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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e022433, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511553

ABSTRACT

Background The relationship between COVID-19 and ischemic stroke is poorly understood due to potential unmeasured confounding and reverse causation. We aimed to leverage genetic data to triangulate reported associations. Methods and Results Analyses primarily focused on critical COVID-19, defined as hospitalization with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support or resulting in death. Cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to estimate genetic correlations of critical COVID-19 with ischemic stroke, other related cardiovascular outcomes, and risk factors common to both COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease (body mass index, smoking and chronic inflammation, estimated using C-reactive protein). Mendelian randomization analysis was performed to investigate whether liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of any cardiovascular outcome for which genetic correlation was identified. There was evidence of genetic correlation between critical COVID-19 and ischemic stroke (rg=0.29, false discovery rate [FDR]=0.012), body mass index (rg=0.21, FDR=0.00002), and C-reactive protein (rg=0.20, FDR=0.00035), but no other trait investigated. In Mendelian randomization, liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (odds ratio [OR] per logOR increase in genetically predicted critical COVID-19 liability 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P-value=0.03). Similar estimates were obtained for ischemic stroke subtypes. Consistent estimates were also obtained when performing statistical sensitivity analyses more robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants, including multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses adjusting for potential genetic confounding through body mass index, smoking, and chronic inflammation. There was no evidence to suggest that genetic liability to ischemic stroke increased the risk of critical COVID-19. Conclusions These data support that liability to critical COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The host response predisposing to severe COVID-19 is likely to increase the risk of ischemic stroke, independent of other potentially mitigating risk factors.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Body Mass Index , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Brain Ischemia/virology , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Inflammation , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/genetics , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , Smoking
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reduced admissions for cerebrovascular events were identified, but acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) has remained one of the leading causes of death and disability for many years. The aim of this article is to review current literature data for multidisciplinary team (MDT) coordination, rational management of resources and facilities, ensuring timely medical care for large vessel occlusion (LVO) AIS patients requiring endovascular treatment during the pandemic. METHODS: A detailed literature search was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed databases using these keywords and their combinations: acute ischaemic stroke, emergency, anaesthesia, airway management, mechanical thrombectomy, endovascular treatment, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19. Published studies and guidelines from inception to April 2021 were screened. The following nonsystematic review is based on a comprehensive literature search of available data, wherein 59 were chosen for detailed analysis. RESULTS: The pandemic has an impact on every aspect of AIS care, including prethrombectomy, intraprocedural and post-thrombectomy issues. Main challenges include institutional preparedness, increased number of AIS patients with multiorgan involvement, different work coordination principles and considerations about preferred anaesthetic technique. Care of these patients is led by MDT and nonoperating room anaesthesia (NORA) principles are applied. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate management of AIS patients requiring mechanical thrombectomy during the pandemic is of paramount importance to maximise the benefit of the endovascular procedure. MDT work and familiarity with NORA principles decrease the negative impact of the disease on the clinical outcomes for AIS patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 105-113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many countries worldwide, including Germany, reported that the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020 influenced the care of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, but data are lacking for further pandemic wave periods. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with the main diagnosis of AIS in 2019 and 2020. Primary outcomes were the number of hospitalizations for AIS, the application of stroke unit care, intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), and mechanical thrombectomy (MT), as well as the in-hospital mortality during the different pandemic periods in 2020 compared to the corresponding periods in 2019. Secondarily, we analyzed differences in outcomes between patients with and without concurrent COVID-19. RESULTS: We included 429,841 cases with AIS, of which 1268 had concurrent COVID-19. Hospitalizations for AIS declined during both pandemic wave periods in 2020 (first wave: -10.9%, second wave: -4.6%). MT rates were consistently higher throughout 2020 compared to 2019, whereas the IVT rate dropped during the second wave period (16.0% vs. 17.0%, p < 0.001). AIS patients with concurrent COVID-19 frequently received recanalization treatments, with an overall MT rate of 8.4% and IVT rate of 15.9%. The in-hospital mortality was high (22.8% vs. 7.5% in noninfected AIS patients, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate a smaller decline in hospitalizations for AIS in the more severe second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. AIS patients with and without concurrent COVID-19 who did seek acute care continued to receive recanalization treatments in Germany.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3826-3836, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316884

