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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6818-6821, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530184

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) first described in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has rapidly spread across the world and become a global public health emergency. Literature on the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 is limited. We report a 24-year-old male, who presented with vertigo, dysarthria, and bradyphrenia 3 weeks after being diagnosed with COVID-19 on nasopharyngeal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The patient was diagnosed with acute cerebellitis based on magnetic resonance imaging features and showed improvement posttreatment with intravenous methylprednisone for 5 days. The scope of this article is to highlight the importance of early identification of neurological symptoms and timely management as the outcomes may be catastrophic.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Acute Disease , Adult , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20476, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469981

ABSTRACT

The increased frequency of neurological manifestations, including central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is consistent with the virus's neurotropic nature. In most patients, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive imaging modality in the diagnosis of viral encephalitides in the brain. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of brain lesion patterns on brain MRI in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia patients who developed focal and non-focal neurological manifestations. In addition, it will compare the impact of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as an index of deteriorating cerebral function on positive brain MRIs in both neurological manifestations. This retrospective study included an examination of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmation, admitted with clinicoradiologic evidence of COVID-19 pneumonia, and who were candidates for brain MRI due to neurological manifestations suggesting brain involvement. Brain imaging acquired on a 3.0 T MRI system (Skyra; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a 20-channel receive head coil. Brain MRI revealed lesions in 38 (82.6%) of the total 46 patients for analysis and was negative in the remaining eight (17.4%) of all finally enclosed patients with RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Twenty-nine (63%) patients had focal neurological manifestations, while the remaining 17 (37%) patients had non-focal neurological manifestations. The patients had a highly significant difference (p = 0.0006) in GCS, but no significant difference (p = 0.4) in the number of comorbidities they had. Brain MRI is a feasible and important imaging modality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who develop neurological manifestations suggestive of brain involvement, particularly in patients with non-focal manifestations and a decline in GCS.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , Brain/pathology , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
J Nucl Med ; 62(8): 1171-1176, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337610

ABSTRACT

A 40-y-old woman with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection developed neurologic manifestations (confusion, agitation, seizures, dyskinesias, and parkinsonism) a few weeks after the onset of severe acute respiratory syndrome. MRI and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were unremarkable, but 18F-FDG PET/CT showed limbic and extralimbic hypermetabolism. A full recovery, alongside 18F-FDG normalization in previously hypermetabolic areas, was observed after intravenous immunoglobulin administration.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans
6.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 167, 2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological complications are common in patients affected by COVID-19 due to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect brains. While the mechanisms of this process are not fully understood, it has been proposed that SARS-CoV-2 can infect the cells of the neurovascular unit (NVU), which form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of the current study was to analyze the expression pattern of the main SARS-CoV-2 receptors in naïve and HIV-1-infected cells of the NVU in order to elucidate a possible pathway of the virus entry into the brain and a potential modulatory impact of HIV-1 in this process. METHODS: The gene and protein expression profile of ACE2, TMPRSS2, ADAM17, BSG, DPP4, AGTR2, ANPEP, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L was assessed by qPCR, immunoblotting, and immunostaining, respectively. In addition, we investigated if brain endothelial cells can be affected by the exposure to the S1 subunit of the S protein, the domain responsible for the direct binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2 receptors. RESULTS: The receptors involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection are co-expressed in the cells of the NVU, especially in astrocytes and microglial cells. These receptors are functionally active as exposure of endothelial cells to the SARS CoV-2 S1 protein subunit altered the expression pattern of tight junction proteins, such as claudin-5 and ZO-1. Additionally, HIV-1 infection upregulated ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in brain astrocytes and microglia cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide key insight into SARS-CoV-2 recognition by cells of the NVU and may help to develop possible treatment of CNS complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV-1 , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Astrocytes/metabolism , Brain Diseases/etiology , Cells, Cultured , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Humans , Microglia/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Primary Cell Culture , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 , Virus Replication
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6818-6821, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326775

