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1.
J Headache Pain ; 23(1): 13, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the initiation of the COVID-19 vaccination program in Thailand, thousands of patients have experienced unusual focal neurological symptoms. We report 8 patients with focal neurological symptoms after receiving inactivated virus vaccine, CoronaVac. CASE SERIES: Patients were aged 24-48 years and 75% were female. Acute onset of focal neurological symptoms occurred within the first 24 h after vaccination in 75% and between 1-7d in 25%. All presented with lateralized sensory deficits, motor deficits, or both, of 2-14 day duration. Migraine headache occurred in half of the patients. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain during and after the attacks did not demonstrate any abnormalities suggesting ischemic stroke. All patients showed moderately large regions of hypoperfusion and concurrent smaller regions of hyperperfusion on SPECT imaging while symptomatic. None developed permanent deficits or structural brain injury. DISCUSSIONS: Here, we present a case series of transient focal neurological syndrome following Coronavac vaccination. The characteristic sensory symptoms, history of migraine, female predominant, and abnormal functional brain imaging without structural changes suggest migraine aura as pathophysiology. We propose that pain related to vaccine injection, component of vaccine, such as aluminum, or inflammation related to vaccination might trigger migraine aura in susceptible patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Ischemic Stroke , Migraine Disorders , Migraine with Aura , Stroke , Adult , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(2): 615-619, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a common complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to describe the prevalence of vessel wall alterations in patients with cryptogenic stroke through vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (vwMRI). METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted for AIS and COVID-19 to a single neuro-COVID unit from 10 November to 31 December 2020 were prospectively evaluated and underwent a complete etiologic workup for AIS. In patients with cryptogenic stroke, the diagnostic workup was completed with vwMRI study. RESULTS: After the exclusion of four patients ineligible for MRI, a total of 10 patients were included (median age = 78 years, 50% males), of whom four (40%) had a cryptogenic stroke. vwMRI showed vascular changes consistent with inflammation of intracranial artery walls in three subjects (75%). Two patients had focal and one multifocal involvement. CONCLUSIONS: vwMRI detected signs of vascular inflammation in the majority of patients with cryptogenic AIS, leading to an etiologic definition with potential therapeutical implications. Our findings are best interpreted as hypothesis-generating, suggesting the possibility of expanding the diagnostic workup of cryptogenic stroke with vessel wall imaging.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology
3.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 11(3): 87-91, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested that atrial fibrillation (AF) is more prevalent in the large vessel occlusion (LVO) subgroup of acute ischaemic stroke patients. Given the association between left atrial enlargement (LAE) and AF, we sought to evaluate the feasibility of assessing LAE on non-gated CT and its association with LVO in the hyperacute stroke setting. METHODS: We analysed our prospectively collected database that included all stroke patients referred for consideration of endovascular treatment between April 14, 2020, and May 21, 2020. During this period, a CT chest was included in our regional stroke protocol to aid triage of patients suspected for COVID-19 from which cardiac measurements were obtained. Patients were dichotomized into LVO and no-LVO groups, and LA measurements were trichotomized into normal, borderline, and enlarged. Univariate analyses were performed between groups. RESULTS: Of the included 38 patients, 21 were categorized as LVO and 17 as no LVO. There was a statistically significant association between LAE and LVO (p = 0.028). No significant difference was demonstrated between groups for the baseline AF and other clinical characteristics, except for baseline NIHSS (p = 0.0005). There was excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.969) for LA measurements. CONCLUSION: Our study provides preliminary data to suggest LAE is more prevalent in the LVO stroke subgroup at presentation and can be reliably assessed on non-gated CT in the hyperacute setting. These findings have potential implications for stratifying secondary management and may prompt a more rigorous pursuit of occult AF or other cardiac causes of stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 93, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report the first case of a patient who suffered transient focal neurological deficit mimicking stroke following CoronaVac vaccination. However, instead of an ischemic stroke, motor aura was suspected. CASE PRESENTATIONS: A 24 year-old Thai female presented with left hemiparesis fifteen minutes after receiving CoronaVac. She also had numbness of her left arm and legs, flashing lights, and headaches. On physical examination, her BMI was 32.8. Her vital signs were normal. She had moderate left hemiparesis (MRC grade III), numbness on her left face, arms, and legs. Her weakness continued for 5 days. A brain CT scan was done showing no evidence of acute infarction. Acute treatment with aspirin was given. MRI in conjunction with MRA was performed in which no restricted diffusion was seen. A SPECT was performed to evaluate the function of the brain showing significant hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere. The patient gradually improved and was discharged. DISCUSSIONS: In this study, we present the first case of stroke mimic after CoronaVac vaccination. After negative imaging studies had been performed repeatedly, we reach a conclusion that stroke is unlikely to be the cause. Presumably, this phenomenon could possibly have abnormal functional imaging study. Therefore, we believed that it might be due to cortical spreading depression, like migraine aura, which we had conducted a literature review.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Ischemic Stroke , Migraine with Aura , Stroke , Adult , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Vaccination , Young Adult
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341318

