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1.
J Headache Pain ; 23(1): 13, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the initiation of the COVID-19 vaccination program in Thailand, thousands of patients have experienced unusual focal neurological symptoms. We report 8 patients with focal neurological symptoms after receiving inactivated virus vaccine, CoronaVac. CASE SERIES: Patients were aged 24-48 years and 75% were female. Acute onset of focal neurological symptoms occurred within the first 24 h after vaccination in 75% and between 1-7d in 25%. All presented with lateralized sensory deficits, motor deficits, or both, of 2-14 day duration. Migraine headache occurred in half of the patients. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain during and after the attacks did not demonstrate any abnormalities suggesting ischemic stroke. All patients showed moderately large regions of hypoperfusion and concurrent smaller regions of hyperperfusion on SPECT imaging while symptomatic. None developed permanent deficits or structural brain injury. DISCUSSIONS: Here, we present a case series of transient focal neurological syndrome following Coronavac vaccination. The characteristic sensory symptoms, history of migraine, female predominant, and abnormal functional brain imaging without structural changes suggest migraine aura as pathophysiology. We propose that pain related to vaccine injection, component of vaccine, such as aluminum, or inflammation related to vaccination might trigger migraine aura in susceptible patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Ischemic Stroke , Migraine Disorders , Migraine with Aura , Stroke , Adult , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341318

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has proven its versatility in host presentations; one such presentation is a hypercoagulable state causing large-vessel thrombosis. We report a case on a previously asymptomatic COVID-19-positive patient presenting with an acute ischaemic stroke and an incidental left internal carotid artery thrombus. The patient's medical, social and family history and hypercoagulability screening excluded any other explanation for the left carotid thrombus or stroke, except for testing positive for the COVID-19. This case explores the known hypercoagulable state associated with COVID-19 and the effect of the virus on the host's immune response. It also questions whether administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), according to the American Heart Association guidelines, following a negative head CT for haemorrhagic stroke is safe without prior extended imaging in this patient population. We recommend, in addition to obtaining a non-contrast CT scan of the brain, a CT angiogram or carotid duplex of the neck be obtained routinely in patients with COVID-19 exhibiting stroke symptoms before t-PA administration as the effects may be detrimental. This recommendation will likely prevent fragmentation and embolisation of an undetected carotid thrombus.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Carotid Artery Thrombosis , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/drug therapy , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
5.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(7): 132-134, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317406