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients had documented thrombotic complications and ischemic stroke. Several mechanisms related to immune-mediated thrombosis, the renin angiotensin system and the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in cardiac and brain tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19. Simultaneously, significant strains on global healthcare delivery, including ischemic stroke management, have made treatment of stroke in the setting of COVID-19 particularly challenging. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on epidemiology, clinical manifestation, and pathophysiology of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 to bridge the gap from bench to bedside and clinical practice during the most challenging global health crisis of the last decades.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
6.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 36(7): 531-536, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253425

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on ischaemic stroke management, with a reported decrease in hospital admissions, and even disruptions in healthcare and increased in-hospital mortality. However, there is a lack of evidence on the impact of the pandemic on functional prognosis. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the 3-month functional outcomes of patients hospitalised due to acute ischaemic stroke in Aragon (Spain). METHODS: We reviewed the data of all patients admitted due to ischaemic stroke to any hospital in our regional healthcare system between 30 December 2019 and 3 May 2020. We compared modified Rankin Scale scores and mortality at 3 months in patients hospitalised before and after the declaration of a state of emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: In total, 318 patients with acute ischaemic stroke met our inclusion criteria. No differences were observed between periods in global or specific characteristics, with the exception of a higher proportion of patients older than 80 years during the first period (42.2% vs 29.0%, P = .028). In the comparative analysis, we found no significant differences in mortality (12.3 vs 7.9, P = .465) or in the proportion of patients with modified Rankin Scale scores ≤ 2 (57.7% vs 57.1%, P = .425) at 3 months. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyse the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the 3-month functional outcomes of patients with ischaemic stroke. In our region, there has been no increase in rates of mortality or disability at 3 months in patients admitted due to ischaemic stroke during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
8.
Neurol Sci ; 42(7): 2645-2651, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine the risk of acute ischemic stroke in patients with severe and non-severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases until October 28, 2020. Studies covering COVID-19's severity classification data and COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke were included. Two independent evaluators extracted data, and the random effects model was used to calculate the risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of acute ischemic stroke associated with COVID-19's severity. RESULTS: A total of 8 studies were included, involving 5266 patients. Among all COVID-19 patients, the total incidence of ischemic stroke was 1.76% (95% CI: 0.82-3.01). Severe patients have an increased risk of acute ischemic stroke compared with non-severe patients (RR = 3.53, 95% CI: 2.06-6.07, P < 0.0001; I2 = 12%). This association was also observed when COVID-19's severity was defined by clinical parameters (RR 2.91, 95% CI: 1.17-7.26, P = 0.02; I2 = 29%) and the need for intensive care (RR 4.47, 95% CI: 2.40-8.31, P < 0.0001; I2 = 0%). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis shows that the severe course of COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of acute ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 288, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the stroke care systems have been seriously affected because of social restrictions and other reasons. As the pandemic continues to spread globally, it is of great significance to understand how COVID-19 affects the stroke care systems in mainland China. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the real-world data of one comprehensive stroke center in mainland China from January to February 2020 and compared it with the data collected during the same period in 2019. We analyzed DTN time, onset-to-door time, severity, effects after treatment, the hospital length of stays, costs of hospitalization, etc., and the correlation between medical burden and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic was most severe in mainland China in January and February 2020. During the pandemic, there were no differences in pre-hospital or in-hospital workflow metrics (all p>0.05), while the degree of neurological deficit on admission and at discharge, the effects after treatment, and the long-term prognosis were all worse (all p<0.05). The severity and prognosis of AIS patients were positively correlated with the hospital length of stays and total costs of hospitalization (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic is threatening the stroke care systems. Measures must be taken to minimize the collateral damage caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Stroke , Time-to-Treatment , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
11.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3561-3568, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121219