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has proven its versatility in host presentations; one such presentation is a hypercoagulable state causing large-vessel thrombosis. We report a case on a previously asymptomatic COVID-19-positive patient presenting with an acute ischaemic stroke and an incidental left internal carotid artery thrombus. The patient's medical, social and family history and hypercoagulability screening excluded any other explanation for the left carotid thrombus or stroke, except for testing positive for the COVID-19. This case explores the known hypercoagulable state associated with COVID-19 and the effect of the virus on the host's immune response. It also questions whether administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), according to the American Heart Association guidelines, following a negative head CT for haemorrhagic stroke is safe without prior extended imaging in this patient population. We recommend, in addition to obtaining a non-contrast CT scan of the brain, a CT angiogram or carotid duplex of the neck be obtained routinely in patients with COVID-19 exhibiting stroke symptoms before t-PA administration as the effects may be detrimental. This recommendation will likely prevent fragmentation and embolisation of an undetected carotid thrombus.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Carotid Artery Thrombosis , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/drug therapy , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
8.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
9.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 69(5): 606-618, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128288

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic context, diagnostic algorithms had to be adapted considering the decimated medical personnel, local technical resources, and the likelihood of contamination. Given the higher probability of thrombotic complications related to COVID-19 and the availability of a dual-layer spectral computed tomography (CT) scanner, we have recently adopted the use of low-dose, non-gated, chest CT scans performed five minutes after contrast administration among patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) undergoing cerebrovascular CT angiography. Dual-layer spectral CT comprises a single X-ray source and two-layer detector with different photon-absorption capabilities. In addition to conventional images, the two distinct energy datasets obtained enable multiparametric spectral analysis without need to change the original scanning protocol. The two spectral features that emerge as most useful for patients with AIS are virtual monoenergetic imaging and iodine-based results. Aside from the evaluation of lung parenchyma, this novel strategy enables ruling out cardioembolic sources and simultaneously providing evidence of pulmonary and myocardial injury in a single session and immediately after CT cerebrovascular angiography. Furthermore, it involves a non-invasive, seemingly accurate, unsophisticated, safer (very low radiation dose and no contrast administration), and cheaper tool for ruling out cardioembolic sources compared to transesophageal echocardiogram and cardiac CT. Accordingly, we sought to standardize the technical aspects and overview the usefulness of delayed-phase, low-dose chest spectral CT in patients admitted with AIS.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Stroke/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Brain ; 143(10): 3089-3103, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066270

