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1.
Brain Res Bull ; 180: 31-37, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719399

ABSTRACT

An ongoing global pandemic, the coronavirus disease 2019 is posing threat to people all over the world. The association between COVID-19 and the risk of ischemic stroke remains unclear. This study systematically reviewed published studies and conducted meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the risk of ischemic stroke and COVID-19. This study was conducted according to guidelines from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The protocol used in this study had been registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched from 1st December 2019-19th February 2021. This systematic review and meta-analysis analysed the combined effect estimations based on odds ratios (OR) with the random-effects model. Four studies were screened from 31,634 participants including 171 COVID-19 positive patients with ischemic stroke were included. The mean age of COVID-19 positive patients with ischemic stroke was 69.45 years (Range: 63-77 years) and the male patients were 56%. Countries covered by these articles were USA, Italy and France. Three of the articles were retrospective cohort studies and one was prospective cohort study. Our analysis revealed that the risk of ischemic stroke (combined OR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.08-5.38) was significantly increased. Four included studies were significantly heterogeneous (I2 = 75.2%, P = 0.007). Significant association between the risk of ischemic stroke and COVID-19 was observed in the North America group (combined OR: 2.90; 95% CI: 0.45-18.80, I2 = 89.60%, P = 0.002). This study found that the risk for ischemic stroke was increased in COVID-19 patients, especially in patients from North America. Further studies with larger sample sizes that include different ethnic populations are required to confirm our analysis.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(2): 180-184, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has already stressed the healthcare system in the world. Many hospitals have been overwhelmed by the large number of patients with COVID-19. Due to the shortage of equipment and personnel and the highly contagious nature of COVID-19, many other healthcare services are on hold. However, at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, a rapid response system has been in place so that routine care is not interrupted. We, therefore, would like to share our hospital-wide prevention and management policy during this pandemic to help other healthcare systems to function in this crisis. METHOD: Tiantan hospital is one of the leading neuroscience institutions in the world. With 1650 beds, its annual inpatient admission exceeds 30 000 patients. Its COVID-19 rapid response policy was reviewed for its functionality. RESULTS: There are nine key components of this policy: an incident management system; a comprehensive infection prevention and control, outpatient triage and flow system; a designated fever clinic; patient screening and administration; optimised surgical operations, enhanced nucleic acid testing; screening of returning employees; and a supervision and feedback system. In addition, a specific protocol was designed for treating patients with acute stroke. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive policy is helpful to protect the employee from infection and to provide quality and uninterrupted care to all who need these, including patients with acute ischaemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Beijing , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Pathways , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Health Services Needs and Demand , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Needs Assessment , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Triage
3.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(6): 707-714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282177

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of COVID-19 on acute cerebrovascular disease care across 9 comprehensive stroke centers throughout Los Angeles County (LAC). METHODS: Volume of emergency stroke code activations, patient characteristics, stroke severity, reperfusion rates, treatment times, and outcomes from February 1 to April 30, 2020, were compared against the same time period in 2019. Demographic data were provided by each participating institution. RESULTS: There was a 17.3% decrease in stroke code activations across LAC in 2020 compared to 2019 (1,786 vs. 2,159, respectively, χ2 goodness of fit test p < 0.0001) across 9 participating comprehensive stroke centers. Patients who did not receive any reperfusion therapy decreased by 16.6% in 2020 (1,527) compared to 2019 (1,832). Patients who received only intravenous thrombolytic (IVT) therapy decreased by 31.8% (107 vs. 157). Patients who received only mechanical thrombectomy (MT) increased by 3% (102 vs. 99). Patients who received both IVT and MT decreased by 31.8% (45 vs. 66). Recanalization treatment times in 2020 were comparable to 2019. CSCs serving a higher proportion of Latinx populations in the eastern parts of LAC experienced a higher incidence of MT in 2020 compared to 2019. Mild increase in stroke severity was seen in 2020 compared to 2019 (8.95 vs. 8.23, p = 0.046). A higher percentage of patients were discharged home in 2020 compared to 2019 (59.5 vs. 56.1%, p = 0.034), a lower percentage of patients were discharged to skilled nursing facility (16.1 vs. 20.7%, p = 0.0004), and a higher percentage of patients expired (8.6 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: LAC saw a decrease in overall stroke code activations in 2020 compared to 2019. Reperfusion treatment times remained comparable to prepandemic metrics. There has been an increase in severe stroke incidence and higher volume of thrombectomy treatments in Latinx communities within LAC during the pandemic of 2020. More patients were discharged home, less patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities, and more patients expired in 2020, compared to the same time frame in 2019.