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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(3): 458-466, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the spectrum, characteristics and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study during the French coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in March-April 2020. All COVID-19 patients with de novo neurologic manifestations were eligible. RESULTS: We included 222 COVID-19 patients with neurologic manifestations from 46 centres in France. Median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 65 (53-72) years and 136 patients (61.3%) were male. COVID-19 was severe or critical in 102 patients (45.2%). The most common neurologic diseases were COVID-19-associated encephalopathy (67/222, 30.2%), acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome (57/222, 25.7%), encephalitis (21/222, 9.5%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (15/222, 6.8%). Neurologic manifestations appeared after the first COVID-19 symptoms with a median (IQR) delay of 6 (3-8) days in COVID-19-associated encephalopathy, 7 (5-10) days in encephalitis, 12 (7-18) days in acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome and 18 (15-28) days in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain imaging was performed in 192 patients (86.5%), including 157 magnetic resonance imaging (70.7%). Among patients with acute ischaemic cerebrovascular syndrome, 13 (22.8%) of 57 had multiterritory ischaemic strokes, with large vessel thrombosis in 16 (28.1%) of 57. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of encephalitis patients showed heterogeneous acute nonvascular lesions in 14 (66.7%) of 21. Cerebrospinal fluid of 97 patients (43.7%) was analysed, with pleocytosis found in 18 patients (18.6%) and a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result in two patients with encephalitis. The median (IQR) follow-up was 24 (17-34) days with a high short-term mortality rate (28/222, 12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical spectrum and outcomes of neurologic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were broad and heterogeneous, suggesting different underlying pathogenic processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 23(7): 641-650, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241591

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many cases of acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) secondary to COVID-19 have been reported. ANE is characterized by a rapid onset, a fulminant course, and low morbidity and fatality rates. Therefore, clinicians need to be vigilant for such disorders, especially during the influenza virus and COVID-19 epidemics. AREAS COVERED: The authors summarize the most recent studies on the clinical spectrum and treatment essentials of ANE to provide references for prompt diagnosis and improved treatment of this rare but fatal disease. EXPERT OPINION: ANE is a type of necrotizing lesion of the brain parenchyma. There are two major types of reported cases. One is isolated and sporadic ANE, which is primarily caused by viral infections, particularly influenza and HHV-6 virus. The other type is familial recurrent ANE, which is caused by RANBP2 gene mutations. ANE patients have rapid progression and a very poor prognosis, with acute brain dysfunction occurring within days of viral infection and requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Clinicians still need to investigate and find solutions for the problems of early detection and treatment of ANE.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain/pathology , Mutation
3.
Neuroradiology ; 65(7): 1179-1181, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327104

ABSTRACT

We present a pediatric case of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis associated with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA 2.0 infection. A previously healthy girl presented with ataxia and diplopia three weeks after the COVID-19 confirmation from a nasopharyngeal swab. Acute and symmetrical motor weakness and drowsiness ensued within the following 3 days. She then became spastic tetraplegic. MRI revealed multifocal lesions in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, and brainstem, with hemorrhagic changes confirmed with T1-hyperintensity and hypointensity on susceptibility-weighted images. Peripheral areas of decreased diffusion, increased blood flow, and rim contrast enhancement were noted in the majority of lesions. She was treated with a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Neurological deterioration ensued with coma, ataxic respiratory pattern and decerebrate posture. Repeated MRI performed on day 31 revealed progression of abnormalities, hemorrhages and brain herniation. Despite the administration of plasma exchange, she died two months after admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic , Child , Female , Humans , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 44(10): 3998-4010, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319814

