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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2860-2869, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813544

ABSTRACT

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease of the brain, caused by the John Cunningham virus (JCV) is usually seen in patients who are immunocompromised. Here, we describe a case of an immunocompetent patient diagnosed with PML and a comprehensive literature review. A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented with acute worsening of progressive neurological decline with difficulty in vision and reading. Based on history, examination, cerebrospinal fluid markers, histopathology, and magnetic resonance imaging brain at the time of presentation diagnosed the patient with PML in a setting of no immunosuppression disorder. The patient was started on Pelfilgrastim with significant systematic improvement. In our literature review, it was seen that the average age of symptom presentation was 57.5 with predominance in males. Most of the patients presented with progressive neurological deficits with symptomology ranging from mild confusion, aphasia, anxiety to sensory disturbances with numbness, hemiparesis, and hemianopsia. Out of the 21 cases, patients responded to mirtazapine and intravenous pulse methylprednisolone (IVMP). The mortality rate was close to 50% with 11 fatal cases and 10 nonfatal cases. Our case and literature review demonstrate the possibility that PML may very rarely occur in patients that are immunocompetent. Furthermore, our review showed that patients responded well to mirtazapine and IVMP. We also want to highlight that the mortality rate was lower in this review and was only compared to mortality in PML associated with immunocompromised status.


Subject(s)
JC Virus , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Humans , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Mirtazapine/therapeutic use
3.
Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging ; 7(4): 343-345, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797116
4.
Nature ; 604(7905): 230-231, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795827

Subject(s)
Brain , Publishing
5.
BMC Genom Data ; 23(1): 22, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: American shad (Alosa sapidissima) is an important migratory fish under Alosinae and has long been valued for its economic, nutritional and cultural attributes. Overfishing and barriers across the passage made it vulnerable to sustain. To protect this valuable species, aquaculture action plans have been taken though there are no published genetic resources prevailing yet. Here, we reported the first de novo assembled and annotated transcriptome of A. sapidissima using blood and brain tissues. DATA DESCRIPTION: We generated 160,481 and 129,040 non-redundant transcripts from brain and blood tissues. The entire work strategy involved RNA extraction, library preparation, sequencing, de novo assembly, filtering, annotation and validation. Both coding and non-coding transcripts were annotated against Swissprot and Pfam datasets. Nearly, 83% coding transcripts were functionally assigned. Protein clustering with clupeiform and non-clupeiform taxa revealed ~ 82% coding transcripts retained the orthologue relationship which improved confidence over annotation procedure. This study will serve as a useful resource in future for the research community to elucidate molecular mechanisms for several key traits like migration which is fascinating in clupeiform shads.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Transcriptome , Animals , Brain , Fisheries , Fishes/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics
6.
Aging Cell ; 21(4): e13575, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788808

ABSTRACT

Dopamine (DA) signaling via G protein-coupled receptors is a multifunctional neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine-immune modulator. The DA nigrostriatal pathway, which controls the motor coordination, progressively degenerates in Parkinson's disease (PD), a most common neurodegenerative disorder (ND) characterized by a selective, age-dependent loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) neurons, where DA itself is a primary source of oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment, intersecting astrocyte and microglial inflammatory networks. Importantly, glia acts as a preferential neuroendocrine-immune DA target, in turn, counter-modulating inflammatory processes. With a major focus on DA intersection within the astrocyte-microglial inflammatory network in PD vulnerability, we herein first summarize the characteristics of DA signaling systems, the propensity of DA neurons to oxidative stress, and glial inflammatory triggers dictating the vulnerability to PD. Reciprocally, DA modulation of astrocytes and microglial reactivity, coupled to the synergic impact of gene-environment interactions, then constitute a further level of control regulating midbrain DA neuron (mDAn) survival/death. Not surprisingly, within this circuitry, DA converges to modulate nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2), the master regulator of cellular defense against oxidative stress and inflammation, and Wingless (Wnt)/ß-catenin signaling, a key pathway for mDAn neurogenesis, neuroprotection, and immunomodulation, adding to the already complex "signaling puzzle," a novel actor in mDAn-glial regulatory machinery. Here, we propose an autoregulatory feedback system allowing DA to act as an endogenous Nrf2/Wnt innate modulator and trace the importance of DA receptor agonists applied to the clinic as immune modifiers.