ABSTRACT

During the prevailing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the disease has started manifesting with some neurological symptoms. There have been reports on acute ischemic stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, and intracerebral hemorrhage associated with COVID-19. The plausible mechanism that causes these ischemic processes is called "sepsis-induced coagulopathy." A 40-year male patient, who was hospitalised due to COVID-19 pneumonia, developed sudden-onset motor aphasia and right-sided hemiplegia. He was then placed in, with the diagnosis of acute ischemia, most probably associated with COVID-19, considering that the patient's medical history was not remarkable for a relevant etiology, and all tests for the etiology of ischemic stroke showed normal findings. The patient was placed on therapy with acetyl salicylic acid, 300 mg/day. It is presumed that ischemic events occur by an increase in coagulopathy secondary to inflammation. COVID-19 causes ischemic processes by inducing endothelial dysfunction and arterial or venous thrombosis. Key Words: COVID-19, Stroke, Coagulopathy, Ischemia; SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology
6.
Neurocrit Care ; 36(1): 208-215, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of observational studies report a 1.1-1.7% pooled risk of stroke among patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection requiring hospitalization, but consultations for stroke and reperfusion procedures have decreased during the outbreak that occurred during the first half of the year 2020. It is still unclear whether a true increase in the risk of stroke exists among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In-hospital ischemic stroke (IHIS) complicated the 0.04-0.06% of all admissions in the pre-COVID-19 era, but its incidence has not been assessed among inpatients with COVID-19. We aimed to compare IHIS incidence among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection with that of inpatients with non-COVID-19 illnesses from the same outbreak period and from previous periods. METHODS: This historical cohort study belongs to the COVID-19@Vallecas cohort. The incidence of IHIS was estimated for patients with SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized during March-April 2020 [COVID-19 cohort (CC)], for patients with non-COVID-19 medical illness hospitalized during the same outbreak period [2020 non-COVID-19 cohort (20NCC)], and for inpatients with non-COVID-19 illness admitted during March-April of the years 2016-2019 [historical non-COVID-19 cohort (HNCC)]. Unadjusted risk of IHIS was compared between the three cohorts, and adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of IHIS between cohorts was obtained by means of Poisson regression. RESULTS: Overall, 8126 inpatients were included in this study. Patients in the CC were younger and more commonly men than those from the HNCC and 20NCC. Absolute risk of IHIS was 0.05% for HNCC, 0.23% for 20NCC, and 0.36% for CC, (p = 0.004 for HNCC vs. CC). Cumulative incidence for IHIS by day nine after admission, with death as a competing risk, was 0.09% for HNCC, 0.23% for 20NCC, and 0.50% for CC. In an adjusted Poisson regression model with sex, age, needing of intensive care unit admission, and cohort (HNCC as reference) as covariates, COVID-19 was an independent predictor for IHIS (IRR 6.76, 95% confidence interval 1.66-27.54, p = 0.01). A nonsignificant increase in the risk of IHIS was observed for the 20NCC (IRR 5.62, 95% confidence interval 0.93-33.9, p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was associated with an increase in the incidence of IHIS when compared with inpatients from a historical cohort. Viral infection itself may be related to the increased risk of IHIS among patients with COVID-19, but in view of our results from the 20NCC, it is likely that other factors, such as hospital saturation and overwhelming of health systems, may have played a role in the increased frequency of IHIS.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
7.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e930291, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND National guidelines and consensus statements suggest a 24-hour window for endovascular recanalization in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke due to large-vessel occlusion. However, the safety and efficacy of extending the window for intervention remains to be definitively established. CASE REPORT A healthy 26-year-old woman presented with headache, left-sided hemiplegia, and rightward gaze palsy 2 days after a minor trauma. Time last known well was approximately 50 hours prior to presentation. Computed tomography angiography revealed dissection of the distal right internal carotid artery and occlusion of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a small area of acute infarct in the right basal ganglia and right insular cortex, but suggested a large ischemic penumbra; this was confirmed with cerebral perfusion analysis. In light of the patient's young age and potential for penumbral salvage, mechanical thrombectomy of an M1 thrombus and stenting of an internal carotid artery dissection were performed nearly 60 hours after the onset of symptoms. The patient demonstrated marked clinical improvement over the following days and was discharged home in excellent condition one week after presentation. Based on our clinical experience and other emerging data, we propose that extension of the 24-hour window for endovascular intervention may improve functional outcomes among select individuals. CONCLUSIONS A 24-hour window for endovascular thrombectomy is appropriate for many patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke. However, in select individuals, extension of the window to 48 hours or beyond may improve functional outcomes.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Adult , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Carotid Artery, Internal , Female , Humans , Stroke/etiology , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome
9.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 67(4): 338-349, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106727

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are reminiscent of those of acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by cytokine release syndrome and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis that is observed in patients with other coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Neurologists face the challenge of assessing patients with pre-existing neurological diseases who have contracted SARS-CoV-2, patients with COVID-19 who present neurological emergencies, and patients who are carriers of the virus and have developed secondary neurological complications, either during the course of the disease or after it. Some authors and recent literature reports suggest that the presence of neurological manifestations in patients who are carriers of SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a greater severity of the disease.