ABSTRACT

There has been growing attention on the effect of COVID-19 on white-matter microstructure, especially among those that self-isolated after being infected. There is also immense scientific interest and potential clinical utility to evaluate the sensitivity of single-shell diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for detecting such effects. In this work, the performances of three single-shell-compatible diffusion MRI modeling methods are compared for detecting the effect of COVID-19, including diffusion-tensor imaging, diffusion-tensor decomposition of orthogonal moments and correlated diffusion imaging. Imaging was performed on self-isolated patients at the study initiation and 3-month follow-up, along with age- and sex-matched controls. We demonstrate through simulations and experimental data that correlated diffusion imaging is associated with far greater sensitivity, being the only one of the three single-shell methods to demonstrate COVID-19-related brain effects. Results suggest less restricted diffusion in the frontal lobe in COVID-19 patients, but also more restricted diffusion in the cerebellar white matter, in agreement with several existing studies highlighting the vulnerability of the cerebellum to COVID-19 infection. These results, taken together with the simulation results, suggest that a significant proportion of COVID-19 related white-matter microstructural pathology manifests as a change in tissue diffusivity. Interestingly, different b-values also confer different sensitivities to the effects. No significant difference was observed in patients at the 3-month follow-up, likely due to the limited size of the follow-up cohort. To summarize, correlated diffusion imaging is shown to be a viable single-shell diffusion analysis approach that allows us to uncover opposing patterns of diffusion changes in the frontal and cerebellar regions of COVID-19 patients, suggesting the two regions react differently to viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , White Matter , Humans , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology , Diffusion Tensor Imaging/methods , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
5.
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 158, 2023 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Susac syndrome is an immune-mediated, ischemia-producing, occlusive microvascular endotheliopathy that threatens the brain, retina, and inner ear. There is a need for disease assessment tools that can help clinicians and patients to more easily, accurately, and uniformly track the clinical course and outcome of Susac syndrome. Ideally, such tools should simultaneously facilitate the clinical care and study of Susac syndrome and improve the value of future case reports. To meet this need, two novel clinical assessment tools were developed: the Susac Symptoms Form and the Susac Disease Damage Score. The former is a comprehensive self-report form that is completed by patients/families to serially document the clinical status of a patient. The latter documents the extent of damage perceived by individual patients/families and their physicians. Both forms were initially trialed with two particularly representative and instructive patients. The results of this trial are shared in this report. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient 1 is a 21-year-old Caucasian female who presented with an acute onset of headache, paresthesias, cognitive dysfunction, and emotional lability. Patient 2 is a 14-year-old Caucasian female who presented with an acute onset of headache, cognitive dysfunction, urinary incontinence, ataxia, and personality change. Both patients fulfilled criteria for a definite diagnosis of Susac syndrome: both eventually developed brain, retinal, and inner ear involvement, and both had typical "snowball lesions" on magnetic resonance imaging. The Susac Symptoms Form documented initial improvement in both patients, was sufficiently sensitive in detecting a subsequent relapse in the second patient, and succinctly documented the long-term clinical course in both patients. The Disease Damage Score documented minimal disease damage in the first patient and more significant damage in the second. CONCLUSIONS: The Susac Symptoms Form and the Disease Damage Score are useful disease assessment tools, both for clinical care and research purposes. Their use could enhance the value of future case reports on Susac syndrome and could improve opportunities to learn from a series of such reports.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Susac Syndrome , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Adolescent , Susac Syndrome/diagnosis , Susac Syndrome/complications , Susac Syndrome/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Disease Progression , Headache/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
6.
FASEB J ; 37(5): e22919, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306604

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes injury to multiple organ systems, including the brain. SARS-CoV-2's neuropathological mechanisms may include systemic inflammation and hypoxia, as well as direct cell damage resulting from viral infections of neurons and glia. How the virus directly causes injury to brain cells, acutely and over the long term, is not well understood. In order to gain insight into this process, we studied the neuropathological effects of open reading frame 3a (ORF3a), a SARS-CoV-2 accessory protein that is a key pathological factor of the virus. Forced ORF3a brain expression in mice caused the rapid onset of neurological impairment, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation-key neuropathological features found in coronavirus disease (COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection). Furthermore, ORF3a expression blocked autophagy progression in the brain and caused the neuronal accumulation of α-synuclein and glycosphingolipids, all of which are linked to neurodegenerative disease. Studies with ORF3-expressing HeLa cells confirmed that ORF3a disrupted the autophagy-lysosomal pathway and blocked glycosphingolipid degradation, resulting in their accumulation. These findings indicate that, in the event of neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2, ORF3a expression in brain cells may drive neuropathogenesis and be an important mediator of both short- and long-term neurological manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Humans , Animals , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , HeLa Cells , Open Reading Frames , Sphingolipids , Brain/pathology , Homeostasis , Lysosomes , Autophagy
7.
Semin Neurol ; 43(2): 195-204, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282073