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombectomy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(7): 1771-1775, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194162

ABSTRACT

We describe the first Danish case of presumed inflammatory and thrombotic response to vaccination with an adenoviral (ChAdOx1) vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (AZD1222). The case describes a 60-year-old woman who was admitted with intractable abdominal pain 7 days after receiving the vaccine. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal hemorrhages. On the following day, she developed a massive right-sided ischemic stroke and magnetic resonance imaging angiography showed occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. The ischemic area was deemed too large to offer reperfusion therapy. During admission, blood tests showed a remarkable drop in platelet counts from 118,000 to 5000 per µl and a substantial increase in D-dimer. The patient died on the sixth day of hospitalization. Blood tests revealed platelet factor 4 reactive antibodies, imitating what is seen in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. This may be a novel immune-mediated response to the vaccine.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 288, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the stroke care systems have been seriously affected because of social restrictions and other reasons. As the pandemic continues to spread globally, it is of great significance to understand how COVID-19 affects the stroke care systems in mainland China. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the real-world data of one comprehensive stroke center in mainland China from January to February 2020 and compared it with the data collected during the same period in 2019. We analyzed DTN time, onset-to-door time, severity, effects after treatment, the hospital length of stays, costs of hospitalization, etc., and the correlation between medical burden and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic was most severe in mainland China in January and February 2020. During the pandemic, there were no differences in pre-hospital or in-hospital workflow metrics (all p>0.05), while the degree of neurological deficit on admission and at discharge, the effects after treatment, and the long-term prognosis were all worse (all p<0.05). The severity and prognosis of AIS patients were positively correlated with the hospital length of stays and total costs of hospitalization (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic is threatening the stroke care systems. Measures must be taken to minimize the collateral damage caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Stroke , Time-to-Treatment , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
8.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We analyzed whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis affected acute stroke care in our center during the first 2 months of lockdown in Spain. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective study. We collected demographic, clinical, and radiological data; time course; and treatment of patients meeting the stroke unit admission criteria from March 14 to May 14, 2020 (COVID-19 period group). Data were compared with the same period in 2019 (pre-COVID-19 period group). RESULTS: 195 patients were analyzed; 83 in the COVID-19 period group, resulting in a 26% decline of acute strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) admitted to our center compared with the previous year (p = 0.038). Ten patients (12%) tested positive for PCR SARS-CoV-2. The proportion of patients aged 65 years and over was lower in the COVID-19 period group (53 vs. 68.8%, p = 0.025). During the pandemic period, analyzed patients were more frequently smokers (27.7 vs. 10.7%, p = 0.002) and had less frequently history of prior stroke (13.3 vs. 25%, p = 0.043) or atrial fibrillation (9.6 vs. 25%, p = 0.006). ASPECTS score was lower (9 [7-10] vs. 10 [8-10], p = 0.032), NIHSS score was slightly higher (5 [2-14] vs. 4 [2-8], p = 0.122), onset-to-door time was higher (304 [93-760] vs. 197 [91.25-645] min, p = 0.104), and a lower proportion arrived within 4.5 h from onset of symptoms (43.4 vs. 58%, p = 0.043) during the CO-VID-19 period. There were no differences between proportion of patients receiving recanalization treatment (intravenous thrombolysis and/or mechanical thrombectomy) and in-hospital delays. CONCLUSION: We observed a reduction in the number of acute strokes and TIAs admitted during the COVID-19 period. This drop affected especially elderly patients, and despite a delay in their arrival to the emergency department, the proportion of patients treated with recanalization therapies was preserved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/etiology , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Time-to-Treatment