Las manifestaciones clínicas de COVID-19 recuerdan las del síndrome de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda inducido por el síndrome de liberación de citocinas y la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocitica observada en pacientes con otros coronavirus como SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. Los neurólogos tienen el reto de evaluar pacientes con enfermedades neurológicas preexistentes que contraen SARS-CoV-2, pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan emergencias neurológicas y pacientes portadores del virus que desarrollan complicaciones neurológicas secundarias, durante el curso de la enfermedad o posterior a la misma. Algunos autores y reportes en la literatura recientes sugieren que las manifestaciones neurológicas en pacientes portadores de SARS-CoV-2 pueden asociarse con mayor gravedad de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Anosmia/etiology , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Leukocytes/immunology , Organ Specificity , Viral Tropism
11.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3719-3722, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Case series indicating cerebrovascular disorders in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been published. Comprehensive workups, including clinical characteristics, laboratory, electroencephalography, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid findings, are needed to understand the mechanisms. METHODS: We evaluated 32 consecutive critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated at a tertiary care center from March 9 to April 3, 2020, for concomitant severe central nervous system involvement. Patients identified underwent computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and autopsy in case of death. RESULTS: Of 32 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 8 (25%) had severe central nervous system involvement. Two presented with lacunar ischemic stroke in the early phase and 6 with prolonged impaired consciousness after termination of analgosedation. In all but one with delayed wake-up, neuroimaging or autopsy showed multiple cerebral microbleeds, in 3 with additional subarachnoid hemorrhage and in 2 with additional small ischemic lesions. In 3 patients, intracranial vessel wall sequence magnetic resonance imaging was performed for the first time to our knowledge. All showed contrast enhancement of vessel walls in large cerebral arteries, suggesting vascular wall pathologies with an inflammatory component. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions for SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid were all negative. No intrathecal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG synthesis was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: Different mechanisms of cerebrovascular disorders might be involved in COVID-19. Acute ischemic stroke might occur early. In a later phase, microinfarctions and vessel wall contrast enhancement occur, indicating small and large cerebral vessels involvement. Central nervous system disorders associated with COVID-19 may lead to long-term disabilities. Mechanisms should be urgently investigated to develop neuroprotective strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/immunology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Contrast Media , Critical Illness , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105435, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The presence of COVID-19 infection may increase the risk of thrombotic events including ischemic strokes. Whilst a number of recent reports suggest that COVID-19 associated stroke tends to be severe, there is limited data on the effects of COVID-19 in prospective registries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To determine how COVID-19 infection may affect cerebrovascular disease, we evaluated the ischemic stroke sub-types, clinical course and outcomes prior to and during the pandemic in Qatar. The Hamad General Hospital (HGH) stroke database was interrogated for stroke admissions during the last 4 months of 2019 and January-May 2020. RESULTS: In Qatar the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 increased from only 2 in February to 779 in March, 12,628 in April and 45,501 in May. Stroke admissions to HGH declined marginally from an average of 97/month for six pre-COVID months to 72/month in March-May. There were 32 strokes that were positive for COVID-19. When compared to non-COVID-19 stroke during the three months of the pandemic, COVID-19 patients were younger with significantly lower rates of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. COVID-19 positive patients had more cortical strokes (34.4% vs 5.6%; p = 0.001), severe disease (NIHSS >10: 34.4% vs 16.7%; p = 0.001) prolonged hospitalization and fewer with good recovery (mRS 0-2: 28.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: When compared to six pre-COVID-19 months, the number of ischemic stroke admissions during the three months of the pandemic declined marginally. COVID-19 positive patients were more likely to have a large cortical stroke with severe symptoms and poor outcome.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/etiology , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Qatar , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Time Factors
13.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 4, 2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, which broke out in Wuhan in 2019, has become the global health crisis of our time. Elderly patients with certain fundamental diseases are more likely to develop severe cases. The secondary lesion following viral infection have only rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We here report two cases of coronavirus-infected pneumonia with acute ischemic stroke in middle-aged patients. In both COVID-19 cases, neurological physical examinations showed normal results before infection. Lymphocytopenia, accompanied by elevated cytokines and D-dimers, were found from serum clinical laboratory examination at admission. Dysarthria and limb muscle weakness are initial manifestations, occurring one week after infect-causative pathogen, SARS-CoV-2. The head CT and head/neck arterial CTA showed small-vessel occlusion. The patients were diagnosed with coronavirus diseases with secondary acute ischemic stroke. They were treated with tirofiban and followed up with daily aspirin and atorvastatin. CONCLUSIONS: These cases suggested that secondary ischemic stroke, mainly manifested as small-vessel occlusion, should be considered for COVID-19 patients and diagnosed and treated promptly.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tirofiban/therapeutic use
14.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(3): 944-949, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871560