ABSTRACT

Neuropathological findings have been published from ∼900 patients who died with or from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, representing less than 0.01% of the close to 6.4 million deaths reported to the World Health Organization 2 years into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this review, we extend our prior work summarizing COVID-19 neuropathology by including information on published autopsies up to June 2022, and neuropathological studies in children, COVID-19 variants, secondary brain infections, ex vivo brain imaging, and autopsies performed in countries outside of the United States or Europe. We also summarize research studies that investigate mechanisms of neuropathogenesis in nonhuman primates and other models. While a pattern of cerebrovascular pathology and microglial-predominant inflammation remains the primary COVID-19-associated neuropathological finding, there is no singular understanding of the mechanisms that underlie neurological symptoms in acute COVID-19 or the post-acute COVID-19 condition. Thus, it is paramount that we incorporate microscopic and molecular findings from brain tissue into what we know about the clinical disease so that we attain best practice guidance and direct research priorities for the study of the neurological morbidity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Autopsy , Brain/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/pathology
8.
Neurol India ; 71(1): 86-91, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270333

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which not only produces respiratory symptoms but is known to involve almost every system, and its neuroinvasive properties have been well demonstrated throughout the pandemic. Also, to combat the pandemic, there was rapid development and induction of various vaccination drives, following which many adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) have been reported, which include neurological complications as well. Method: We present a series of three cases, post vaccination, with and without a history of COVID illness that showed remarkably similar findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Result: A 38-year-old male presented with complaints of weakness of the bilateral lower limbs with sensory loss and bladder disturbance a day after receiving his first dose of ChadOx1 nCoV-19 (COVISHIELD) vaccine. A 50-year-old male with hypothyroidism characterized by autoimmune thyroiditis and impaired glucose tolerance experienced difficulty in walking 11.5 weeks after being administered with COVID vaccine (COVAXIN). A 38-year-old male presented with subacute onset progressive symmetric quadriparesis 2 months after their first dose of a COVID vaccine. The patient also had sensory ataxia, and his vibration sensation was impaired below C7. All three patients had typical pattern of involvement of the brain and spine on MRI with signal changes in bilateral corticospinal tracts, trigeminal tracts in the brain, and both lateral and posterior columns in the spine. Conclusion: This pattern of brain and spine involvement on MRI is a novel finding and is likely a result of post-vaccination/post-COVID immune-mediated demyelination.


Subject(s)
Brain , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Demyelinating Diseases , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Demyelinating Diseases/chemically induced , Neuroimaging , Pyramidal Tracts , Vaccination/adverse effects , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord/pathology
9.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 45(4): 625-637, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257314

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the novel coronavirus responsible for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), affects the brain. Neurologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms may manifest in the acute and post-acute phases of illness. The vulnerability of the brain with aging further increases the burden of disease in the elderly, who are at the highest risk of complications and death from COVID-19. The mechanisms underlying the effects of COVID-19 on the brain are not fully known. Emerging evidence vis-à-vis pathogenesis and etiologies of COVID-19 brain effects is promising and may pave the way for future research and development of interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Brain/pathology , Aging
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229151