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100112

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on prehospital stroke care is largely unknown. We aimed to compare stroke care patterns before and during a state-wide lockdown. Thus, we analysed prospective data of stroke alerts referred to our stroke centre between 1 December 2019 and 16 June 2020, and compared them between two periods-15 weeks before and 13 weeks during the state-wide lockdown declared in Lithuania on 16 March 2020. Among 719 referrals for suspected stroke, there was a decrease in stroke alerts (rate ratio 0.61, 95% CI (0.52-0.71)), stroke admissions (0.63, 95% CI (0.52-0.76)), and decrease in prehospital stroke triage quality (positive predictive value 72.1% vs. 79.9%, p = 0.042) during the lockdown. The onset-to-door time was longer (153.0 vs. 120.5 min, p = 0.049) and seizures and intracranial tumours were more common among stroke mimics (16.9% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.012 and 9.6% vs. 3.0%, p = 0.037, respectively). We conclude that there was a decline in prehospital stroke triage quality during the lockdown despite low COVID-19 incidence in the country. Moreover, we observed an increase in hospital arrival delays and severe conditions presenting as stroke mimics. Our findings suggest that improved strategies are required to maintain optimal neurological care during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lithuania , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Triage
11.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 199: 106227, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients with COVID-19 to non-COVID-19 controls, and to describe changes in stroke admission patterns during the pandemic. METHODS: This is a single center, retrospective, observational study. All consecutive patients admitted with primary diagnosis of ischemic/ hemorrhagic stroke between March1st -May10th 2020 were included and compared with the same time period in 2019. RESULTS: There was a 41.9% increase in stroke admissions in 2020 (148 vs 210,P = .001). When comparing all ischemic strokes, higher rate of large vessel occlusion (LVO) (18.3% vs 33.8%,P = .008) and significant delay in initiation of mechanical thrombectomy after hospital arrival (67.75 vs 104.30 minutes,P = .001) was observed in 2020. When comparing all hemorrhagic strokes, there were no differences between the two years. Among 591 COVID-19 admissions, 31 (5.24%) patients with stroke including 19 with ischemic (3.21%) and 12 with hemorrhagic stroke (2.03%) were identified. Patients with COVID-19 and ischemic stroke were significantly younger (58.74 vs 48.11 years,P = .002), predominantly male (68.18% vs 94.74%,P = .016), had lesser vascular risk factors, had more severe clinical presentation (NIHSS 7.01 vs 17.05,P < .001), and higher rate of LVO (23.6% vs. 63.1%,P = .006). There was no difference in the rate of endovascular thrombectomy, but time to groin puncture was significantly longer in COVID-19 patients (83.41 vs 129.50 minutes,P = .003). For hemorrhagic stroke, COVID-19 patients did not differ from non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke continues to occur during this pandemic and stroke pathways have been affected by the pandemic. Stroke occurs in approximately 5% of patients with COVID-19. COVID-19 associated ischemic stroke occurs in predominantly male patients who are younger, with fewer vascular risk factors, can be more severe, and have higher rates of LVO. Despite an increase in LVO during the pandemic, treatment with mechanical thrombectomy has not increased. COVID-19 associated hemorrhagic stroke does not differ from non-COVID-19 hemorrhagic stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/mortality , Survival Rate , Thrombectomy , United Arab Emirates
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105435, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The presence of COVID-19 infection may increase the risk of thrombotic events including ischemic strokes. Whilst a number of recent reports suggest that COVID-19 associated stroke tends to be severe, there is limited data on the effects of COVID-19 in prospective registries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To determine how COVID-19 infection may affect cerebrovascular disease, we evaluated the ischemic stroke sub-types, clinical course and outcomes prior to and during the pandemic in Qatar. The Hamad General Hospital (HGH) stroke database was interrogated for stroke admissions during the last 4 months of 2019 and January-May 2020. RESULTS: In Qatar the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 increased from only 2 in February to 779 in March, 12,628 in April and 45,501 in May. Stroke admissions to HGH declined marginally from an average of 97/month for six pre-COVID months to 72/month in March-May. There were 32 strokes that were positive for COVID-19. When compared to non-COVID-19 stroke during the three months of the pandemic, COVID-19 patients were younger with significantly lower rates of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. COVID-19 positive patients had more cortical strokes (34.4% vs 5.6%; p = 0.001), severe disease (NIHSS >10: 34.4% vs 16.7%; p = 0.001) prolonged hospitalization and fewer with good recovery (mRS 0-2: 28.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: When compared to six pre-COVID-19 months, the number of ischemic stroke admissions during the three months of the pandemic declined marginally. COVID-19 positive patients were more likely to have a large cortical stroke with severe symptoms and poor outcome.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/etiology , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Qatar , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Time Factors
