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1.
Crit Care Med ; 50(11): 1638-1643, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077907

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular injury associated with COVID-19 has been recognized, but the mechanisms remain uncertain. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary injury, which is associated with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. It remains unclear if cerebrovascular injuries associated with severe COVID-19 are unique to COVID-19 or a consequence of severe respiratory disease or its treatment. The frequency and patterns of cerebrovascular injury on brain MRI were compared among patients with COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: A tertiary academic hospital system. PATIENTS: Adult patients (>18 yr) with COVID-19 ARDS (March 2020 to July 2021) and non-COVID-19 ARDS (January 2010-October 2018) who underwent brain MRI during their index hospitalization. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Cerebrovascular injury on MRI included cerebral ischemia (ischemic infarct or hypoxic ischemic brain injury) and intracranial hemorrhage (intraparenchymal, subarachnoid, or subdural, and cerebral microbleed [CMB]).Twenty-six patients with COVID-19 ARDS and sixty-six patients with non-COVID ARDS underwent brain MRI during the index hospitalization, resulting in 23 age- and sex-matched pairs. The frequency of overall cerebrovascular injury (57% vs 61%), cerebral ischemia (35% vs 43%), intracranial hemorrhage (43% vs 48%), and CMB (52% vs 41%) between COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS patients was similar (all p values >0.05). However, four of 26 patients (15%) with COVID-19 and no patients with non-COVID-19 ARDS had disseminated leukoencephalopathy with underlying CMBs, an imaging pattern that has previously been reported in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In a case-control study of selected ARDS patients with brain MRI, the frequencies of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular injuries were similar between COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 ARDS patients. However, the MRI pattern of disseminated hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy was unique to the COVID-19 ARDS patients in this cohort.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Leukoencephalopathies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
2.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(6): 981-992, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924344

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of cerebrovascular diseases caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and to assess the pharmacological agents used in such cases as reported in the literature. Patient files were retrospectively scanned to determine the prevalence of neurological symptoms of the central nervous system (headache, dizziness, lack of smell and taste, numbness in arms and legs, change in consciousness, muscle weakness, loss of urine and stool control) and cerebrovascular diseases (ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid/subdural hemorrhage) in 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease (COVID-19) cases (n = 20,099). The diagnostic laboratory, radiology examinations and treatments applied to these cases were recorded. The data from studies presenting cerebrovascular diseases associated with SARS-Cov-2, which constituted 0.035% of all cases, were systematically evaluated from electronic databases. During the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, it was discovered that high doses of enoxaparin sodium anti-Xa are combined with apixaban or acetylsalicylic acid or clopidogrel or piracetam, and mannitol, in addition to SARS-CoV-2 treatment modalities. While neurological symptoms of the central nervous system are uncommon in cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, cerebrovascular diseases are far less common, according to the findings of this study. Acute cerebral ischemia was discovered to be the most common cerebrovascular disease associated with SARS-CoV-2. The mortality rate increases with the association between SARS-CoV-2 and cerebrovascular disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Aspirin , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Clopidogrel , Enoxaparin/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Mannitol , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Piracetam , Pyrazoles , Pyridones , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270413, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Understanding the relationship of COVID-19 to stroke is important. We compare characteristics of pre-pandemic historical stroke (Pre-C), cases in acute COVID infection (Active-C) and in patients who have recovered from COVID-19 infection (Post-C). METHODS: We interrogated the Qatar stroke database for all stroke admissions between Jan 2019 and Feb 2020 (Pre-C) to Active-C (Feb2020-Feb2021) and Post-C to determine how COVID-19 affected ischemic stroke sub-types, clinical course, and outcomes prior to, during and post-pandemic peak. We used the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) to measure outcome at 90-days (mRS 0-2 good recovery and mRS 3-6 as poor recovery). For the current analysis, we compared the clinical features and prognosis in patients with confirmed acute ischemic stroke. RESULTS: There were 1413 cases admitted (pre-pandemic: 1324, stroke in COVID-19: 46 and recovered COVID-19 stroke: 43). Patients with Active-C were significantly younger, had more severe symptoms, fever on presentation, more ICU admissions and poor stroke recovery at discharge when compared to Pre-C and Post-C. Large vessel disease and cardioembolic disease was significantly more frequent in Active-C compared to PRE-C or post-C. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke in Post-C has characteristics similar to Pre-C with no evidence of lasting effects of the virus on the short-term. However, Active-C is a more serious disease and tends to be more severe and have a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(5): 106315, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of the pandemic, stroke care suffered globally and there were reduced stroke admissions and delays in time metrics. Stroke care was reorganized during the second wave learning from the experience of previous wave. This study shares our experience in stroke time metrics during the second wave of pandemic compared to the first wave. METHODS: We did a single-center prospective study, where consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms and aged more than 18 years, who presented to Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram from June 1st to 31st August, 2020 and June 1st to 31st August in 2021 were included. In-hospital time metrics (door to CT time and door to Needle time) were compared during the two time periods. We also compared functional outcomes at discharge and in-hospital mortality during the two periods. Functional outcome at discharge was assessed by modified Rankin scale (mRS). RESULTS: From June to August 2021 (second wave of the COVID 19 pandemic), compared to the same months during the first wave (2020), our study demonstrated better in-hospital time metrics (door to CT time and door to needle time). We also found lower admission systolic blood pressure and higher baseline CT early ischemic changes during the second wave. There was no difference in functional outcome at discharge and in-hospital mortality. Intravenous thrombolysis rates also remained the same during the two periods. CONCLUSION: Our study has confirmed that time metrics in stroke care can be improved through system rearrangement even during the pandemic. Acute stroke treatments are time-dependent and hospital administrators must stick to the maxim "Time is Brain" while restructuring stroke workflows during future challenges.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Benchmarking , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Prospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
5.
Brain Res Bull ; 180: 31-37, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719399

