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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(5): 106315, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of the pandemic, stroke care suffered globally and there were reduced stroke admissions and delays in time metrics. Stroke care was reorganized during the second wave learning from the experience of previous wave. This study shares our experience in stroke time metrics during the second wave of pandemic compared to the first wave. METHODS: We did a single-center prospective study, where consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms and aged more than 18 years, who presented to Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram from June 1st to 31st August, 2020 and June 1st to 31st August in 2021 were included. In-hospital time metrics (door to CT time and door to Needle time) were compared during the two time periods. We also compared functional outcomes at discharge and in-hospital mortality during the two periods. Functional outcome at discharge was assessed by modified Rankin scale (mRS). RESULTS: From June to August 2021 (second wave of the COVID 19 pandemic), compared to the same months during the first wave (2020), our study demonstrated better in-hospital time metrics (door to CT time and door to needle time). We also found lower admission systolic blood pressure and higher baseline CT early ischemic changes during the second wave. There was no difference in functional outcome at discharge and in-hospital mortality. Intravenous thrombolysis rates also remained the same during the two periods. CONCLUSION: Our study has confirmed that time metrics in stroke care can be improved through system rearrangement even during the pandemic. Acute stroke treatments are time-dependent and hospital administrators must stick to the maxim "Time is Brain" while restructuring stroke workflows during future challenges.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Benchmarking , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Prospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
2.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 145(2): 160-170, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the number of stroke-related admissions and acute treatments during the first two waves of COVID-19 and lockdowns in the Capital Region of Denmark and the Region of Zealand. MATERIALS & METHODS: The weekly numbers of admitted patients with stroke were retrieved from electronic patient records from January 2019 to February 2021 and analysed to reveal potential fluctuations in patient volumes during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 23,688 patients were included, of whom 2049 patients were treated with tissue-type plasminogen activators (tPA) and 552 underwent endovascular thrombectomy (EVT). We found a transient decrease in the number of weekly admitted patients (pts/week) with all strokes (-9.8 pts/week, 95% CI: -19.4; -0.2, p = .046) and stroke mimics (-30.1 pts/week, 95% CI: -39.9; -20.3, p < .001) during the first lockdown compared to pre-COVID-19. The number of subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage, and ischaemic stroke admissions showed insignificant declines. Analysing all COVID-19 periods collectively revealed increased volumes of ischaemic stroke (+6.2 pts/week, 95% CI: +1.6; +10.7, p = .009) compared to pre-COVID levels, while numbers of stroke mimics remained lower than pre-COVID. Weekly tPA and EVT treatments remained constant throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are comparable with other studies in finding reductions in stroke-related admissions early in the pandemic. This is the first study to report increased stroke volumes following the first wave of the pandemic. The mechanisms behind the observed drop and subsequent rise in strokes are unclear and warrant further investigation.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
3.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets ; 21(3): 179-184, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During Covid-19 pandemic, the Italian National Healthcare Service has faced increasing pressure, especially in Northern Italy. Even in less-affected regions, such as Tuscany, the changes in the healthcare system to prevent Covid-19 spread resulted in difficulty in treating time-dependent disorders like ischemic stroke rapidly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the outcome after acute ischemic stroke treatments during the Covid-19 spread in comparison with a similar period of the previous year in Siena-Hospital (Hub center in the South-East Tuscany). METHODS: We enrolled all patients admitted to Siena-Hospital for ischemic stroke and submitted them to acute treatments (intravenous and/or mechanical thrombolysis) between February 21st and May 18th, 2020 (study group, n:38) and compared the results with ischemic strokes acutely treated in a similar period in 2019 (control group, n:39). The modified Rankin scale score was assessed at 90 days to evaluate a 3-month clinical outcome. RESULTS: In the study group, the time from symptoms onset to hospital arrival and the door-to-groin puncture time were significantly more prolonged than in the control group. In moderate-severe strokes, the 3-month mortality was significantly higher in the study group (31% vs. 6%; p=0.01), and the number of patients with poor functional outcomes was significantly higher in the study group (73% vs. 44%; p=0.03). CONCLUSION: During the lockdown period due to Covid-19 pandemic, patients with acute ischemic stroke had a worse prognosis. These findings suggest the need to improve the health system organization to guarantee an appropriate treatment during the pandemic, including the patients that are not affected by Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reduced admissions for cerebrovascular events were identified, but acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) has remained one of the leading causes of death and disability for many years. The aim of this article is to review current literature data for multidisciplinary team (MDT) coordination, rational management of resources and facilities, ensuring timely medical care for large vessel occlusion (LVO) AIS patients requiring endovascular treatment during the pandemic. METHODS: A detailed literature search was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed databases using these keywords and their combinations: acute ischaemic stroke, emergency, anaesthesia, airway management, mechanical thrombectomy, endovascular treatment, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19. Published studies and guidelines from inception to April 2021 were screened. The following nonsystematic review is based on a comprehensive literature search of available data, wherein 59 were chosen for detailed analysis. RESULTS: The pandemic has an impact on every aspect of AIS care, including prethrombectomy, intraprocedural and post-thrombectomy issues. Main challenges include institutional preparedness, increased number of AIS patients with multiorgan involvement, different work coordination principles and considerations about preferred anaesthetic technique. Care of these patients is led by MDT and nonoperating room anaesthesia (NORA) principles are applied. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate management of AIS patients requiring mechanical thrombectomy during the pandemic is of paramount importance to maximise the benefit of the endovascular procedure. MDT work and familiarity with NORA principles decrease the negative impact of the disease on the clinical outcomes for AIS patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 105-113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many countries worldwide, including Germany, reported that the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020 influenced the care of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, but data are lacking for further pandemic wave periods. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with the main diagnosis of AIS in 2019 and 2020. Primary outcomes were the number of hospitalizations for AIS, the application of stroke unit care, intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), and mechanical thrombectomy (MT), as well as the in-hospital mortality during the different pandemic periods in 2020 compared to the corresponding periods in 2019. Secondarily, we analyzed differences in outcomes between patients with and without concurrent COVID-19. RESULTS: We included 429,841 cases with AIS, of which 1268 had concurrent COVID-19. Hospitalizations for AIS declined during both pandemic wave periods in 2020 (first wave: -10.9%, second wave: -4.6%). MT rates were consistently higher throughout 2020 compared to 2019, whereas the IVT rate dropped during the second wave period (16.0% vs. 17.0%, p < 0.001). AIS patients with concurrent COVID-19 frequently received recanalization treatments, with an overall MT rate of 8.4% and IVT rate of 15.9%. The in-hospital mortality was high (22.8% vs. 7.5% in noninfected AIS patients, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate a smaller decline in hospitalizations for AIS in the more severe second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. AIS patients with and without concurrent COVID-19 who did seek acute care continued to receive recanalization treatments in Germany.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
6.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323123

ABSTRACT

Ischemic stroke is the second cause of mortality and the first cause of long-term disability constituting a serious socioeconomic burden worldwide. Approved treatments include thrombectomy and rtPA intravenous administration, which, despite their efficacy in some cases, are not suitable for a great proportion of patients. Glial cell-related therapies are progressively overcoming inefficient neuron-centered approaches in the preclinical phase. Exploiting the ability of microglia to naturally switch between detrimental and protective phenotypes represents a promising therapeutic treatment, in a similar way to what happens with astrocytes. However, the duality present in many of the roles of these cells upon ischemia poses a notorious difficulty in disentangling the precise pathways to target. Still, promoting M2/A2 microglia/astrocyte protective phenotypes and inhibiting M1/A1 neurotoxic profiles is globally rendering promising results in different in vivo models of stroke. On the other hand, described oligodendrogenesis after brain ischemia seems to be strictly beneficial, although these cells are the less studied players in the stroke paradigm and negative effects could be described for oligodendrocytes in the next years. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the precise role of mentioned glial cell types in the main pathological events of ischemic stroke, including inflammation, blood brain barrier integrity, excitotoxicity, reactive oxygen species management, metabolic support, and neurogenesis, among others, with a special attention to tested therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , Neuroglia/physiology , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Humans , Neurogenesis , Oxidative Stress
