RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Twenty-nine (63%) patients had focal neurological manifestations, while the remaining 17 (37%) patients had non-focal neurological manifestations. The patients had a highly significant difference (p = 0.0006) in GCS, but no significant difference (p = 0.4) in the number of comorbidities they had. Brain MRI is a feasible and important imaging modality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who develop neurological manifestations suggestive of brain involvement, particularly in patients with non-focal manifestations and a decline in GCS.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , Brain/pathology , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 34(12): 1611-1614, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The impact of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) on metabolic outcome in patients with inborn errors of metabolism has rarely been discussed. Herein, we report a case with an acute encephalopathic crisis at the course of COVID-19 disease as the first sign of glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1). CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-month-old patient was admitted with encephalopathy and acute loss of acquired motor skills during the course of COVID-19 disease. She had lethargy, hypotonia, and choreoathetoid movements. In terms of COVID-19 encephalopathy, the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay test for COVID-19 was negative in cerebral spinal fluid. Brain imaging showed frontotemporal atrophy, bilateral subcortical and periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, and thalamic involvement. Elevated glutarylcarnitine in plasma and urinary excretion of glutaric and 3-OH-glutaric acids was noted. A homozygote mutation in the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene led to the diagnosis of GA-1. CONCLUSIONS: With this report, neurological damage associated with COVID-19 has been reported in GA-1 patients for the first time in literature.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Brain Diseases, Metabolic/complications , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase/deficiency , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnostic imaging , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases, Metabolic/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases, Metabolic/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Carnitine/analogs & derivatives , Carnitine/blood , Carnitine/urine , Female , Genetic Testing , Glutarates/blood , Glutarates/urine , Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase/genetics , Humans , Infant , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Motor Skills , Movement Disorders/etiology , Muscle Hypotonia/etiology
17.
J Nucl Med ; 62(8): 1171-1176, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337610

ABSTRACT

A 40-y-old woman with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection developed neurologic manifestations (confusion, agitation, seizures, dyskinesias, and parkinsonism) a few weeks after the onset of severe acute respiratory syndrome. MRI and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were unremarkable, but 18F-FDG PET/CT showed limbic and extralimbic hypermetabolism. A full recovery, alongside 18F-FDG normalization in previously hypermetabolic areas, was observed after intravenous immunoglobulin administration.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans
19.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 167, 2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological complications are common in patients affected by COVID-19 due to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect brains. While the mechanisms of this process are not fully understood, it has been proposed that SARS-CoV-2 can infect the cells of the neurovascular unit (NVU), which form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of the current study was to analyze the expression pattern of the main SARS-CoV-2 receptors in naïve and HIV-1-infected cells of the NVU in order to elucidate a possible pathway of the virus entry into the brain and a potential modulatory impact of HIV-1 in this process. METHODS: The gene and protein expression profile of ACE2, TMPRSS2, ADAM17, BSG, DPP4, AGTR2, ANPEP, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L was assessed by qPCR, immunoblotting, and immunostaining, respectively. In addition, we investigated if brain endothelial cells can be affected by the exposure to the S1 subunit of the S protein, the domain responsible for the direct binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2 receptors. RESULTS: The receptors involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection are co-expressed in the cells of the NVU, especially in astrocytes and microglial cells. These receptors are functionally active as exposure of endothelial cells to the SARS CoV-2 S1 protein subunit altered the expression pattern of tight junction proteins, such as claudin-5 and ZO-1. Additionally, HIV-1 infection upregulated ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in brain astrocytes and microglia cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide key insight into SARS-CoV-2 recognition by cells of the NVU and may help to develop possible treatment of CNS complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV-1 , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Astrocytes/metabolism , Brain Diseases/etiology , Cells, Cultured , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Humans , Microglia/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Primary Cell Culture , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 , Virus Replication
20.
mSphere ; 6(3): e0027021, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280401

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with a wide variety of neurological complications. Even though SARS-CoV-2 is rarely detected in the central nervous system (CNS) or cerebrospinal fluid, evidence is accumulating that SARS-CoV-2 might enter the CNS via the olfactory nerve. However, what happens after SARS-CoV-2 enters the CNS is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the replication kinetics, cell tropism, and associated immune responses of SARS-CoV-2 infection in different types of neural cultures derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). SARS-CoV-2 was compared to the neurotropic and highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus. SARS-CoV-2 infected a minority of individual mature neurons, without subsequent virus replication and spread, despite angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and neuropilin-1 (NPR1) expression in all cultures. However, this sparse infection did result in the production of type III interferons and interleukin-8 (IL-8). In contrast, H5N1 virus replicated and spread very efficiently in all cell types in all cultures. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that neurological complications might result from local immune responses triggered by virus invasion, rather than abundant SARS-CoV-2 replication in the CNS. IMPORTANCE Infections with the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are often associated with neurological complications. Evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 enters the brain via the olfactory nerve; however, SARS-CoV-2 is only rarely detected in the central nervous system of COVID-19 patients. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect neurons of human iPSC neural cultures but that this infection is abortive and does not result in virus spread to other cells. However, infection of neural cultures did result in the production of type III interferon and IL-8. This study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 might enter the CNS and infect individual neurons, triggering local immune responses that could contribute to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-associated CNS disease.


Subject(s)
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/physiology , Neurons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication , Animals , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/immunology , Kinetics , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells
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