ABSTRACT

An ongoing global pandemic, the coronavirus disease 2019 is posing threat to people all over the world. The association between COVID-19 and the risk of ischemic stroke remains unclear. This study systematically reviewed published studies and conducted meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the risk of ischemic stroke and COVID-19. This study was conducted according to guidelines from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The protocol used in this study had been registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched from 1st December 2019-19th February 2021. This systematic review and meta-analysis analysed the combined effect estimations based on odds ratios (OR) with the random-effects model. Four studies were screened from 31,634 participants including 171 COVID-19 positive patients with ischemic stroke were included. The mean age of COVID-19 positive patients with ischemic stroke was 69.45 years (Range: 63-77 years) and the male patients were 56%. Countries covered by these articles were USA, Italy and France. Three of the articles were retrospective cohort studies and one was prospective cohort study. Our analysis revealed that the risk of ischemic stroke (combined OR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.08-5.38) was significantly increased. Four included studies were significantly heterogeneous (I2 = 75.2%, P = 0.007). Significant association between the risk of ischemic stroke and COVID-19 was observed in the North America group (combined OR: 2.90; 95% CI: 0.45-18.80, I2 = 89.60%, P = 0.002). This study found that the risk for ischemic stroke was increased in COVID-19 patients, especially in patients from North America. Further studies with larger sample sizes that include different ethnic populations are required to confirm our analysis.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(12): JC142, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555589

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Katsoularis I, Fonseca-Rodriguez O, Farrington P, et al. Risk of acute myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke following COVID-19 in Sweden: a self-controlled case series and matched cohort study. Lancet. 2021;398:599-607. 34332652.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e022433, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511553