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a significant global health issue. This novel virus's high morbidity and mortality rates have prompted the scientific community to quickly find the best COVID-19 model to investigate all pathological processes underlining its activity and, more importantly, search for optimal drug therapy with minimal toxicity risk. The gold standard in disease modeling involves animal and monolayer culture models; however, these models do not fully reflect the response to human tissues affected by the virus. However, more physiological 3D in vitro culture models, such as spheroids and organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), could serve as promising alternatives. Different iPSC-derived organoids, such as lung, cardiac, brain, intestinal, kidney, liver, nasal, retinal, skin, and pancreatic organoids, have already shown immense potential in COVID-19 modeling. In the present comprehensive review article, we summarize the current knowledge on COVID-19 modeling and drug screening using selected iPSC-derived 3D culture models, including lung, brain, intestinal, cardiac, blood vessels, liver, kidney, and inner ear organoids. Undoubtedly, according to reviewed studies, organoids are the state-of-the-art approach to COVID-19 modeling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain/pathology , Organoids
11.
Exp Brain Res ; 241(3): 727-741, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2219951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term sequelae of COVID-19 can result in reduced functionality of the central nervous system and substandard quality of life. Gaining insight into the recovery trajectory of admitted COVID-19 patients on their cognitive performance and global structural brain connectivity may allow a better understanding of the diseases' relevance. OBJECTIVES: To assess whole-brain structural connectivity in former non-intensive-care unit (ICU)- and ICU-admitted COVID-19 survivors over 2 months following hospital discharge and correlate structural connectivity measures to cognitive performance. METHODS: Participants underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging brain scans and a cognitive test battery after hospital discharge to evaluate structural connectivity and cognitive performance. Multilevel models were constructed for each graph measure and cognitive test, assessing the groups' influence, time since discharge, and interactions. Linear regression models estimated whether the graph measurements affected cognitive measures and whether they differed between ICU and non-ICU patients. RESULTS: Six former ICU and six non-ICU patients completed the study. Across the various graph measures, the characteristic path length decreased over time (ß = 0.97, p = 0.006). We detected no group-level effects (ß = 1.07, p = 0.442) nor interaction effects (ß = 1.02, p = 0.220). Cognitive performance improved for both non-ICU and ICU COVID-19 survivors on four out of seven cognitive tests 2 months later (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Adverse effects of COVID-19 on brain functioning and structure abate over time. These results should be supported by future research including larger sample sizes, matched control groups of healthy non-infected individuals, and more extended follow-up periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , Quality of Life , Brain/pathology , Cognition , Survivors
12.
Neuroimage Clin ; 37: 103338, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2211186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 neurological manifestations have been progressively recognized. Among available MRI techniques, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) shows promise to study microstructure, inflammation, and edema. Previous DWI studies reported alterations in brain diffusivity in COVID-19 patients, as assessed by morphologic evaluation of brain DWI scans only. The aim of this study was to assess and quantify brain diffusion alterations in COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations. METHODS: 215 COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations (olfactory and/or other neurological disorders) and 36 normal controls were compared and studied with DWI and T1-weighted MRI scans. MRI scans were processed by a semi-automatic processing procedure specifically developed for the purpose of this study, and the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) was quantified in different brain tissues and individual white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) regions. Differences in ADC values were assessed between COVID-19 patients and normal controls, as well as in the COVID-19 patient population grouped by hospitalization and neurological symptoms. RESULTS: Among COVID-19 patients (median [IQR] = 52 [42 - 60] years of age, 58 % females), 91 were hospitalized and 26 needed intensive care. 84 patients had hyposmia/ageusia only, while 131 ones showed other neurological disorders. COVID-19 patients showed significantly increased ADC values in the WM and in several GM regions (p < 0.001). ADC values were significantly correlated with MRI time from disease onset (p < 0.05). Hospitalized patients showed significantly higher ADC alteration than non-hospitalized patients in all brain tissues; similarly, COVID-19 patients with neurological disorders showed significantly higher ADC values than those with olfactory loss only. ADC alteration was highest in patients with cognitive or memory disorder and in those with encephalitis or meningitis. ADC values were neither associated with the duration of hospitalization nor with the need for intensive care. CONCLUSION: Current findings suggest DWI potential as a non-invasive marker of neuroinflammation in COVID-19, and the transient nature of the same. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Brain/pathology , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Gray Matter
13.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 10(1): 186, 2022 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined neuropathological findings of patients who died following hospitalization in an intensive care unit with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Data originate from 20 decedents who underwent brain autopsy followed by ex-vivo imaging and dissection. Systematic neuropathologic examinations were performed to assess histopathologic changes including cerebrovascular disease and tissue injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory response. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and fixed tissues were evaluated for the presence of viral RNA and protein. RESULTS: The mean age-at-death was 66.2 years (range: 26-97 years) and 14 were male. The patient's medical history included cardiovascular risk factors or diseases (n = 11, 55%) and dementia (n = 5, 25%). Brain examination revealed a range of acute and chronic pathologies. Acute vascular pathologic changes were common in 16 (80%) subjects and included infarctions (n = 11, 55%) followed by acute hypoxic/ischemic injury (n = 9, 45%) and hemorrhages (n = 7, 35%). These acute pathologic changes were identified in both younger and older groups and those with and without vascular risk factors or diseases. Moderate-to-severe microglial activation were noted in 16 (80%) brains, while moderate-to-severe T lymphocyte accumulation was present in 5 (25%) brains. Encephalitis-like changes included lymphocytic cuffing (n = 6, 30%) and neuronophagia or microglial nodule (most prominent in the brainstem, n = 6, 30%) were also observed. A single brain showed vasculitis-like changes and one other exhibited foci of necrosis with ball-ring hemorrhages reminiscent of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy changes. Chronic pathologies were identified in only older decedents: 7 brains exhibited neurodegenerative diseases and 8 brains showed vascular disease pathologies. CSF and brain samples did not show evidence of viral RNA or protein. CONCLUSIONS: Acute tissue injuries and microglial activation were the most common abnormalities in COVID-19 brains. Focal evidence of encephalitis-like changes was noted despite the lack of detectable virus. The majority of older subjects showed age-related brain pathologies even in the absence of known neurologic disease. Findings of this study suggest that acute brain injury superimposed on common pre-existing brain disease may put older subjects at higher risk of post-COVID neurologic sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Vascular System Injuries , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Autopsy , Critical Illness , Vascular System Injuries/pathology , Brain/pathology , Encephalitis/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , RNA, Viral
15.
Neuropediatrics ; 54(1): 73-77, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186423