ABSTRACT

Whether and how SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affected in-hospital acute stroke care system is still matter of debate. In the setting of the STROKOVID network, a collaborative project between the ten centers designed as hubs for the treatment of acute stroke during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy, we retrospectively compared clinical features and process measures of patients with confirmed infection (COVID-19) and non-infected patients (non-COVID-19) who underwent reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke. Between March 8 and April 30, 2020, 296 consecutive patients [median age, 74 years (interquartile range (IQR), 62-80.75); males, 154 (52.0%); 34 (11.5%) COVID-19] qualified for the analysis. Time from symptoms onset to treatment was longer in the COVID-19 group [230 (IQR 200.5-270) minutes vs. 190 (IQR 150-245) minutes; p = 0.007], especially in the first half of the study period. Patients with COVID-19 who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had more frequently absent collaterals or collaterals filling ≤ 50% of the occluded territory (50.0% vs. 16.6%; OR 5.05; 95% CI 1.82-13.80) and a lower rate of good/complete recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion (55.6% vs. 81.0%; OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.10-0.80). Post-procedural intracranial hemorrhages were more frequent (35.3% vs. 19.5%; OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.04-4.83) and outcome was worse among COVID-19 patients (in-hospital death, 38.2% vs. 8.8%; OR 6.43; 95% CI 2.85-14.50). Our findings showed longer delays in the intra-hospital management of acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, that likely impacted patients outcome and should be the target of future interventions.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy
13.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(4): 929-937, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke care-metrics and report data from a health system in Houston. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of the published literature reporting stroke admissions, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) cases, number of thrombolysis (tPA) and thrombectomy (MT) cases, and time metrics (door to needle, DTN; and door to groin time, DTG) during the pandemic compared to prepandemic period. Within our hospital system, between January-June 2019 and January-June 2020, we compared the proportion of stroke admissions and door to tPA and MT times. RESULTS: A total of 32,640 stroke admissions from 29 studies were assessed. Compared to prepandemic period, the mean ratio of stroke admissions during the pandemic was 70.78% [95% CI, 65.02%, 76.54%], ICH cases was 83.10% [95% CI, 71.01%, 95.17%], tPA cases was 81.74% [95% CI, 72.33%, 91.16%], and MT cases was 88.63% [95% CI, 74.12%, 103.13%], whereas DTN time was 104.48% [95% CI, 95.52%, 113.44%] and DTG was 104.30% [95% CI, 81.99%, 126.61%]. In Houston, a total of 4808 cases were assessed. There was an initial drop of ~30% in cases at the pandemic onset. Compared to 2019, there was a significant reduction in mild strokes (NIHSS 1-5) [N (%), 891 (43) vs 635 (40), P = 0.02]. There were similar mean (SD) (mins) DTN [44 (17) vs 42 (17), P = 0.14] but significantly prolonged DTG times [94 (15) vs 85 (20), P = 0.005] in 2020. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a global reduction in stroke admissions and treatment interventions and prolonged treatment time metrics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Patient Admission/trends , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Humans , Pandemics , Texas/epidemiology , Thrombectomy/trends , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends
14.
Brain ; 143(10): 3089-3103, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066270