7.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(2): 180-184, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has already stressed the healthcare system in the world. Many hospitals have been overwhelmed by the large number of patients with COVID-19. Due to the shortage of equipment and personnel and the highly contagious nature of COVID-19, many other healthcare services are on hold. However, at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, a rapid response system has been in place so that routine care is not interrupted. We, therefore, would like to share our hospital-wide prevention and management policy during this pandemic to help other healthcare systems to function in this crisis. METHOD: Tiantan hospital is one of the leading neuroscience institutions in the world. With 1650 beds, its annual inpatient admission exceeds 30 000 patients. Its COVID-19 rapid response policy was reviewed for its functionality. RESULTS: There are nine key components of this policy: an incident management system; a comprehensive infection prevention and control, outpatient triage and flow system; a designated fever clinic; patient screening and administration; optimised surgical operations, enhanced nucleic acid testing; screening of returning employees; and a supervision and feedback system. In addition, a specific protocol was designed for treating patients with acute stroke. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive policy is helpful to protect the employee from infection and to provide quality and uninterrupted care to all who need these, including patients with acute ischaemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Beijing , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Pathways , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Health Services Needs and Demand , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Needs Assessment , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Triage
8.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 238, 2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to analyse endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients presenting acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke with large-vessel occlusion (AIS-LVO) during the pandemic and post-epidemic periods. METHODS: Patients with AIS-LVO of the anterior circulation who underwent EVT were enrolled. According to the times of Wuhan closure and reopening, patients were divided into a pre-pandemic group (from November 8, 2019, to January 22, 2020), pandemic group (from January 23, 2020, to April 8, 2020) and post-epidemic group (from April 9, 2020, to June 24, 2020). The primary endpoints were the time delay among symptom onset to arriving hospital door, to groining puncture and to vascular reperfusion. Secondary endpoints were the functional outcomes evaluated by 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS) score. RESULTS: In total, the times from onset to reperfusion (OTR, median 356 min vs. 310 min, p = 0.041) and onset to door (OTD, median 238 min vs. 167 min, p = 0.017) were prolonged in the pandemic group compared to the pre-pandemic group, and the delay continue in the post-epidemic period. In the subgroup analysis, the time from door to imaging (DTI) was significantly prolonged during the pandemic period. Interestingly, the prolonged DTI was corrected in the directly admitted subgroup during post-epidemic period. In addition, the functional outcomes showed no significant differences across the three periods. CONCLUSIONS: Total time and prehospital time were prolonged during the pandemic and post-epidemic periods. Urgent public education and improved in-hospital screening processes are necessary to decrease time delays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reperfusion/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(6): 707-714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282177

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of COVID-19 on acute cerebrovascular disease care across 9 comprehensive stroke centers throughout Los Angeles County (LAC). METHODS: Volume of emergency stroke code activations, patient characteristics, stroke severity, reperfusion rates, treatment times, and outcomes from February 1 to April 30, 2020, were compared against the same time period in 2019. Demographic data were provided by each participating institution. RESULTS: There was a 17.3% decrease in stroke code activations across LAC in 2020 compared to 2019 (1,786 vs. 2,159, respectively, χ2 goodness of fit test p < 0.0001) across 9 participating comprehensive stroke centers. Patients who did not receive any reperfusion therapy decreased by 16.6% in 2020 (1,527) compared to 2019 (1,832). Patients who received only intravenous thrombolytic (IVT) therapy decreased by 31.8% (107 vs. 157). Patients who received only mechanical thrombectomy (MT) increased by 3% (102 vs. 99). Patients who received both IVT and MT decreased by 31.8% (45 vs. 66). Recanalization treatment times in 2020 were comparable to 2019. CSCs serving a higher proportion of Latinx populations in the eastern parts of LAC experienced a higher incidence of MT in 2020 compared to 2019. Mild increase in stroke severity was seen in 2020 compared to 2019 (8.95 vs. 8.23, p = 0.046). A higher percentage of patients were discharged home in 2020 compared to 2019 (59.5 vs. 56.1%, p = 0.034), a lower percentage of patients were discharged to skilled nursing facility (16.1 vs. 20.7%, p = 0.0004), and a higher percentage of patients expired (8.6 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: LAC saw a decrease in overall stroke code activations in 2020 compared to 2019. Reperfusion treatment times remained comparable to prepandemic metrics. There has been an increase in severe stroke incidence and higher volume of thrombectomy treatments in Latinx communities within LAC during the pandemic of 2020. More patients were discharged home, less patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities, and more patients expired in 2020, compared to the same time frame in 2019.