Subject(s)
Dopamine , Parkinson Disease , Aged , Brain/metabolism , Dopamine/metabolism , Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism , GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Neuroglia/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/metabolism
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785896

ABSTRACT

Neuroticism has recently received increased attention in the psychology field due to the finding of high implications of neuroticism on an individual's life and broader public health. This study aims to investigate the effect of a brief 6-week breathing-based mindfulness intervention (BMI) on undergraduate neurotic students' emotion regulation. We acquired data of their psychological states, physiological changes, and electroencephalogram (EEG), before and after BMI, in resting states and tasks. Through behavioral analysis, we found the students' anxiety and stress levels significantly reduced after BMI, with p-values of 0.013 and 0.027, respectively. Furthermore, a significant difference between students in emotion regulation strategy, that is, suppression, was also shown. The EEG analysis demonstrated significant differences between students before and after MI in resting states and tasks. Fp1 and O2 channels were identified as the most significant channels in evaluating the effect of BMI. The potential of these channels for classifying (single-channel-based) before and after BMI conditions during eyes-opened and eyes-closed baseline trials were displayed by a good performance in terms of accuracy (~77%), sensitivity (76-80%), specificity (73-77%), and area-under-the-curve (AUC) (0.66-0.8) obtained by k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. Mindfulness can thus improve the self-regulation of the emotional state of neurotic students based on the psychometric and electrophysiological analyses conducted in this study.


Subject(s)
Emotional Regulation , Mindfulness , Brain , Emotions/physiology , Humans , Students/psychology
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e055038, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784816

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A substantial number of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 experience long-term persistent symptoms. First evidence suggests that long-term symptoms develop largely independently of disease severity and include, among others, cognitive impairment. For these symptoms, there are currently no validated therapeutic approaches available. Cognitive training interventions are a promising approach to counteract cognitive impairment. Combining training with concurrent transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may further increase and sustain behavioural training effects. Here, we aim to examine the effects of cognitive training alone or in combination with tDCS on cognitive performance, quality of life and mental health in patients with post-COVID-19 subjective or objective cognitive impairments. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study protocol describes a prospective randomised open endpoint-blinded trial. Patients with post-COVID-19 cognitive impairment will either participate in a 3-week cognitive training or in a defined muscle relaxation training (open-label interventions). Irrespective of their primary intervention, half of the cognitive training group will additionally receive anodal tDCS, all other patients will receive sham tDCS (double-blinded, secondary intervention). The primary outcome will be improvement of working memory performance, operationalised by an n-back task, at the postintervention assessment. Secondary outcomes will include performance on trained and untrained tasks and measures of health-related quality of life at postassessment and follow-up assessments (1 month after the end of the trainings). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of the University Medicine Greifswald (number: BB 066/21). Results will be available through publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04944147.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Brain , COVID-19/therapy , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 794167, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775955

ABSTRACT

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a non-invasive technique to stimulate human brain, has been widely used in stroke treatment for its capability of regulating synaptic plasticity and promoting cortical functional reconstruction. As shown in previous studies, the high electric field (E-field) intensity around the lesion helps in the recovery of brain function, thus the spatial location and angle of coil truly matter for the significant correlation with therapeutic effect of TMS. But, the error caused by coil placement in current clinical setting is still non-negligible and a more precise coil positioning method needs to be proposed. In this study, two kinds of real brain stroke models of ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke were established by inserting relative lesions into three human head models. A coil position optimization algorithm, based on the genetic algorithm (GA), was developed to search the spatial location and rotation angle of the coil in four 4 × 4 cm search domains around the lesion. It maximized the average intensity of the E-field in the voxel of interest (VOI). In this way, maximum 17.48% higher E-field intensity than that of clinical TMS stimulation was obtained. Besides, our method also shows the potential to avoid unnecessary exposure to the non-target regions. The proposed algorithm was verified to provide an optimal position after nine iterations and displayed good robustness for coil location optimization between different stroke models. To conclude, the optimized spatial location and rotation angle of the coil for TMS stroke treatment could be obtained through our algorithm, reducing the intensity and duration of human electromagnetic exposure and presenting a significant therapeutic potential of TMS for stroke.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Algorithms , Brain/physiology , Humans , Stroke/therapy , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 734370, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775872

ABSTRACT

Neurophysiological effect of human exposure to radiofrequency signals has attracted considerable attention, which was claimed to have an association with a series of clinical symptoms. A few investigations have been conducted on alteration of brain functions, yet no known research focused on intrinsic connectivity networks, an attribute that may relate to some behavioral functions. To investigate the exposure effect on functional connectivity between intrinsic connectivity networks, we conducted experiments with seventeen participants experiencing localized head exposure to real and sham time-division long-term evolution signal for 30 min. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected before and after exposure, respectively. Group-level independent component analysis was used to decompose networks of interest. Three states were clustered, which can reflect different cognitive conditions. Dynamic connectivity as well as conventional connectivity between networks per state were computed and followed by paired sample t-tests. Results showed that there was no statistical difference in static or dynamic functional network connectivity in both real and sham exposure conditions, and pointed out that the impact of short-term electromagnetic exposure was undetected at the ICNs level. The specific brain parcellations and metrics used in the study may lead to different results on brain modulation.