ABSTRACT

Background The relationship between COVID-19 and ischemic stroke is poorly understood due to potential unmeasured confounding and reverse causation. We aimed to leverage genetic data to triangulate reported associations. Methods and Results Analyses primarily focused on critical COVID-19, defined as hospitalization with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support or resulting in death. Cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to estimate genetic correlations of critical COVID-19 with ischemic stroke, other related cardiovascular outcomes, and risk factors common to both COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease (body mass index, smoking and chronic inflammation, estimated using C-reactive protein). Mendelian randomization analysis was performed to investigate whether liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of any cardiovascular outcome for which genetic correlation was identified. There was evidence of genetic correlation between critical COVID-19 and ischemic stroke (rg=0.29, false discovery rate [FDR]=0.012), body mass index (rg=0.21, FDR=0.00002), and C-reactive protein (rg=0.20, FDR=0.00035), but no other trait investigated. In Mendelian randomization, liability to critical COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke (odds ratio [OR] per logOR increase in genetically predicted critical COVID-19 liability 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P-value=0.03). Similar estimates were obtained for ischemic stroke subtypes. Consistent estimates were also obtained when performing statistical sensitivity analyses more robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants, including multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses adjusting for potential genetic confounding through body mass index, smoking, and chronic inflammation. There was no evidence to suggest that genetic liability to ischemic stroke increased the risk of critical COVID-19. Conclusions These data support that liability to critical COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The host response predisposing to severe COVID-19 is likely to increase the risk of ischemic stroke, independent of other potentially mitigating risk factors.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Body Mass Index , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Brain Ischemia/virology , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Inflammation , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/genetics , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , Smoking
11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 96: 221-226, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487856