ABSTRACT

Since the appearance of the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic has emerged affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although the main clinical manifestations are respiratory, an increase in neurological conditions, specifically acute cerebrovascular disease, has been detected. We present cerebrovascular disease case incidence in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients were confirmed by microbiological/serological testing, or on chest CT semiology. Available data on co-morbidity, laboratory parameters, treatment administered, neuroimaging, neuropathological studies and clinical evolution during hospitalization, measured by the modified Rankin scale, were analysed. A bivariate study was also designed to identify differences between ischaemic and haemorrhagic subtypes. A statistical model of binary logistic regression and sensitivity analysis was designed to study the influence of independent variables over prognosis. In our centre, there were 1683 admissions of patients with COVID-19 over 50 days, of which 23 (1.4%) developed cerebrovascular disease. Within this group of patients, cerebral and chest CT scans were performed in all cases, and MRI in six (26.1%). Histological samples were obtained in 6/23 cases (two brain biopsies, and four arterial thrombi). Seventeen patients were classified as cerebral ischaemia (73.9%, with two arterial dissections), five as intracerebral haemorrhage (21.7%), and one leukoencephalopathy of posterior reversible encephalopathy type. Haemorrhagic patients had higher ferritin levels at the time of stroke (1554.3 versus 519.2, P = 0.004). Ischaemic strokes were unexpectedly frequent in the vertebrobasilar territory (6/17, 35.3%). In the haemorrhagic group, a characteristic radiological pattern was identified showing subarachnoid haemorrhage, parieto-occipital leukoencephalopathy, microbleeds and single or multiple focal haematomas. Brain biopsies performed showed signs of thrombotic microangiopathy and endothelial injury, with no evidence of vasculitis or necrotizing encephalitis. The functional prognosis during the hospital period was unfavourable in 73.9% (17/23 modified Rankin scale 4-6), and age was the main predictive variable (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.012-2.225; P = 0.043). Our series shows cerebrovascular disease incidence of 1.4% in patients with COVID-19 with high morbidity and mortality. We describe pathological and radiological data consistent with thrombotic microangiopathy caused by endotheliopathy with a haemorrhagic predisposition.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Leukoencephalopathies/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Brain Ischemia/pathology , COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/blood , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Incidence , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalopathies/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Int J Stroke ; 16(2): 137-149, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, affecting millions of people. However, the relationship between COVID-19 and acute cerebrovascular diseases is unclear. AIMS: We aimed to characterize the incidence, risk factors, clinical-radiological manifestations, and outcome of COVID-19-associated stroke. METHODS: Three medical databases were systematically reviewed for published articles on acute cerebrovascular diseases in COVID-19 (December 2019-September 2020). The review protocol was previously registered (PROSPERO ID = CRD42020185476). Data were extracted from articles reporting ≥5 stroke cases in COVID-19. We complied with the PRISMA guidelines and used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess data quality. Data were pooled using a random-effect model. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: Of 2277 initially identified articles, 61 (2.7%) were entered in the meta-analysis. Out of 108,571 patients with COVID-19, acute CVD occurred in 1.4% (95%CI: 1.0-1.9). The most common manifestation was acute ischemic stroke (87.4%); intracerebral hemorrhage was less common (11.6%). Patients with COVID-19 developing acute cerebrovascular diseases, compared to those who did not, were older (pooled median difference = 4.8 years; 95%CI: 1.7-22.4), more likely to have hypertension (OR = 7.35; 95%CI: 1.94-27.87), diabetes mellitus (OR = 5.56; 95%CI: 3.34-9.24), coronary artery disease (OR = 3.12; 95%CI: 1.61-6.02), and severe infection (OR = 5.10; 95%CI: 2.72-9.54). Compared to individuals who experienced a stroke without the infection, patients with COVID-19 and stroke were younger (pooled median difference = -6.0 years; 95%CI: -12.3 to -1.4), had higher NIHSS (pooled median difference = 5; 95%CI: 3-9), higher frequency of large vessel occlusion (OR = 2.73; 95%CI: 1.63-4.57), and higher in-hospital mortality rate (OR = 5.21; 95%CI: 3.43-7.90). CONCLUSIONS: Acute cerebrovascular diseases are not uncommon in patients with COVID-19, especially in those whom are severely infected and have pre-existing vascular risk factors. The pattern of large vessel occlusion and multi-territory infarcts suggests that cerebral thrombosis and/or thromboembolism could be possible causative pathways for the disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Risk Factors , Stroke/metabolism
16.
Stroke ; 52(2): 716-721, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries have introduced strict hygiene measures of social distancing to prevent further spreading of the disease. This may have led to a decreased presentation to hospital of patients with acute medical conditions and time-dependent management, such as stroke. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study using administrative database of all hospitalized patients with main diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), transient ischemic attack, or intracerebral hemorrhage. Data from a total of 1463 hospitals in Germany were included. We compared case numbers and treatment characteristics of pandemic (March 16 to May 15, 2020) and prepandemic (January 16 to March 15, 2020) cases and also with corresponding time period in 2019. RESULTS: We identified a strong decline for hospitalization of AIS (-17.4%), transient ischemic attack (-22.9%), and intracerebral hemorrhage (-15.8%) patients during the pandemic compared with prepandemic period. IVT rate in patients with AIS was comparable (prepandemic versus pandemic: 16.4% versus 16.6%, P=0.448), whereas mechanical thrombectomy rate was significantly higher during the pandemic (8.1% versus 7.7%, P=0.044). In-hospital mortality was significantly increased in patients with AIS during the pandemic period (8.1% versus 7.6%, P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Besides a massive decrease in absolute case numbers, our data suggest that patients with AIS who did seek acute care during the pandemic, continued to receive acute recanalization treatment in Germany.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/virology , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Germany , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(2): 178-184, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975760