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Most coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pediatric patients are asymptomatic; however, several neurological manifestations associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported. Demyelinating events such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis have been recently included among potential complications of COVID-19. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who developed central nervous system demyelinating lesions following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two months prior he had been diagnosed with panuveitis but was otherwise healthy. Three weeks after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, he started to complain of right temporal headache associated with right orbital pain without vision impairment. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed large leukodystrophy-like demyelinating lesions. Standard electroencephalogram revealed a slow activity on the right hemisphere. His clinical and electroencephalographic course was favorable, with a good response to corticosteroid therapy and infusions of intravenous immunoglobulins. Delayed but complete resolution of brain lesions was noted on imaging. CONCLUSION: Our case contributes to broaden the knowledge regarding the spectrum of possible complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The relative lack of clinical manifestations in our patient can be seen as a warning not to underestimate even mild neurological symptoms correlated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Male , Humans , Child , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use
16.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 29(2): 538-543, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152653

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data on structural brain changes after infection with SARS-CoV-2 is sparse. We postulate multiple sclerosis as a model to study the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on brain atrophy due to the unique availability of longitudinal imaging data in this patient group, enabling assessment of intraindividual brain atrophy rates. METHODS: Global and regional cortical gray matter volumes were derived from structural MRIs using FreeSurfer. A linear model was fitted to the measures of the matching pre-SARS-CoV-2 images with age as an explanatory variable. The residuals were used to determine whether the post-SARS-CoV-2 volumes differed significantly from the baseline. RESULTS: Fourteen RRMS patients with a total of 113 longitudinal magnetic resonance images were retrospectively analyzed. We found no acceleration of brain atrophy after infection with SARS-CoV-2 for global gray matter volume (p = 0.17). However, on the regional level, parahippocampal gyri showed a tendency toward volume reduction (p = 0.0076), suggesting accelerated atrophy during or after infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate the opportunity of using longitudinal MRIs from existing MS registries to study brain changes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections. We would like to address the global MS community with a call for action to use the available cohorts, reproduce the proposed analysis, and pool the results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Diseases , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Gray Matter/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Central Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Atrophy/pathology
17.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 462, 2022 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: JC virus (JCV) is common among healthy individuals and remains latent but may be reactivated under immunosuppressive conditions, resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Here, we present a rare case of PML caused by JC virus infection in a previously healthy and immunocompetent patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old female without any disease history was admitted after presenting with rapidly progressive dementia. The preoperative diagnosis was progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and corticosteroid treatment did not improve the symptoms. Brain lesions were surgically sampled, and JCV infection was confirmed by high-throughput DNA gene detection. This patient received a combined treatment of mirtazapine, mefloquine, and traditional Chinese herbs, and had stabilization of the disease on followed-up. CONCLUSIONS: Although it is a rare, this case demonstrates that JC virus infection within the brain occurs in apparently healthy people. This case may increase our understanding of virus infection when facing the coronavirus epidemic in recent years, considering that similar medications were used.