Subject(s)
Brain Mapping , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/physiology , Communication , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Pilot Projects
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1745, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773978

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations are a significant complication of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but underlying mechanisms aren't well understood. The development of animal models that recapitulate the neuropathological findings of autopsied brain tissue from patients who died from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are critical for elucidating the neuropathogenesis of infection and disease. Here, we show neuroinflammation, microhemorrhages, brain hypoxia, and neuropathology that is consistent with hypoxic-ischemic injury in SARS-CoV-2 infected non-human primates (NHPs), including evidence of neuron degeneration and apoptosis. Importantly, this is seen among infected animals that do not develop severe respiratory disease, which may provide insight into neurological symptoms associated with "long COVID". Sparse virus is detected in brain endothelial cells but does not associate with the severity of central nervous system (CNS) injury. We anticipate our findings will advance our current understanding of the neuropathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 infected NHPs are a highly relevant animal model for investigating COVID-19 neuropathogenesis among human subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Brain , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Primates
13.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760845

ABSTRACT

Pathogenesis of viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood, and this is partly due to the limitations of currently used preclinical models. Brain organoid models can overcome some of these limitations, as they are generated from human derived stem cells, differentiated in three dimensions (3D), and can mimic human neurodevelopmental characteristics. Therefore, brain organoids have been increasingly used as brain models in research on various viruses, such as Zika virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. Brain organoids allow for the study of viral tropism, the effect of infection on organoid function, size, and cytoarchitecture, as well as innate immune response; therefore, they provide valuable insight into the pathogenesis of neurotropic viral infections and testing of antivirals in a physiological model. In this review, we summarize the results of studies on viral CNS infection in brain organoids, and we demonstrate the broad application and benefits of using a human 3D model in virology research. At the same time, we describe the limitations of the studies in brain organoids, such as the heterogeneity in organoid generation protocols and age at infection, which result in differences in results between studies, as well as the lack of microglia and a blood brain barrier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain/pathology , Humans , Organoids , Zika Virus Infection/pathology
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760809

ABSTRACT

The impact of repetitive magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cortex varies with stimulation parameters, so it would be useful to develop a biomarker to rapidly judge effects on cortical activity, including regions other than motor cortex. This study evaluated rTMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEP) after 1 Hz of motor cortex stimulation. New features are controls for baseline amplitude and comparison to control groups of sham stimulation. We delivered 200 test pulses at 0.20 Hz before and after 1500 treatment pulses at 1 Hz. Sequences comprised AAA = active stimulation with the same coil for test-treat-test phases (n = 22); PPP = realistic placebo coil stimulation for all three phases (n = 10); and APA = active coil stimulation for tests and placebo coil stimulation for treatment (n = 15). Signal processing displayed the evoked EEG waveforms, and peaks were measured by software. ANCOVA was used to measure differences in TEP peak amplitudes in post-rTMS trials while controlling for pre-rTMS TEP peak amplitude. Post hoc analysis showed reduced P60 amplitude in the active (AAA) rTMS group versus the placebo (APA) group. The N100 peak showed a treatment effect compared to the placebo groups, but no pairwise post hoc differences. N40 showed a trend toward increase. Changes were seen in widespread EEG leads, mostly ipsilaterally. TMS-evoked EEG potentials showed reduction of the P60 peak and increase of the N100 peak, both possibly reflecting increased slow inhibition after 1 Hz of rTMS. TMS-EEG may be a useful biomarker to assay brain excitability at a seizure focus and elsewhere, but individual responses are highly variable, and the difficulty of distinguishing merged peaks complicates interpretation.


Subject(s)
Motor Cortex , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Brain , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Motor Cortex/physiology
15.
JAMA ; 327(14): 1321-1322, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756511
16.
Psychiatr Q ; 93(1): 271-284, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750792