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We examined the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on our regional stroke thrombectomy service in the UK. METHODS: This was a single-center health service evaluation. We began testing for COVID-19 on 3 March and introduced a modified "COVID Stroke Thrombectomy Pathway" on 18 March. We analyzed the clinical, procedural and outcome data for 61 consecutive stroke thrombectomy patients between 1 January and 30 April. We compared the data for January and February ("pre-COVID," n = 33) versus March and April ("during COVID," n = 28). RESULTS: Patient demographics were similar between the 2 groups (mean age 71 ± 12.8 years, 39% female). During the COVID-19 pandemic, (a) total stroke admissions fell by 17% but the thrombectomy rate was maintained at 20% of ischemic strokes; (b) successful recanalization rate was maintained at 81%; (c) early neurological outcomes (neurological improvement following thrombectomy and inpatient mortality) were not significantly different; (d) use of general anesthesia fell significantly from 85 to 32% as intended; and (e) time intervals from onset to arrival, groin puncture, and recanalization were not significantly different, whereas internal delays for external referrals significantly improved for door-to-groin puncture (48 [interquartile range (IQR) 39-57] vs. 33 [IQR 27-44] minutes, p = 0.013) and door-to-recanalization (82.5 [IQR 61-110] vs. 60 [IQR 55-70] minutes, p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on the stroke admission numbers but not stroke thrombectomy rate, successful recanalization rate, or early neurological outcome. Internal delays actually improved during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies should examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on longer term outcome.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/surgery , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/mortality , Thrombectomy/methods , Time-to-Treatment , United Kingdom
18.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 13(3): 202-206, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970181

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) results from infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was first reported in Wuhan, China in patients suffering from severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome and has now grown into the first pandemic in over 100 years. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop arterial thrombosis including stroke, myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial thrombosis, all of which result in poor outcomes despite maximal medical, endovascular, and microsurgical treatment compared with non-COVID-19-infected patients. In this review we provide a brief overview of SARS-CoV-2, the infectious agent responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and describe the mechanisms responsible for COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Finally, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on ischemic stroke, focusing on large vessel occlusion.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Thrombosis/therapy
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2820-2827, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927703

ABSTRACT

The widespread endothelial damage due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may lead to a disruption of the adrenomedullin (ADM) system responsible for vascular leakage, increased inflammatory status, and microvascular alteration with multi-organs dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) as a marker of SARS-CoV2 related widespread endothelial damage, clinically identified by organs damage, disease severity and mortality. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been prospectively enrolled and demographic characteristic, clinical and laboratory data has been evaluated. In the overall population, 58% developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 23.3% of patients died, 6.5% acute cardiac injury, 1.4% of patients developed acute ischemic stroke, 21.2% acute kidney injury, 11.8% acute liver damage, and 5.4% septic shock. The best MR-proADM cut-off values for ARDS development and mortality prediction were 3.04 and 2 nmol/L, respectively. Patients presenting with MR-proADM values ≥2 nmol/L showed a significantly higher mortality risk. In conclusion, MR-proADM values ≥2 nmol/L identify those patients with high mortality risk related to a multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. These patients must be carefully evaluated and considered for an intensive therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/metabolism , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Protein Precursors/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Lung Injury/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure
20.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 17(5): 760-764, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921111

ABSTRACT

Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) is currently the most frequently reported neurological complication of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This article will elaborate the clinical features of inpatients with COVID-19 and AIS and the pathophysiological mechanism of AIS under the background of COVID-19. Through a detailed search of relevant studies, we found that the incidence of AIS among COVID-19 patients varied from 0.9% to 4.6%, and AIS has been observed in many people without an underlying disease and cardiovascular risk factors as well as young people. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of COVID-19 patients with AIS was higher than historical AIS patients, and the proportion of large vessel occlusion (LVO) was about 64.2%. COVID-19 patients with AIS generally have high levels of D-D dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), suggesting systemic hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable state. The pooled mortality of COVID-19 patients with AIS was 38% and the mortality of LVO patients is higher (45.9%). Compared with COVID-19-negative AIS patients in the same period in 2020 and 2019, COVID-19 patients with AIS had a worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/blood , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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