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS). Here, we characterize our institutional experience with management of COVID-19 and AIS. Baseline demographics, clinical, imaging, and outcomes data were determined in patients with COVID-19 and AIS presenting within March 2020 to October 2020, and November 2020 to August 2021, based on institutional COVID-19 hospitalization volume. Of 2512 COVID-19 patients, 35 (1.39%, mean age 63.3 years, 54% women) had AIS. AIS recognition was frequently delayed after COVID-19 symptoms (median 19.5 days). Four patients (11%) were on therapeutic anticoagulation at AIS recognition. AIS mechanism was undetermined or due to multiple etiologies in most cases (n = 20, 57%). Three patients underwent IV TPA, and three underwent mechanical thrombectomy, of which two suffered re-occlusion. Three patients had incomplete mRNA vaccination course. Fourteen (40%) died, with 26 (74%) having poor outcomes. Critical COVID-19 severity was associated with worsened mortality (p = 0.02). More patients (12/16; 75%) had either worsened or similar 3-month functional outcomes, than those with improvement, indicating the devastating impact of co-existing AIS and COVID-19. Comparative analysis showed that patients in the later cohort had earlier AIS presentation, fewer stroke risk factors, more comprehensive workup, more defined stroke mechanisms, less instance of critical COVID-19 severity, more utilization of IV TPA, and a trend towards worse outcomes for the sub-group of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 severity. AIS incidence, NIHSS, and overall outcomes were similar. Further studies should investigate outcomes beyond 3 months and their predictive factors, impact of completed vaccination course, and access to neurologic care.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
12.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 145(2): 160-170, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the number of stroke-related admissions and acute treatments during the first two waves of COVID-19 and lockdowns in the Capital Region of Denmark and the Region of Zealand. MATERIALS & METHODS: The weekly numbers of admitted patients with stroke were retrieved from electronic patient records from January 2019 to February 2021 and analysed to reveal potential fluctuations in patient volumes during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 23,688 patients were included, of whom 2049 patients were treated with tissue-type plasminogen activators (tPA) and 552 underwent endovascular thrombectomy (EVT). We found a transient decrease in the number of weekly admitted patients (pts/week) with all strokes (-9.8 pts/week, 95% CI: -19.4; -0.2, p = .046) and stroke mimics (-30.1 pts/week, 95% CI: -39.9; -20.3, p < .001) during the first lockdown compared to pre-COVID-19. The number of subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage, and ischaemic stroke admissions showed insignificant declines. Analysing all COVID-19 periods collectively revealed increased volumes of ischaemic stroke (+6.2 pts/week, 95% CI: +1.6; +10.7, p = .009) compared to pre-COVID levels, while numbers of stroke mimics remained lower than pre-COVID. Weekly tPA and EVT treatments remained constant throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are comparable with other studies in finding reductions in stroke-related admissions early in the pandemic. This is the first study to report increased stroke volumes following the first wave of the pandemic. The mechanisms behind the observed drop and subsequent rise in strokes are unclear and warrant further investigation.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
13.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets ; 21(3): 179-184, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During Covid-19 pandemic, the Italian National Healthcare Service has faced increasing pressure, especially in Northern Italy. Even in less-affected regions, such as Tuscany, the changes in the healthcare system to prevent Covid-19 spread resulted in difficulty in treating time-dependent disorders like ischemic stroke rapidly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the outcome after acute ischemic stroke treatments during the Covid-19 spread in comparison with a similar period of the previous year in Siena-Hospital (Hub center in the South-East Tuscany). METHODS: We enrolled all patients admitted to Siena-Hospital for ischemic stroke and submitted them to acute treatments (intravenous and/or mechanical thrombolysis) between February 21st and May 18th, 2020 (study group, n:38) and compared the results with ischemic strokes acutely treated in a similar period in 2019 (control group, n:39). The modified Rankin scale score was assessed at 90 days to evaluate a 3-month clinical outcome. RESULTS: In the study group, the time from symptoms onset to hospital arrival and the door-to-groin puncture time were significantly more prolonged than in the control group. In moderate-severe strokes, the 3-month mortality was significantly higher in the study group (31% vs. 6%; p=0.01), and the number of patients with poor functional outcomes was significantly higher in the study group (73% vs. 44%; p=0.03). CONCLUSION: During the lockdown period due to Covid-19 pandemic, patients with acute ischemic stroke had a worse prognosis. These findings suggest the need to improve the health system organization to guarantee an appropriate treatment during the pandemic, including the patients that are not affected by Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reduced admissions for cerebrovascular events were identified, but acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) has remained one of the leading causes of death and disability for many years. The aim of this article is to review current literature data for multidisciplinary team (MDT) coordination, rational management of resources and facilities, ensuring timely medical care for large vessel occlusion (LVO) AIS patients requiring endovascular treatment during the pandemic. METHODS: A detailed literature search was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed databases using these keywords and their combinations: acute ischaemic stroke, emergency, anaesthesia, airway management, mechanical thrombectomy, endovascular treatment, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19. Published studies and guidelines from inception to April 2021 were screened. The following nonsystematic review is based on a comprehensive literature search of available data, wherein 59 were chosen for detailed analysis. RESULTS: The pandemic has an impact on every aspect of AIS care, including prethrombectomy, intraprocedural and post-thrombectomy issues. Main challenges include institutional preparedness, increased number of AIS patients with multiorgan involvement, different work coordination principles and considerations about preferred anaesthetic technique. Care of these patients is led by MDT and nonoperating room anaesthesia (NORA) principles are applied. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate management of AIS patients requiring mechanical thrombectomy during the pandemic is of paramount importance to maximise the benefit of the endovascular procedure. MDT work and familiarity with NORA principles decrease the negative impact of the disease on the clinical outcomes for AIS patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Neurol ; 269(2): 597-602, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Since the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic in 2019 (COVID-19), healthcare systems around the world have been hit to varying degrees. As a neurologist team, for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), we compared the situations of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) treatment from 2019 to 2020 to investigate the influence of COVID-19 pandemic on the attendance and prognosis of the IVT patients. METHODS: We collected the messages of objects who had received IVT (Bridging surgery was ruled out) during 2019-2020. We analyzed differences in age, gender, time from onset to start IVT, door to needle time (DNT), pretreatment NIHSS score, postoperative NIHSS score, and so on. Statistical tests were also performed to respectively compare the discharged modified Rankin score (mRS) and discharged NIHSS score between two years. RESULTS: Since the onset of COVID-19 restrictions in Wenzhou, we observed a significant reduction of 24.7% (p = 0.023) from 267(2019) to 201(2020) of received IVT on hospital admission. We compared the DNT between two years and it reflected that the DNT (min) in 2020 was obviously longer than in 2019 (51.60 ± 23.80 vs 46.80 ± 21.90, p = 0.026). We also compared the discharged mRS, which reflected much more IVT patients in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic had a poor short-term functional prognosis (38.2% vs 29.2%, p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic caused the decrease of admissions and prolonged the time of the green channel for stroke, which led to the worse short-term prognosis of AIS patients during the pandemic. It's necessary to ensure an effective green channel and provide adequate medical resources during the pandemic period to reduce the damage caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
16.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 105-113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many countries worldwide, including Germany, reported that the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020 influenced the care of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, but data are lacking for further pandemic wave periods. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with the main diagnosis of AIS in 2019 and 2020. Primary outcomes were the number of hospitalizations for AIS, the application of stroke unit care, intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), and mechanical thrombectomy (MT), as well as the in-hospital mortality during the different pandemic periods in 2020 compared to the corresponding periods in 2019. Secondarily, we analyzed differences in outcomes between patients with and without concurrent COVID-19. RESULTS: We included 429,841 cases with AIS, of which 1268 had concurrent COVID-19. Hospitalizations for AIS declined during both pandemic wave periods in 2020 (first wave: -10.9%, second wave: -4.6%). MT rates were consistently higher throughout 2020 compared to 2019, whereas the IVT rate dropped during the second wave period (16.0% vs. 17.0%, p < 0.001). AIS patients with concurrent COVID-19 frequently received recanalization treatments, with an overall MT rate of 8.4% and IVT rate of 15.9%. The in-hospital mortality was high (22.8% vs. 7.5% in noninfected AIS patients, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate a smaller decline in hospitalizations for AIS in the more severe second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. AIS patients with and without concurrent COVID-19 who did seek acute care continued to receive recanalization treatments in Germany.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Neurol ; 269(2): 603-608, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333064