ABSTRACT

Since the appearance of the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic has emerged affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although the main clinical manifestations are respiratory, an increase in neurological conditions, specifically acute cerebrovascular disease, has been detected. We present cerebrovascular disease case incidence in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients were confirmed by microbiological/serological testing, or on chest CT semiology. Available data on co-morbidity, laboratory parameters, treatment administered, neuroimaging, neuropathological studies and clinical evolution during hospitalization, measured by the modified Rankin scale, were analysed. A bivariate study was also designed to identify differences between ischaemic and haemorrhagic subtypes. A statistical model of binary logistic regression and sensitivity analysis was designed to study the influence of independent variables over prognosis. In our centre, there were 1683 admissions of patients with COVID-19 over 50 days, of which 23 (1.4%) developed cerebrovascular disease. Within this group of patients, cerebral and chest CT scans were performed in all cases, and MRI in six (26.1%). Histological samples were obtained in 6/23 cases (two brain biopsies, and four arterial thrombi). Seventeen patients were classified as cerebral ischaemia (73.9%, with two arterial dissections), five as intracerebral haemorrhage (21.7%), and one leukoencephalopathy of posterior reversible encephalopathy type. Haemorrhagic patients had higher ferritin levels at the time of stroke (1554.3 versus 519.2, P = 0.004). Ischaemic strokes were unexpectedly frequent in the vertebrobasilar territory (6/17, 35.3%). In the haemorrhagic group, a characteristic radiological pattern was identified showing subarachnoid haemorrhage, parieto-occipital leukoencephalopathy, microbleeds and single or multiple focal haematomas. Brain biopsies performed showed signs of thrombotic microangiopathy and endothelial injury, with no evidence of vasculitis or necrotizing encephalitis. The functional prognosis during the hospital period was unfavourable in 73.9% (17/23 modified Rankin scale 4-6), and age was the main predictive variable (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.012-2.225; P = 0.043). Our series shows cerebrovascular disease incidence of 1.4% in patients with COVID-19 with high morbidity and mortality. We describe pathological and radiological data consistent with thrombotic microangiopathy caused by endotheliopathy with a haemorrhagic predisposition.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Leukoencephalopathies/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/blood , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Incidence , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalopathies/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3719-3722, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Case series indicating cerebrovascular disorders in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been published. Comprehensive workups, including clinical characteristics, laboratory, electroencephalography, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid findings, are needed to understand the mechanisms. METHODS: We evaluated 32 consecutive critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated at a tertiary care center from March 9 to April 3, 2020, for concomitant severe central nervous system involvement. Patients identified underwent computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and autopsy in case of death. RESULTS: Of 32 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 8 (25%) had severe central nervous system involvement. Two presented with lacunar ischemic stroke in the early phase and 6 with prolonged impaired consciousness after termination of analgosedation. In all but one with delayed wake-up, neuroimaging or autopsy showed multiple cerebral microbleeds, in 3 with additional subarachnoid hemorrhage and in 2 with additional small ischemic lesions. In 3 patients, intracranial vessel wall sequence magnetic resonance imaging was performed for the first time to our knowledge. All showed contrast enhancement of vessel walls in large cerebral arteries, suggesting vascular wall pathologies with an inflammatory component. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions for SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid were all negative. No intrathecal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG synthesis was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: Different mechanisms of cerebrovascular disorders might be involved in COVID-19. Acute ischemic stroke might occur early. In a later phase, microinfarctions and vessel wall contrast enhancement occur, indicating small and large cerebral vessels involvement. Central nervous system disorders associated with COVID-19 may lead to long-term disabilities. Mechanisms should be urgently investigated to develop neuroprotective strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/immunology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Contrast Media , Critical Illness , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Int J Stroke ; 16(2): 137-149, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, affecting millions of people. However, the relationship between COVID-19 and acute cerebrovascular diseases is unclear. AIMS: We aimed to characterize the incidence, risk factors, clinical-radiological manifestations, and outcome of COVID-19-associated stroke. METHODS: Three medical databases were systematically reviewed for published articles on acute cerebrovascular diseases in COVID-19 (December 2019-September 2020). The review protocol was previously registered (PROSPERO ID = CRD42020185476). Data were extracted from articles reporting ≥5 stroke cases in COVID-19. We complied with the PRISMA guidelines and used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess data quality. Data were pooled using a random-effect model. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: Of 2277 initially identified articles, 61 (2.7%) were entered in the meta-analysis. Out of 108,571 patients with COVID-19, acute CVD occurred in 1.4% (95%CI: 1.0-1.9). The most common manifestation was acute ischemic stroke (87.4%); intracerebral hemorrhage was less common (11.6%). Patients with COVID-19 developing acute cerebrovascular diseases, compared to those who did not, were older (pooled median difference = 4.8 years; 95%CI: 1.7-22.4), more likely to have hypertension (OR = 7.35; 95%CI: 1.94-27.87), diabetes mellitus (OR = 5.56; 95%CI: 3.34-9.24), coronary artery disease (OR = 3.12; 95%CI: 1.61-6.02), and severe infection (OR = 5.10; 95%CI: 2.72-9.54). Compared to individuals who experienced a stroke without the infection, patients with COVID-19 and stroke were younger (pooled median difference = -6.0 years; 95%CI: -12.3 to -1.4), had higher NIHSS (pooled median difference = 5; 95%CI: 3-9), higher frequency of large vessel occlusion (OR = 2.73; 95%CI: 1.63-4.57), and higher in-hospital mortality rate (OR = 5.21; 95%CI: 3.43-7.90). CONCLUSIONS: Acute cerebrovascular diseases are not uncommon in patients with COVID-19, especially in those whom are severely infected and have pre-existing vascular risk factors. The pattern of large vessel occlusion and multi-territory infarcts suggests that cerebral thrombosis and/or thromboembolism could be possible causative pathways for the disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Risk Factors , Stroke/metabolism
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200692, 2020. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1024438

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 56-year-old male with human immunodeficiency virus required hospitalization due to the onset of both dyspnea and asthenia. A computed tomography of the chest exam showed the radiological pattern of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary involvement. Based on immunochromatographic analysis, the patient evolved as a reagent for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The individual developed complete hemiparesis with a predominance in the right arm and conduction aphasia. T1-weighted magnetic resonance sequence of the brain showed an area of hypointensity with a high intrinsic cortical signal and hyperintensity in the T2-sequence. A Doppler velocimetric examination showed total/critical sub occlusion, suggesting an ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , HIV Infections/complications , Brain Ischemia/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Coinfection/virology , Betacoronavirus , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral
16.
Stroke ; 51(9): e254-e258, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992145