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105321, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted global healthcare systems and this may affect stroke care and outcomes. This study examines the changes in stroke epidemiology and care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Zanjan Province, Iran. METHODS: This study is part of the CASCADE international initiative. From February 18, 2019, to July 18, 2020, we followed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke hospitalization rates and outcomes in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, Iran. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model and an interrupted time series analysis (ITS) to identify changes in stroke hospitalization rate, baseline stroke severity [measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)], disability [measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)], presentation time (last seen normal to hospital presentation), thrombolytic therapy rate, median door-to-needle time, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. We compared in-hospital mortality between study periods using Cox-regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 1,026 stroke patients were hospitalized. Stroke hospitalization rates per 100,000 population decreased from 68.09 before the pandemic to 44.50 during the pandemic, with a significant decline in both Bayesian [Beta: -1.034; Standard Error (SE): 0.22, 95% CrI: -1.48, -0.59] and ITS analysis (estimate: -1.03, SE = 0.24, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we observed lower admission rates for patients with mild (NIHSS < 5) ischemic stroke (p < 0.0001). Although, the presentation time and door-to-needle time did not change during the pandemic, a lower proportion of patients received thrombolysis (-10.1%; p = 0.004). We did not see significant changes in admission rate to the stroke unit and in-hospital mortality rate; however, disability at discharge increased (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In Zanjan, Iran, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted stroke outcomes and altered the delivery of stroke care. Observed lower admission rates for milder stroke may possibly be due to fear of exposure related to COVID-19. The decrease in patients treated with thrombolysis and the increased disability at discharge may indicate changes in the delivery of stroke care and increased pressure on existing stroke acute and subacute services. The results of this research will contribute to a similar analysis of the larger CASCADE dataset in order to confirm findings at a global scale and improve measures to ensure the best quality of care for stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/trends , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bayes Theorem , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Iran/epidemiology , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105344, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital admissions and outcomes in patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Single-center retrospective analysis of patients admitted to the hospital with acute ischemic stroke, between December 1st, 2019 and June 30th, 2020. Outcomes were classified as none-to-minimal disability, moderate-to-severe disability, and death based on discharge disposition, and compared between two time periods: pre-COVID-19 era (December 1st, 2019 to March 11th, 2020) and COVID-19 era (March 12th to June 30th, 2020). We also performed a comparative trend analysis for the equivalent period between 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: Five hundred and seventy-five patients with a mean age (years±SD) of 68±16 were admitted from December 1st, 2019 to June 30th, 2020, with a clinical diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Of these, 255 (44.3%) patients were admitted during the COVID-19 era. We observed a 22.1% and 39.5% decline in admission for acute ischemic stroke in April and May 2020, respectively. A significantly higher percentage of patients with acute ischemic stroke received intravenous thrombolysis during the COVID-19 era (p = 0.020). In patients with confirmed COVID-19, we found a higher percentage of older men with preexisting comorbidities such as hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus but a lower rate of atrial fibrillation. In addition, we found a treatment delay in both intravenous thrombolysis (median 94.5 min versus 38 min) and mechanical thrombectomy (median 244 min versus 86 min) in patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. There were no differences in patients' disposition including home, short-term, and long-term facility (p = 0.60). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a reduction of hospital admissions in acute ischemic strokes and some delay in reperfusion therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospective studies and a larger dataset analysis are warranted.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/trends , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Community Health Services/trends , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Virginia