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We have demonstrated in a multicenter cohort that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a delay in intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) among stroke patients. Whether this delay contributes to meaningful short-term outcome differences in these patients warranted further exploration. METHODS: We conducted a nested observational cohort study of adult acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IVT from 9 comprehensive stroke centers across 7 U.S states. Patients admitted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (1/1/2019-02/29/2020) were compared to patients admitted during the early pandemic (3/1/2020-7/31/2020). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of IVT delay on discharge to hospice or death, with treatment delay on admission during COVID-19 included as an interaction term. RESULTS: Of the 676 thrombolysed patients, the median age was 70 (IQR 58-81) years, 313 were female (46.3%), and the median NIHSS was 8 (IQR 4-16). Longer treatment delays were observed during COVID-19 (median 46 vs 38 min, p = 0.01) and were associated with higher in-hospital death/hospice discharge irrespective of admission period (OR per hour 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.17, p = 0.03). This effect was strengthened after multivariable adjustment (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.24, p < 0.001). There was no interaction of treatment delay on admission during COVID-19 (pinteraction = 0.65). Every one-hour delay in IVT was also associated with 7% lower odds of being discharged to home or acute inpatient rehabilitation facility (aOR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.97, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Treatment delays observed during the COVID-19 pandemic led to greater early mortality and hospice care, with a lower probability of discharge to home/rehabilitation facility. There was no effect modification of treatment delay on admission during the pandemic, indicating that treatment delay at any time contributes similarly to these short-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Neurology , Stroke , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
18.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3826-3836, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316884