ABSTRACT

Recent case-series of small size implied a pathophysiological association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe large-vessel acute ischemic stroke. Given that severe strokes are typically associated with poor prognosis and can be very efficiently treated with recanalization techniques, confirmation of this putative association is urgently warranted in a large representative patient cohort to alert stroke clinicians, and inform pre- and in-hospital acute stroke patient pathways. We pooled all consecutive patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke in 28 sites from 16 countries. To assess whether stroke severity and outcomes (assessed at discharge or at the latest assessment for those patients still hospitalized) in patients with acute ischemic stroke are different between patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19, we performed 1:1 propensity score matching analyses of our COVID-19 patients with non-COVID-19 patients registered in the Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne Registry between 2003 and 2019. Between January 27, 2020, and May 19, 2020, 174 patients (median age 71.2 years; 37.9% females) with COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke were hospitalized (median of 12 patients per site). The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 10 (interquartile range [IQR], 4-18). In the 1:1 matched sample of 336 patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19, the median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was higher in patients with COVID-19 (10 [IQR, 4-18] versus 6 [IQR, 3-14]), P=0.03; (odds ratio, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.08-2.65] for higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score). There were 48 (27.6%) deaths, of which 22 were attributed to COVID-19 and 26 to stroke. Among 96 survivors with available information about disability status, 49 (51%) had severe disability at discharge. In the propensity score-matched population (n=330), patients with COVID-19 had higher risk for severe disability (median mRS 4 [IQR, 2-6] versus 2 [IQR, 1-4], P<0.001) and death (odds ratio, 4.3 [95% CI, 2.22-8.30]) compared with patients without COVID-19. Our findings suggest that COVID-19 associated ischemic strokes are more severe with worse functional outcome and higher mortality than non-COVID-19 ischemic strokes.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disability Evaluation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Propensity Score , Recovery of Function , Registries , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Survival Analysis , Time-to-Treatment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 65, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886479

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus is a virus with potential to target the nervous and respiratory systems. The aim of this work is to establish the prevalence of strokes in COVID19 positive patients in Guinea. METHODS: All patients with stroke confirmed by brain imaging and COVID-positive PCR were included in this study. Retrospective patient data were obtained from medical records. Informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: The RT-PCR confirmed the initial diagnosis and the chest CT scan provided a good diagnostic orientation. Brain imaging identified ischemic brain lesions. We report the case of four patients with stroke and a COVID-19 incidental finding in Guinea. CONCLUSION: This work shows that the onset of ischemic stroke associated with COVID-19 is generally delayed, but can occur both early and late in the course of the disease. More attention is needed because the early symptoms of viral attack are not just pulmonary.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Brain Ischemia/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Guinea , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105353, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796759

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to grow all over the world. Neurological manifestations related to COVID-19, including acute ischemic Stroke (AIS), have been reported in recent studies. In most of these, the patients are older, have multiple co-morbidities as risk factors for AIS and have developed a severe respiratory illness. Herein, we report a 36-year-old man with no significant past medical history who recently recovered from a mild COVID-19 infection and presented with unusual pattern of arterial macrothrombosis causing AIS. When the AIS happened, he had no COVID-19 related symptoms, had two negative screening tests for the infection and his chest CT was unremarkable.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Male , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 358, 2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic is associated with an increased incidence of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) secondary to large vessel occlusion (LVO). The treatment of these patients poses unique and significant challenges to health care providers requiring changes in existing protocols. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old COVID-19 positive patient developed sudden onset left hemiparesis secondary to an acute right middle cerebral artery occlusion (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score = 11). Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) was performed under a new protocol specifically designed to maximize protective measures for the team involved in the care of the patient. Mechanical Thrombectomy was performed successfully under general anesthesia resulting in TICI 3 recanalization. With regards to time metrics, time from door to reperfusion was 60 mins. The 24-h NIHSS score decreased to 2. Patient was discharged after 19 days after improvement of her pulmonary status with modified Rankin Scale = 1. CONCLUSION: Patients infected by COVID-19 can develop LVO that is multifactorial in etiology. Mechanical thrombectomy in a COVID-19 confirmed patient presenting with AIS due to LVO is feasible with current mechanical thrombectomy devices. A change in stroke workflow and protocols is now necessary in order to deliver the appropriate life-saving therapy for COVID-19 positive patients while protecting medical providers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombectomy/methods , Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/surgery , COVID-19 , Cerebral Angiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/complications , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Intubation, Intratracheal , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reperfusion , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/surgery , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
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