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombectomy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 14(3): 274-279, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted acute stroke care logistics, including delays in hyperacute management and decreased monitoring following endovascular therapy (EVT). We aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic on 90-day functional outcome among patients treated with EVT. METHODS: This is an observational cohort study including all patients evaluated for an acute stroke between March 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020 (pandemic cohort) and 2019 (reference cohort) in a high-volume Canadian academic stroke center. We collected baseline characteristics, acute reperfusion treatment and management metrics. For EVT-treated patients, we assessed the modified Rankin score (mRS) at 90 days. We evaluated the impact of the pandemic on a 90-day favourable functional status (defined as mRS 0-2) and death using multivariable logistic regressions. RESULTS: Among 383 and 339 patients included in the pandemic and reference cohorts, baseline characteristics were similar. Delays from symptom onset to evaluation and in-house treatment were longer during the early first wave, but returned to reference values in the subsequent months. Among the 127 and 136 EVT-treated patients in each respective cohort, favourable 90-day outcome occurred in 53/99 (53%) vs 52/109 (48%, p=0.40), whereas 22/99 (22%) and 28/109 (26%, p=0.56) patients died. In multivariable regressions, the pandemic period was not associated with 90-day favourable functional status (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 0.60 to 2.56) or death (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.63). CONCLUSION: In this single-center cohort study conducted in a Canadian pandemic epicenter, the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic did not impact 90-day functional outcomes or death among EVT-treated patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Canada/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
11.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(4): 476-481, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254865

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the general anesthetic approach of endovascular stroke therapy and highlights recent advances and considerations for optimal intraoperative management of acute ischemic stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent randomized controlled trials have shown no differences in clinical outcomes between monitored anesthesia care with sedation compared with general anesthesia for endovascular stroke therapy. The COVID-19 pandemic has complicated decision-making in the neurointerventional setting. Advances in imaging techniques have extended the window of treatment for endovascular therapy. SUMMARY: Optimal time to intervention, hemodynamic stability, novel imaging techniques, and careful consideration of anesthetic plan can impact patient outcomes in reperfusion stroke therapy.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics , Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Conscious Sedation , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Radiology, Interventional , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 288, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the stroke care systems have been seriously affected because of social restrictions and other reasons. As the pandemic continues to spread globally, it is of great significance to understand how COVID-19 affects the stroke care systems in mainland China. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the real-world data of one comprehensive stroke center in mainland China from January to February 2020 and compared it with the data collected during the same period in 2019. We analyzed DTN time, onset-to-door time, severity, effects after treatment, the hospital length of stays, costs of hospitalization, etc., and the correlation between medical burden and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic was most severe in mainland China in January and February 2020. During the pandemic, there were no differences in pre-hospital or in-hospital workflow metrics (all p>0.05), while the degree of neurological deficit on admission and at discharge, the effects after treatment, and the long-term prognosis were all worse (all p<0.05). The severity and prognosis of AIS patients were positively correlated with the hospital length of stays and total costs of hospitalization (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic is threatening the stroke care systems. Measures must be taken to minimize the collateral damage caused by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Stroke , Time-to-Treatment , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
13.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3561-3568, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121219

ABSTRACT