Subject(s)
JC Virus , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal , Female , Humans , Aged , JC Virus/genetics , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal/diagnosis , Mefloquine/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Mirtazapine/therapeutic use
18.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 81(12): 988-995, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135402

ABSTRACT

The brain of a 58-year-old woman was included as a civilian control in an ongoing autopsy study of military traumatic brain injury (TBI). The woman died due to a polysubstance drug overdose, with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) serving as a contributing factor. Immunohistochemical stains for ß-amyloid (Aß), routinely performed for the TBI study, revealed numerous, unusual neocortical Aß deposits. We investigated the autopsied brains of 10 additional young patients (<60 years old) who died of COVID-19, and found similar Aß deposits in all, using two different Aß antibodies across three different medical centers. The deposits failed to stain with Thioflavin-S. To investigate whether or not these deposits formed uniquely to COVID-19, we applied Aß immunostains to the autopsied brains of COVID-19-negative adults who died with acute respiratory distress syndrome and infants with severe cardiac anomalies, and also biopsy samples from patients with subacute cerebral infarcts. Cortical Aß deposits were also found in these cases, suggesting a link to hypoxia. The fate of these deposits and their effects on function are unknown, but it is possible that they contribute to the neurocognitive sequelae observed in some COVID-19 patients. Our findings may also have broader implications concerning hypoxia and its role in Aß deposition in the brain.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , COVID-19 , Neocortex , Humans , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Neocortex/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/pathology , Hypoxia/pathology , Alzheimer Disease/pathology
19.
Mult Scler ; 28(13): 2027-2037, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in MS research has led to new insights in lesion evolution and disease outcomes. It has not yet been determined if, or how, pre-lesional abnormalities in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) relate to the long-term evolution of new lesions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between abnormalities in MRI measures of axonal and myelin volume fractions (AVF and MVF) in NAWM preceding development of black-hole (BH) and non-BH lesions in people with MS. METHODS: We obtained magnetization transfer and diffusion MRI at 6-month intervals in patients with MS to estimate MVF and AVF during lesion evolution. Lesions were classified as either BH or non-BH on the final imaging visit using T1 maps. RESULTS: Longitudinal data from 97 new T2 lesions from 9 participants were analyzed; 25 lesions in 8 participants were classified as BH 6-12 months after initial appearance. Pre-lesion MVF, AVF, and MVF/AVF were significantly lower, and T1 was significantly higher, in the lesions that later became BHs (p < 0.001) compared to those that did not. No significant pre-lesion abnormalities were found in non-BH lesions (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present work demonstrated that pre-lesion abnormalities are associated with worse long-term lesion-level outcome.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , White Matter , Axons/pathology , Brain/pathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Myelin Sheath/pathology , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/pathology
20.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065731

ABSTRACT

Here, we aim to describe COVID-19 pathology across different tissues to clarify the disease's pathophysiology. Lungs, kidneys, hearts, and brains from nine COVID-19 autopsies were compared by using antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, macrophages-microglia, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and activated platelets. Alzheimer's Disease pathology was also assessed. PCR techniques were used to verify the presence of viral RNA. COVID-19 cases had a short clinical course (0-32 days) and their mean age was 77.4 y/o. Hypoxic changes and inflammatory infiltrates were present across all tissues. The lymphocytic component in the lungs and kidneys was predominant over that of other tissues (p < 0.001), with a significantly greater presence of T-lymphocytes in the lungs (p = 0.020), which showed the greatest presence of viral antigens. The heart showed scant SARS-CoV-2 traces in the endothelium-endocardium, foci of activated macrophages, and rare lymphocytes. The brain showed scarce SARS-CoV-2 traces, prominent microglial activation, and rare lymphocytes. The pons exhibited the highest microglial activation (p = 0.017). Microthrombosis was significantly higher in COVID-19 lungs (p = 0.023) compared with controls. The most characteristic pathological features of COVID-19 were an abundance of T-lymphocytes and microthrombosis in the lung and relevant microglial hyperactivation in the brainstem. This study suggests that the long-term sequelae of COVID-19 derive from persistent inflammation, rather than persistent viral replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Aged , Antigens, Viral , Brain/pathology , Humans , Kidney , Lung/pathology , Macrophages , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Thrombosis/pathology
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