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients had documented thrombotic complications and ischemic stroke. Several mechanisms related to immune-mediated thrombosis, the renin angiotensin system and the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in cardiac and brain tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19. Simultaneously, significant strains on global healthcare delivery, including ischemic stroke management, have made treatment of stroke in the setting of COVID-19 particularly challenging. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on epidemiology, clinical manifestation, and pathophysiology of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 to bridge the gap from bench to bedside and clinical practice during the most challenging global health crisis of the last decades.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
19.
Neurocrit Care ; 36(1): 208-215, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of observational studies report a 1.1-1.7% pooled risk of stroke among patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection requiring hospitalization, but consultations for stroke and reperfusion procedures have decreased during the outbreak that occurred during the first half of the year 2020. It is still unclear whether a true increase in the risk of stroke exists among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In-hospital ischemic stroke (IHIS) complicated the 0.04-0.06% of all admissions in the pre-COVID-19 era, but its incidence has not been assessed among inpatients with COVID-19. We aimed to compare IHIS incidence among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection with that of inpatients with non-COVID-19 illnesses from the same outbreak period and from previous periods. METHODS: This historical cohort study belongs to the COVID-19@Vallecas cohort. The incidence of IHIS was estimated for patients with SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized during March-April 2020 [COVID-19 cohort (CC)], for patients with non-COVID-19 medical illness hospitalized during the same outbreak period [2020 non-COVID-19 cohort (20NCC)], and for inpatients with non-COVID-19 illness admitted during March-April of the years 2016-2019 [historical non-COVID-19 cohort (HNCC)]. Unadjusted risk of IHIS was compared between the three cohorts, and adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of IHIS between cohorts was obtained by means of Poisson regression. RESULTS: Overall, 8126 inpatients were included in this study. Patients in the CC were younger and more commonly men than those from the HNCC and 20NCC. Absolute risk of IHIS was 0.05% for HNCC, 0.23% for 20NCC, and 0.36% for CC, (p = 0.004 for HNCC vs. CC). Cumulative incidence for IHIS by day nine after admission, with death as a competing risk, was 0.09% for HNCC, 0.23% for 20NCC, and 0.50% for CC. In an adjusted Poisson regression model with sex, age, needing of intensive care unit admission, and cohort (HNCC as reference) as covariates, COVID-19 was an independent predictor for IHIS (IRR 6.76, 95% confidence interval 1.66-27.54, p = 0.01). A nonsignificant increase in the risk of IHIS was observed for the 20NCC (IRR 5.62, 95% confidence interval 0.93-33.9, p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was associated with an increase in the incidence of IHIS when compared with inpatients from a historical cohort. Viral infection itself may be related to the increased risk of IHIS among patients with COVID-19, but in view of our results from the 20NCC, it is likely that other factors, such as hospital saturation and overwhelming of health systems, may have played a role in the increased frequency of IHIS.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
20.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(6): 707-714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282177

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of COVID-19 on acute cerebrovascular disease care across 9 comprehensive stroke centers throughout Los Angeles County (LAC). METHODS: Volume of emergency stroke code activations, patient characteristics, stroke severity, reperfusion rates, treatment times, and outcomes from February 1 to April 30, 2020, were compared against the same time period in 2019. Demographic data were provided by each participating institution. RESULTS: There was a 17.3% decrease in stroke code activations across LAC in 2020 compared to 2019 (1,786 vs. 2,159, respectively, χ2 goodness of fit test p < 0.0001) across 9 participating comprehensive stroke centers. Patients who did not receive any reperfusion therapy decreased by 16.6% in 2020 (1,527) compared to 2019 (1,832). Patients who received only intravenous thrombolytic (IVT) therapy decreased by 31.8% (107 vs. 157). Patients who received only mechanical thrombectomy (MT) increased by 3% (102 vs. 99). Patients who received both IVT and MT decreased by 31.8% (45 vs. 66). Recanalization treatment times in 2020 were comparable to 2019. CSCs serving a higher proportion of Latinx populations in the eastern parts of LAC experienced a higher incidence of MT in 2020 compared to 2019. Mild increase in stroke severity was seen in 2020 compared to 2019 (8.95 vs. 8.23, p = 0.046). A higher percentage of patients were discharged home in 2020 compared to 2019 (59.5 vs. 56.1%, p = 0.034), a lower percentage of patients were discharged to skilled nursing facility (16.1 vs. 20.7%, p = 0.0004), and a higher percentage of patients expired (8.6 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: LAC saw a decrease in overall stroke code activations in 2020 compared to 2019. Reperfusion treatment times remained comparable to prepandemic metrics. There has been an increase in severe stroke incidence and higher volume of thrombectomy treatments in Latinx communities within LAC during the pandemic of 2020. More patients were discharged home, less patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities, and more patients expired in 2020, compared to the same time frame in 2019.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombectomy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
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