Whether and how SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affected in-hospital acute stroke care system is still matter of debate. In the setting of the STROKOVID network, a collaborative project between the ten centers designed as hubs for the treatment of acute stroke during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy, we retrospectively compared clinical features and process measures of patients with confirmed infection (COVID-19) and non-infected patients (non-COVID-19) who underwent reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke. Between March 8 and April 30, 2020, 296 consecutive patients [median age, 74 years (interquartile range (IQR), 62-80.75); males, 154 (52.0%); 34 (11.5%) COVID-19] qualified for the analysis. Time from symptoms onset to treatment was longer in the COVID-19 group [230 (IQR 200.5-270) minutes vs. 190 (IQR 150-245) minutes; p = 0.007], especially in the first half of the study period. Patients with COVID-19 who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had more frequently absent collaterals or collaterals filling ≤ 50% of the occluded territory (50.0% vs. 16.6%; OR 5.05; 95% CI 1.82-13.80) and a lower rate of good/complete recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion (55.6% vs. 81.0%; OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.10-0.80). Post-procedural intracranial hemorrhages were more frequent (35.3% vs. 19.5%; OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.04-4.83) and outcome was worse among COVID-19 patients (in-hospital death, 38.2% vs. 8.8%; OR 6.43; 95% CI 2.85-14.50). Our findings showed longer delays in the intra-hospital management of acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, that likely impacted patients outcome and should be the target of future interventions.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100112

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on prehospital stroke care is largely unknown. We aimed to compare stroke care patterns before and during a state-wide lockdown. Thus, we analysed prospective data of stroke alerts referred to our stroke centre between 1 December 2019 and 16 June 2020, and compared them between two periods-15 weeks before and 13 weeks during the state-wide lockdown declared in Lithuania on 16 March 2020. Among 719 referrals for suspected stroke, there was a decrease in stroke alerts (rate ratio 0.61, 95% CI (0.52-0.71)), stroke admissions (0.63, 95% CI (0.52-0.76)), and decrease in prehospital stroke triage quality (positive predictive value 72.1% vs. 79.9%, p = 0.042) during the lockdown. The onset-to-door time was longer (153.0 vs. 120.5 min, p = 0.049) and seizures and intracranial tumours were more common among stroke mimics (16.9% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.012 and 9.6% vs. 3.0%, p = 0.037, respectively). We conclude that there was a decline in prehospital stroke triage quality during the lockdown despite low COVID-19 incidence in the country. Moreover, we observed an increase in hospital arrival delays and severe conditions presenting as stroke mimics. Our findings suggest that improved strategies are required to maintain optimal neurological care during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lithuania , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Triage
16.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(4): 929-937, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke care-metrics and report data from a health system in Houston. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of the published literature reporting stroke admissions, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) cases, number of thrombolysis (tPA) and thrombectomy (MT) cases, and time metrics (door to needle, DTN; and door to groin time, DTG) during the pandemic compared to prepandemic period. Within our hospital system, between January-June 2019 and January-June 2020, we compared the proportion of stroke admissions and door to tPA and MT times. RESULTS: A total of 32,640 stroke admissions from 29 studies were assessed. Compared to prepandemic period, the mean ratio of stroke admissions during the pandemic was 70.78% [95% CI, 65.02%, 76.54%], ICH cases was 83.10% [95% CI, 71.01%, 95.17%], tPA cases was 81.74% [95% CI, 72.33%, 91.16%], and MT cases was 88.63% [95% CI, 74.12%, 103.13%], whereas DTN time was 104.48% [95% CI, 95.52%, 113.44%] and DTG was 104.30% [95% CI, 81.99%, 126.61%]. In Houston, a total of 4808 cases were assessed. There was an initial drop of ~30% in cases at the pandemic onset. Compared to 2019, there was a significant reduction in mild strokes (NIHSS 1-5) [N (%), 891 (43) vs 635 (40), P = 0.02]. There were similar mean (SD) (mins) DTN [44 (17) vs 42 (17), P = 0.14] but significantly prolonged DTG times [94 (15) vs 85 (20), P = 0.005] in 2020. INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a global reduction in stroke admissions and treatment interventions and prolonged treatment time metrics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Patient Admission/trends , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Humans , Pandemics , Texas/epidemiology , Thrombectomy/trends , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends
18.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 199: 106227, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients with COVID-19 to non-COVID-19 controls, and to describe changes in stroke admission patterns during the pandemic. METHODS: This is a single center, retrospective, observational study. All consecutive patients admitted with primary diagnosis of ischemic/ hemorrhagic stroke between March1st -May10th 2020 were included and compared with the same time period in 2019. RESULTS: There was a 41.9% increase in stroke admissions in 2020 (148 vs 210,P = .001). When comparing all ischemic strokes, higher rate of large vessel occlusion (LVO) (18.3% vs 33.8%,P = .008) and significant delay in initiation of mechanical thrombectomy after hospital arrival (67.75 vs 104.30 minutes,P = .001) was observed in 2020. When comparing all hemorrhagic strokes, there were no differences between the two years. Among 591 COVID-19 admissions, 31 (5.24%) patients with stroke including 19 with ischemic (3.21%) and 12 with hemorrhagic stroke (2.03%) were identified. Patients with COVID-19 and ischemic stroke were significantly younger (58.74 vs 48.11 years,P = .002), predominantly male (68.18% vs 94.74%,P = .016), had lesser vascular risk factors, had more severe clinical presentation (NIHSS 7.01 vs 17.05,P < .001), and higher rate of LVO (23.6% vs. 63.1%,P = .006). There was no difference in the rate of endovascular thrombectomy, but time to groin puncture was significantly longer in COVID-19 patients (83.41 vs 129.50 minutes,P = .003). For hemorrhagic stroke, COVID-19 patients did not differ from non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke continues to occur during this pandemic and stroke pathways have been affected by the pandemic. Stroke occurs in approximately 5% of patients with COVID-19. COVID-19 associated ischemic stroke occurs in predominantly male patients who are younger, with fewer vascular risk factors, can be more severe, and have higher rates of LVO. Despite an increase in LVO during the pandemic, treatment with mechanical thrombectomy has not increased. COVID-19 associated hemorrhagic stroke does not differ from non-COVID-19 hemorrhagic stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/mortality , Survival Rate , Thrombectomy , United Arab Emirates
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105435, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The presence of COVID-19 infection may increase the risk of thrombotic events including ischemic strokes. Whilst a number of recent reports suggest that COVID-19 associated stroke tends to be severe, there is limited data on the effects of COVID-19 in prospective registries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To determine how COVID-19 infection may affect cerebrovascular disease, we evaluated the ischemic stroke sub-types, clinical course and outcomes prior to and during the pandemic in Qatar. The Hamad General Hospital (HGH) stroke database was interrogated for stroke admissions during the last 4 months of 2019 and January-May 2020. RESULTS: In Qatar the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 increased from only 2 in February to 779 in March, 12,628 in April and 45,501 in May. Stroke admissions to HGH declined marginally from an average of 97/month for six pre-COVID months to 72/month in March-May. There were 32 strokes that were positive for COVID-19. When compared to non-COVID-19 stroke during the three months of the pandemic, COVID-19 patients were younger with significantly lower rates of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. COVID-19 positive patients had more cortical strokes (34.4% vs 5.6%; p = 0.001), severe disease (NIHSS >10: 34.4% vs 16.7%; p = 0.001) prolonged hospitalization and fewer with good recovery (mRS 0-2: 28.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: When compared to six pre-COVID-19 months, the number of ischemic stroke admissions during the three months of the pandemic declined marginally. COVID-19 positive patients were more likely to have a large cortical stroke with severe symptoms and poor outcome.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/etiology , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Qatar , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Time Factors
20.
Stroke ; 51(9): e254-e258, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992145

ABSTRACT

Recent case-series of small size implied a pathophysiological association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe large-vessel acute ischemic stroke. Given that severe strokes are typically associated with poor prognosis and can be very efficiently treated with recanalization techniques, confirmation of this putative association is urgently warranted in a large representative patient cohort to alert stroke clinicians, and inform pre- and in-hospital acute stroke patient pathways. We pooled all consecutive patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke in 28 sites from 16 countries. To assess whether stroke severity and outcomes (assessed at discharge or at the latest assessment for those patients still hospitalized) in patients with acute ischemic stroke are different between patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19, we performed 1:1 propensity score matching analyses of our COVID-19 patients with non-COVID-19 patients registered in the Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne Registry between 2003 and 2019. Between January 27, 2020, and May 19, 2020, 174 patients (median age 71.2 years; 37.9% females) with COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke were hospitalized (median of 12 patients per site). The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 10 (interquartile range [IQR], 4-18). In the 1:1 matched sample of 336 patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19, the median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was higher in patients with COVID-19 (10 [IQR, 4-18] versus 6 [IQR, 3-14]), P=0.03; (odds ratio, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.08-2.65] for higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score). There were 48 (27.6%) deaths, of which 22 were attributed to COVID-19 and 26 to stroke. Among 96 survivors with available information about disability status, 49 (51%) had severe disability at discharge. In the propensity score-matched population (n=330), patients with COVID-19 had higher risk for severe disability (median mRS 4 [IQR, 2-6] versus 2 [IQR, 1-4], P<0.001) and death (odds ratio, 4.3 [95% CI, 2.22-8.30]) compared with patients without COVID-19. Our findings suggest that COVID-19 associated ischemic strokes are more severe with worse functional outcome and higher mortality than non-COVID-19 ischemic strokes.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disability Evaluation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Propensity Score , Recovery of Function , Registries , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Survival Analysis , Time-to-Treatment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
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