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105314, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with stroke. The role of sex on stroke outcome has not been investigated. To objective of this paper is to describe the characteristics of a diverse cohort of acute stroke patients with COVID-19 disease and determine the role of sex on outcome. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with acute stroke and SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted between March 15 to May 15, 2020 to one of the six participating comprehensive stroke centers. Baseline characteristics, stroke subtype, workup, treatment and outcome are presented as total number and percentage or median and interquartile range. Outcome at discharge was determined by the modified Rankin Scale Score (mRS). Variables and outcomes were compared for males and females using univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The study included 83 patients, 47% of which were Black, 28% Hispanics/Latinos, and 16% whites. Median age was 64 years. Approximately 89% had at least one preexisting vascular risk factor (VRF). The most common complications were respiratory failure (59%) and septic shock (34%). Compared with females, a higher proportion of males experienced severe SARS-CoV-2 symptoms requiring ICU hospitalization (73% vs. 49%; p = 0.04). When divided by stroke subtype, there were 77% ischemic, 19% intracerebral hemorrhage and 3% subarachnoid hemorrhage. The most common ischemic stroke etiologies were cryptogenic (39%) and cardioembolic (27%). Compared with females, males had higher mortality (38% vs. 13%; p = 0.02) and were less likely to be discharged home (12% vs. 33%; p = 0.04). After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, and number of VRFs, mRS was higher in males than in females (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.03-2.09). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of SARS-CoV-2 stroke patients, most had clinical evidence of coronavirus infection on admission and preexisting VRFs. Severe in-hospital complications and worse outcomes after ischemic strokes were higher in males, than females.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Chicago/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Time Factors
16.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2664-2673, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anecdotal reports suggest fewer patients with stroke symptoms are presenting to hospitals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We quantify trends in stroke code calls and treatments at 3 Connecticut hospitals during the local emergence of COVID-19 and examine patient characteristics and stroke process measures at a Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) before and during the pandemic. METHODS: Stroke code activity was analyzed from January 1 to April 28, 2020, and corresponding dates in 2019. Piecewise linear regression and spline models identified when stroke codes in 2020 began to decline and when they fell below 2019 levels. Patient-level data were analyzed in February versus March and April 2020 at the CSC to identify differences in patient characteristics during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 822 stroke codes were activated at 3 hospitals from January 1 to April 28, 2020. The number of stroke codes/wk decreased by 12.8/wk from February 18 to March 16 (P=0.0360) with nadir of 39.6% of expected stroke codes called from March 10 to 16 (30% decrease in total stroke codes during the pandemic weeks in 2020 versus 2019). There was no commensurate increase in within-network telestroke utilization. Compared with before the pandemic (n=167), pandemic-epoch stroke code patients at the CSC (n=211) were more likely to have histories of hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and substance abuse; no or public health insurance; lower median household income; and to live in the CSC city (P<0.05). There was no difference in age, sex, race/ethnicity, stroke severity, time to presentation, door-to-needle/door-to-reperfusion times, or discharge modified Rankin Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital presentation for stroke-like symptoms decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, without differences in stroke severity or early outcomes. Individuals living outside of the CSC city were less likely to present for stroke codes at the CSC during the pandemic. Public health initiatives to increase awareness of presenting for non-COVID-19 medical emergencies such as stroke during the pandemic are critical.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Connecticut/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Income , Insurance, Health , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/physiopathology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Male , Medically Uninsured , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Telemedicine , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy
17.