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) first described in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has rapidly spread across the world and become a global public health emergency. Literature on the neurological manifestations of COVID-19 is limited. We report a 24-year-old male, who presented with vertigo, dysarthria, and bradyphrenia 3 weeks after being diagnosed with COVID-19 on nasopharyngeal reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The patient was diagnosed with acute cerebellitis based on magnetic resonance imaging features and showed improvement posttreatment with intravenous methylprednisone for 5 days. The scope of this article is to highlight the importance of early identification of neurological symptoms and timely management as the outcomes may be catastrophic.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Acute Disease , Adult , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
8.
mSphere ; 6(3): e0027021, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280401

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with a wide variety of neurological complications. Even though SARS-CoV-2 is rarely detected in the central nervous system (CNS) or cerebrospinal fluid, evidence is accumulating that SARS-CoV-2 might enter the CNS via the olfactory nerve. However, what happens after SARS-CoV-2 enters the CNS is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the replication kinetics, cell tropism, and associated immune responses of SARS-CoV-2 infection in different types of neural cultures derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). SARS-CoV-2 was compared to the neurotropic and highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus. SARS-CoV-2 infected a minority of individual mature neurons, without subsequent virus replication and spread, despite angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and neuropilin-1 (NPR1) expression in all cultures. However, this sparse infection did result in the production of type III interferons and interleukin-8 (IL-8). In contrast, H5N1 virus replicated and spread very efficiently in all cell types in all cultures. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that neurological complications might result from local immune responses triggered by virus invasion, rather than abundant SARS-CoV-2 replication in the CNS. IMPORTANCE Infections with the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are often associated with neurological complications. Evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 enters the brain via the olfactory nerve; however, SARS-CoV-2 is only rarely detected in the central nervous system of COVID-19 patients. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 is able to infect neurons of human iPSC neural cultures but that this infection is abortive and does not result in virus spread to other cells. However, infection of neural cultures did result in the production of type III interferon and IL-8. This study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 might enter the CNS and infect individual neurons, triggering local immune responses that could contribute to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-associated CNS disease.


Subject(s)
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/physiology , Neurons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication , Animals , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/immunology , Kinetics , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells
9.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 8(5)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278138

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with a large variety of neurologic disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying these neurologic complications remain elusive. In this study, we aimed at determining whether neurologic symptoms were caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) direct infection or by either systemic or local proinflammatory mediators. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we checked for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by quantitative reverse transcription PCR, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, and 49 cytokines/chemokines/growth factors (by Luminex) in the CSF +/- sera of a cohort of 22 COVID-19 patients with neurologic presentation and 55 neurologic control patients (inflammatory neurologic disorder [IND], noninflammatory neurologic disorder, and MS). RESULTS: We detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G in patients with severe COVID-19 with signs of intrathecal synthesis for some of them. Of the 4 categories of tested patients, the CSF of IND exhibited the highest level of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. By contrast, patients with COVID-19 did not present overall upregulation of inflammatory mediators in the CSF. However, patients with severe COVID-19 (intensive care unit patients) exhibited higher concentrations of CCL2, CXCL8, and vascular endothelium growth factor A (VEGF-A) in the CSF than patients with a milder form of COVID-19. In addition, we could show that intrathecal CXCL8 synthesis was linked to an elevated albumin ratio and correlated with the increase of peripheral inflammation (serum hepatocyte growth factor [HGF] and CXCL10). CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not indicate active replication of SARS-CoV-2 in the CSF or signs of massive inflammation in the CSF compartment but highlight a specific impairment of the neurovascular unit linked to intrathecal production of CXCL8.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/cerebrospinal fluid , Inflammation/etiology , Neurovascular Coupling , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain Diseases/immunology , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines/blood , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/cerebrospinal fluid , Inflammation/cerebrospinal fluid , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Male , Middle Aged , Neurovascular Coupling/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
10.
Brain Dev ; 43(9): 919-930, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CLOCCs) are secondary lesions associated with entities like infection manifested by restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Our objectives are to evaluate the clinic-radiological spectrum of pediatric patients with cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CC). METHODS: Children (0-18 years) admitted between February 2017 and May 2020 with splenial lesions showing diffusion restriction on MRI, either isolated or within involvement of other parts of the brain, were included retrospectively. The primary lesions of the CC (e.g. acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, acute ischemic infarction, and glioblastoma multiforme) were excluded. CLOCCs were divided into infection-associated, metabolic disorder-associated, and trauma-associated lesions, as well as CLOCCs involving other entities. Data were collected from the medical databases. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were determined to have CLOCCs. Twenty-five (61%) were infection-associated, nine (22%) were trauma-associated, and three (7%) were metabolic disorder-associated cases, including 2 inherited disorders of metabolism. There were four (10%) patients with other entities, three with epilepsy, and one had an apparent life-threatening event. Six patients had a known etiology among the infection-associated group; one had multisystem inflammatory syndrome caused by COVID-19 and one had been infected by COVID-19 without any complications. All the infection-associated patients with isolated splenial lesions recovered totally, although six patients required intensive care hospitalization. Four trauma-associated patients had sequela lesions. CONCLUSIONS: CLOCCs are associated with a spectrum of diseases, including the new coronavirus, COVID-19 infection. Infection-associated CLOCCs has the best prognosis, although severe cases may occur. Sequelae are possible based on the etiology.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Infections/complications , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
12.
J Nucl Med ; 62(8): 1171-1176, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238850