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic viral infection caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV2, which is a global concern of the twenty-first century for its rapid spreading in a short period. Apart from its known acute respiratory involvements, the CNS manifestations of COVID-19 are common. These neurological symptoms are diverse and could range from mild nonspecific or specific symptoms such as the loss of various sensory perceptions, the worrying autoimmune Guillain-Barré syndrome, to the life-threatening acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and the CNS-mediated respiratory distress. An autopsy report documented the presence of SARS-CoV2 in brain tissues of a COVID-19 patient. However, there is no definite conclusion on the mechanisms of SARS-CoV2 neuroinvasion. These proposed mechanisms include the direct viral invasion, the systemic blood circulation, or the distribution of infected immune cells. Concerning these different neuropathophysiologies, COVID-19 patients who are presenting with either the early-onset, multiple, and severe CNS symptoms or rapid respiratory deterioration should be suspected for the direct viral neuroinvasion, and appropriate management options should be considered. This article reviews the neurological manifestations, the proposed neuroinvasive mechanisms, and the potential neurological sequelae of SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Brain/virology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Ethmoid Bone/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Neurological , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Organ Specificity , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105353, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796759

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to grow all over the world. Neurological manifestations related to COVID-19, including acute ischemic Stroke (AIS), have been reported in recent studies. In most of these, the patients are older, have multiple co-morbidities as risk factors for AIS and have developed a severe respiratory illness. Herein, we report a 36-year-old man with no significant past medical history who recently recovered from a mild COVID-19 infection and presented with unusual pattern of arterial macrothrombosis causing AIS. When the AIS happened, he had no COVID-19 related symptoms, had two negative screening tests for the infection and his chest CT was unremarkable.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Male , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239443, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781671

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the setting of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, a potential association of this disease with stroke has been suggested. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients who were admitted with COVID-19 and had an acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: This is a case series of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients with ischemic stroke admitted to an academic health system in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia (USA) between March 24th, 2020 and July 17th, 2020. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic characteristics were described. RESULTS: Of 396 ischemic stroke patients admitted during this study period, 13 (2.5%) were also diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean age of patients was 61.6 ± 10.8 years, 10 (76.9%) male, 8 (61.5%) were Black Americans, mean time from last normal was 4.97 ± 5.1 days, and only one received acute reperfusion therapy. All 13 patients had at least one stroke-associated co-morbidity. The predominant pattern of ischemic stroke was embolic with 4 explained by atrial fibrillation. COVID-19 patients had a significantly higher rate of cryptogenic stroke than non-COVID-19 patients during the study period (69% vs 17%, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In our case series, ischemic stroke affected COVID-19 patients with traditional stroke risk factors at an age typically seen in non-COVID populations, and mainly affecting males and Black Americans. We observed a predominantly embolic pattern of stroke with a higher than expected rate of cryptogenic strokes, a prolonged median time to presentation and symptom recognition limiting the use of acute reperfusion treatments. These results highlight the need for increased community awareness, early identification, and management of AIS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/etiology , African Americans , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Brain Ischemia/ethnology , Brain Ischemia/virology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Disease Management , Early Diagnosis , Embolism/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/ethnology , Stroke/virology
20.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(10): 1849-1855, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chest CT is a rapid, useful additional screening tool for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in emergent procedures. We describe the feasibility and interim outcome of implementing a modified imaging algorithm for COVID-19 risk stratification across a regional network of primary stroke centers in the work-up of acute ischemic stroke referrals for time-critical mechanical thrombectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We undertook a retrospective review of 49 patients referred to the regional neuroscience unit for consideration of mechanical thrombectomy between April 14, 2020, and May 21, 2020. During this time, all referring units followed a standard imaging protocol that included a chest CT in addition to a head CT and CT angiogram to identify Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infective pulmonary changes. RESULTS: Overall, 2 patients had typical COVID-19 radiologic features and tested positive, while 7 patients had indeterminate imaging findings and tested negative. The others had normal or atypical changes and were not diagnosed with or suspected of having COVID-19. There was an overall sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 74.1%, negative predictive value of 100%, and positive predictive value of 22.2% when using chest CT to diagnose COVID-19 in comparison with the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test. The mean additional time and radiation dose incurred for the chest CT were 184 ± 65.5 seconds and 2.47 ± 1.03 mSv. Multiple cardiovascular and pulmonary incidental findings of clinical relevance were identified in our patient population. CONCLUSIONS: Chest CT provides a pragmatic, rapid additional tool for COVID-19 risk stratification among patients referred for mechanical thrombectomy. Its inclusion in a standardized regional stroke imaging protocol has enabled efficient use of hospital resources with minimal compromise or delay to the overall patient treatment schedule.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/surgery , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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