Neurol Sci ; 41(10): 2675-2679, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695630

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a globally challenging issue after its emergence in December 2019 from Wuhan, China. Despite its common presentation as respiratory distress, patients with COVID-19 have also shown neurological manifestation especially stroke. Therefore, the authors sought to determine the etiology, underlying risk factors, and outcomes among patients with COVID-19 presenting with stroke. We conducted a systematic review of the electronic database (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane library) using different MeSH terms from November 2019 to June 2020. A total of 39 patients with stroke from 6 studies were included. The mean age of our included patients was 61.4 ± 14.2 years. Majority of the patients (n = 36, 92.3%) with COVID-19 had ischemic stroke, 5.1% (n = 2) had hemorrhagic stroke, and 2.6% (n = 1) had cerebral venous thrombosis at the time of initial clinical presentation. Almost all of the patients presented had underlying risk factors predisposing to stroke which included diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and previous history of cerebrovascular disease. 51.2% (n = 20) of the included patients infected with COVID-19 with stroke died, while remaining patients were either discharged home or transferred to a rehabilitation unit. Exploring the neurological manifestation in terms of stroke among patients with COVID-19 is a step towards better understanding of the virus, preventing further spread, and treating the patients affected by this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
18.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 587-595, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640827

ABSTRACT

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a life-threatening complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Increasing reports suggest an association between COVID-19 and AIS, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. We performed a systematic review to characterize the clinical characteristics, neuroimaging findings, and outcomes of AIS in COVID-19 patients. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Embase using a suitable keyword search strategy from 1st December 2019 to 29th May 2020. All studies reporting AIS occurrence in COVID-19 patients were included. A total of 39 studies comprising 135 patients were studied. The pooled incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients from observational studies was 1.2% (54/4466) with a mean age of 63.4 ± 13.1 years. The mean duration of AIS from COVID-19 symptoms onset was 10 ± 8 days, and the mean NIHSS score was 19 ± 8. Laboratory investigations revealed an elevated mean D-dimer (9.2 ± 14.8 mg/L) and fibrinogen (5.8 ± 2.0 g/L). Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in a significant number of cases. The majority of AIS neuroimaging patterns observed was large vessel thrombosis, embolism or stenosis (62.1%, 64/103), followed by multiple vascular territory (26.2%, 27/103). A high mortality rate was reported (38.0%, 49/129). We report the pooled incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients to be 1.2%, with a high mortality rate. Elevated D-dimer, fibrinogen and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies appear to be prominent in COVID-19 patients with concomitant AIS, but further mechanistic studies are required to elucidate their role in pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Brain Ischemia/virology , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/virology , Time Factors
20.
Int J Stroke ; 15(7): 733-742, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 is associated with neurological manifestations including stroke. OBJECTIVES: We present a case series of coronavirus disease 2019 patients from two institutions with acute cerebrovascular pathologies. In addition, we present a pooled analysis of published data on large vessel occlusion in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 and a concise summary of the pathophysiology of acute cerebrovascular disease in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: A retrospective study across two institutions was conducted between 20 March 2020 and 20 May 2020, for patients developing acute cerebrovascular disease and diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019. We performed a literature review using the PubMed search engine. RESULTS: The total sample size was 22 patients. The mean age was 59.5 years, and 12 patients were female. The cerebrovascular pathologies were 17 cases of acute ischemic stroke, 3 cases of aneurysm rupture, and 2 cases of sinus thrombosis. Of the stroke and sinus thrombosis patients, the mean National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 13.8 ± 8.0, and 16 (84.2%) patients underwent a mechanical thrombectomy procedure. A favorable thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score was achieved in all patients. Of the 16 patients that underwent a mechanical thrombectomy, the mortality incidence was five (31.3%). Of all patients (22), three (13.6%) patients developed hemorrhagic conversion requiring decompressive surgery. Eleven (50%) patients had a poor functional status (modified Rankin Score 3-6) at discharge, and the total mortality incidence was eight (36.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite timely intervention and favorable reperfusion, the mortality rate in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with large vessel occlusion was high in our series and in the pooled analysis. Notable features were younger age group, involvement of both the arterial and venous vasculature, multivessel involvement, and complicated procedures due to the clot consistency and burden.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
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