ABSTRACT

A 40-y-old woman with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection developed neurologic manifestations (confusion, agitation, seizures, dyskinesias, and parkinsonism) a few weeks after the onset of severe acute respiratory syndrome. MRI and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were unremarkable, but 18F-FDG PET/CT showed limbic and extralimbic hypermetabolism. A full recovery, alongside 18F-FDG normalization in previously hypermetabolic areas, was observed after intravenous immunoglobulin administration.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150215

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has now emerged from a respiratory illness to a systemic viral illness with multisystem involvement. There is still a lot to learn about this illness as new disease associations with COVID-19 emerge consistently. We present a unique case of a neurological manifestation of a patient with structural brain disease who was COVID-19 positive and developed mental status changes, new-onset seizures and findings suggestive of viral meningitis on lumbar puncture. We also review the literature and discuss our case in the context of the other cases reported. We highlight the value of considering seizures and encephalopathy as one of the presenting features of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Seizures/etiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Confusion/complications , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Radiography/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/therapy , Treatment Outcome
15.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 34(3): 423-431, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132694

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview on current knowledge of neurological symptoms and complications of COVID-19, and to suggest management concepts. RECENT FINDINGS: Headache, dizziness, excessive tiredness, myalgia, anosmia/hyposmia, and ageusia/dysgeusia are common nonspecific neurological manifestations during early COVID-19 disease found in the majority of patients. Less frequent but more severe and specific neurological manifestations include Guillain--Barré syndrome, encephalopathy, encephalitis/meningitis, epileptic seizures, and cerebrovascular events. Beyond standard neurological examination, these require a more extensive work-up, including cerebrospinal fluid assessment, neurophysiological evaluation, neuroimaging, and cognitive testing. Symptomatic treatment is advisable unless the neurological complication's immune pathogenesis is proven. SUMMARY: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 occur during the acute, para-infectious, and 'recovery' phase. Therapeutic management depends on the clinical presentation and neurological work-up.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Brain Diseases/etiology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis
16.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(1): 2-6, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091099

ABSTRACT

In March 2020 -still the early days of the U.K.'s COVID-19 crisis-Rhys Thomas, a neurologist at Newcastle University, got a call at home from a concerned colleague. The colleague's cousin was hospitalized, critically ill with COVID-19, and had developed brainstem encephalitis, a severe inflammatory condition of the brain causing a suite of symptoms, from eye problems to balance problems and drowsiness. He wanted to know if Thomas knew anything about these conditions. At the time, the research coming out of Wuhan, China, only suggested a mild whiff of neurological symptoms-headache, dizziness, and the loss of taste and smell. Clearly the virus could affect the brain in some ways, but it wasn't, Thomas thought then, anything serious. But this report sounded much more concerning. Symptoms like this patient's would mean the virus was accessing more of the nervous system than scientists originally thought.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brain Diseases/psychology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 78(2): 479-503, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080922