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel coronavirus that is causing the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, was first reported in late 2019. Since then, an unprecedented amount of new knowledge has emerged about this virus and its treatment. Although the reported symptoms of COVID-19 are primarily respiratory with acute respiratory distress syndrome, SARS-CoV-2 has also been shown to affect other organs, including brain, and there are growing reports of neuropsychiatric symptoms due to COVID-19. There are two suggested pathways for how COVID-19 can affect the brain and mind: the direct impact on the brain and impact mediated via stress. Direct impact on the brain is manifested as encephalitis/encephalopathy with altered mental status (AMS) and delirium. In this paper, we summarize evidence from studies of previous outbreaks and current data from the COVID-19 pandemic that describe how COVID-19 is associated with an increased prevalence of anxiety, stress, poor sleep quality, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and depression among the general population during the pandemic. In addition, we summarize the current evidence that supports how COVID-19 can also impact the CNS directly and result in delirium, cerebrovascular events, encephalitis, unspecified encephalopathy, AMS, or peripheral neurologic disorders.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Delirium , Encephalitis , Brain , Delirium/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Mol Neurodegener ; 17(1): 20, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745436

ABSTRACT

This letter draws attention to recent work supporting the notion that the SARS-CoV-2 virus may use the nervus terminalis rather than the olfactory nerve as a shortcut route from the nasal cavity to infect the brain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain , Humans
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 85(4): 1573-1582, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD), an at-risk condition of Alzheimer's disease (AD), can involve various cognitive domains, such as memory, language, planning, and attention. OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the difference in amyloid load between the single memory domain SCD (sd-SCD) and the multidomain SCD (md-SCD) and assess the relationship of amyloid pathology with quantitative SCD scores and objective cognition. METHODS: A total of 63 SCD participants from the SILCODE study underwent the clinical evaluation, neuropsychological assessment, and 18F-florbetapir PET scan. Global amyloid standard uptake value ratio (SUVr) was calculated. Additionally, regional amyloid SUVr was quantified in 12 brain regions of interests. A nonparametric rank ANCOVA was used to compare the global and regional amyloid SUVr between the md-SCD (n = 34) and sd-SCD (n = 29) groups. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to test the relationship of amyloid SUVr with quantitative SCD scores and objective cognition. RESULTS: Compared with individuals with sd-SCD, individuals with md-SCD had increased global amyloid SUVr (F = 5.033, p = 0.029) and regional amyloid SUVr in the left middle temporal gyrus (F = 12.309, p = 0.001; Bonferroni corrected), after controlling for the effects of age, sex, and education. When pooling all SCD participants together, the increased global amyloid SUVr was related with higher SCD-plus sum scores and lower Auditory Verbal Learning Test-delayed recall scores. CONCLUSION: According to our findings, individuals with md-SCD showed higher amyloid accumulation than individuals with sd-SCD, suggesting that md-SCD may experience a more advanced stage of SCD. Additionally, increased global amyloid load was predictive of a poorer episodic memory function in SCD individuals.


Subject(s)
Amyloid/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Aged , Brain/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Neuropsychological Tests/statistics & numerical data , Positron-Emission Tomography
19.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 52(1): 36-51, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742795

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback training for emotion regulation and brain homeostasis on anxiety about COVID-19 infection, impulsivity, anger rumination, meta-mood, and self-regulation ability of late adolescents in the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic situation. METHODS: A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The participants included 55 late adolescents in the experimental and control groups. The variables were evaluated using quantitative EEG at pre-post time points in the experimental group. The experimental groups received 10 sessions using the three-band protocol for five weeks. The collected data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, t-test and paired t-test using the SAS 9.3 program. The collected EEG data used a frequency series power spectrum analysis method through fast Fourier transform. RESULTS: Significant differences in emotion regulation between the two groups were observed in the anxiety about COVID-19 infection (W = 585.50, p = .002), mood repair of meta-mood (W = 889.50, p = .024), self-regulation ability (t = -5.02, p < .001), self-regulation mode (t = -4.74, p < .001), and volitional inhibition mode (t = -2.61, p = .012). Neurofeedback training for brain homeostasis was effected on enhanced sensory-motor rhythm (S = 177.00, p < .001) and inhibited theta (S = -166.00, p < .001). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the potential of EEG biofeedback training as an independent nursing intervention that can markedly improve anxiety, mood-repair, and self-regulation ability for emotional distress during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Neurofeedback , Adolescent , Brain/physiology , Electroencephalography/methods , Homeostasis , Humans , Neurofeedback/methods , Neurofeedback/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Trends Mol Med ; 28(4): 319-330, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740055

ABSTRACT

The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy on the developing fetal brain is poorly understood. Other antenatal infections such as influenza have been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring. Although vertical transmission has been rarely observed in SARS-CoV-2 to date, given the potential for profound maternal immune activation (MIA), impact on the developing fetal brain is likely. Here we review evidence that SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections during pregnancy can result in maternal, placental, and fetal immune activation, and ultimately in offspring neurodevelopmental morbidity. Finally, we highlight the need for cellular models of fetal brain development to better understand potential short- and long-term impacts of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection on the next generation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Brain , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
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