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases (AD, PD) have a pediatric and young adult onset in Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC). The SARS-CoV-2 neurotropic RNA virus is triggering neurological complications and deep concern regarding acceleration of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes already in progress. This review, based on our MMC experience, will discuss two major issues: 1) why residents chronically exposed to air pollution are likely to be more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 systemic and brain effects and 2) why young people with AD and PD already in progress will accelerate neurodegenerative processes. Secondary mental consequences of social distancing and isolation, fear, financial insecurity, violence, poor health support, and lack of understanding of the complex crisis are expected in MMC residents infected or free of SARS-CoV-2. MMC residents with pre-SARS-CoV-2 accumulation of misfolded proteins diagnostic of AD and PD and metal-rich, magnetic nanoparticles damaging key neural organelles are an ideal host for neurotropic SARS-CoV-2 RNA virus invading the body through the same portals damaged by nanoparticles: nasal olfactory epithelium, the gastrointestinal tract, and the alveolar-capillary portal. We urgently need MMC multicenter retrospective-prospective neurological and psychiatric population follow-up and intervention strategies in place in case of acceleration of neurodegenerative processes, increased risk of suicide, and mental disease worsening. Identification of vulnerable populations and continuous effort to lower air pollution ought to be critical steps.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/complications , Brain Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Parkinson Disease/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Disease Progression , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population
18.
Nephrol Ther ; 17(4): 226-232, 2021 Aug.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on end stage renal disease patient who should initiated dialysis are limited in Sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. We sought to describe the epidemiologic and clinical profile of newly admitted patient in chronic haemodialysis during the COVID-19 pandemic in Cameroon and evaluate their survival between 90days of dialysis initiation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We conducted a cohort study of 6months from April to October 2020. End stage renal disease patients newly admitted in the haemodialysis facility of the General Hospital of Douala were included. Patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 were identified. Socio-demographic, clinical and biological data at dialysis initiation as well as mortality between the 90days of dialysis initiation were registered. RESULTS: A total of 57 incident patients were recorded from April to October 2020 with a monthly mean of 9.5 patients. The mean age was 46.95±13.12years. Twenty-four COVID-19 were identified with a frequency of 49% among emergency admission. Pulmonary œdema (79.2% vs. 42.4%; P=0.006) and uremic encephalopathy (83.4% vs. 53.6%; P=0.022) were more common in COVID-19. The overall survival at 90days was 48% with a tendency to poor survival among COVID-19 and patients with low socioeconomic level. In Cox regression, low socioeconomic level increase the risk of instant death by 3.08. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV2 seem to increase nephrology emergency and poor survival in haemodialysis at 90days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Renal Dialysis , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Pulmonary Edema/virology , Social Class , Uremia/epidemiology , Uremia/virology
19.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(1): S42-S45, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068274

ABSTRACT

The aim of this retrospective observational study was to describe the neuroimaging manifestations of patients with COVID-19. This study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from March to July 2020. COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms and positive neuroimaging were included after confirmation of COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction test (PCR). In the 12 included patients, seizures and altered mentation were predominant neurological manifestations. Three cases had acute watershed infarcts (25%), two cases had posterior cerebral artery territorial infarcts (16.7%), two cases had periventricular corona radiata infarcts (16.7%), three cases had hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (25%), two cases had posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (16.7%), and there was one case each of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, pontine infarct, and bithalamic lesions (8.3%). This study highlights the diagnostic approaches in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy and the variable imaging features that clinicians and neuroradiologists should be aware of, as the pandemic progresses. Key Words: COVID-19, Neuroimaging, Encephalopathy, Magnetic resonance imaging, Coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Seizure ; 84: 66-68, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065590

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of COVID-19, as reported during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2019-2020, are primarily respiratory and gastrointestinal, with sparse reports on neurological manifestations. We describe the case of a 17-year old female with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and well controlled epilepsy, who sustained significant cortical injury during a COVID-19 associated multi-inflammatory syndrome.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , De Lange Syndrome/complications , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Airway Extubation , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Bone Marrow Failure Disorders , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/complications , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Necrosis , Phenobarbital/therapeutic use , Pseudomonas Infections/complications , Respiration, Artificial , Rhabdomyolysis/complications , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy
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