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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(41)2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486398

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to widespread mandates requiring the wearing of face masks, which led to debates on their benefits and possible adverse effects. To that end, the physiological effects at the systemic and at the brain level are of interest. We have investigated the effect of commonly available face masks (FFP2 and surgical) on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation, particularly microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood/tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), measured by transcranial hybrid near-infrared spectroscopies and on systemic physiology in 13 healthy adults (ages: 23 to 33 y). The results indicate small but significant changes in cerebral hemodynamics while wearing a mask. However, these changes are comparable to those of daily life activities. This platform and the protocol provides the basis for large or targeted studies of the effects of mask wearing in different populations and while performing critical tasks.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , Masks , Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Brain/blood supply , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Microcirculation , Monitoring, Physiologic , Oxygen/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Young Adult
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(41)2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450314

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to widespread mandates requiring the wearing of face masks, which led to debates on their benefits and possible adverse effects. To that end, the physiological effects at the systemic and at the brain level are of interest. We have investigated the effect of commonly available face masks (FFP2 and surgical) on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation, particularly microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood/tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), measured by transcranial hybrid near-infrared spectroscopies and on systemic physiology in 13 healthy adults (ages: 23 to 33 y). The results indicate small but significant changes in cerebral hemodynamics while wearing a mask. However, these changes are comparable to those of daily life activities. This platform and the protocol provides the basis for large or targeted studies of the effects of mask wearing in different populations and while performing critical tasks.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , Masks , Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Brain/blood supply , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Microcirculation , Monitoring, Physiologic , Oxygen/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Young Adult
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17452, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380911

ABSTRACT

Here we attempted to define the relationship between: EEG activity, personality and coping during lockdown. We were in a unique situation since the COVID-19 outbreak interrupted our independent longitudinal study. We already collected a significant amount of data before lockdown. During lockdown, a subgroup of participants willingly continued their engagement in the study. These circumstances provided us with an opportunity to examine the relationship between personality/cognition and brain rhythms in individuals who continued their engagement during lockdown compared to control data collected well before pandemic. The testing consisted of a one-time assessment of personality dimensions and two sessions of EEG recording and deductive reasoning task. Participants were divided into groups based on the time they completed the second session: before or during the COVID-19 outbreak 'Pre-pandemic Controls' and 'Pandemics', respectively. The Pandemics were characterized by a higher extraversion and stronger connectivity, compared to Pre-pandemic Controls. Furthermore, the Pandemics improved their cognitive performance under long-term stress as compared to the Pre-Pandemic Controls matched for personality traits to the Pandemics. The Pandemics were also characterized by increased EEG connectivity during lockdown. We posit that stronger EEG connectivity and higher extraversion could act as a defense mechanism against stress-related deterioration of cognitive functions.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Extraversion, Psychological , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Electroencephalography , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroticism , Physical Distancing , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Brain Pathol ; 31(6): e13013, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354468

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the new coronavirus responsible for the pandemic disease in the last year, is able to affect the central nervous system (CNS). Compared with its well-known pulmonary tropism and respiratory complications, little has been studied about SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism and pathogenesis of its neurological manifestations, but also about postmortem histopathological findings in the CNS of patients who died from COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). We present a systematic review, carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review standards, of the neuropathological features of COVID-19. We found 21 scientific papers, the majority of which refer to postmortem examinations; the total amount of cases is 197. Hypoxic changes are the most frequently reported alteration of brain tissue, followed by ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions and reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis. These findings do not seem to be specific to SARS-CoV-2 infection, they are more likely because of systemic inflammation and coagulopathy caused by COVID-19. More studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis and to detect other possible alterations of neural tissue. Brain examination of patients dead from COVID-19 should be included in a protocol of standardized criteria to perform autopsies on these subjects.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/physiology , Central Nervous System/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Pandemics
6.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348604

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition to pneumonia, individuals affected by the disease have neurological symptoms. Indeed, SARS-CoV-2 has a neuroinvasive capacity. It is known that the infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 leads to a cytokine storm. An exacerbated inflammatory state can lead to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage as well as to intestinal dysbiosis. These changes, in turn, are associated with microglial activation and reactivity of astrocytes that can promote the degeneration of neurons and be associated with the development of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Studies also have been shown that SARS-CoV-2 alters the composition and functional activity of the gut microbiota. The microbiota-gut-brain axis provides a bidirectional homeostatic communication pathway. Thus, this review focuses on studies that show the relationship between inflammation and the gut microbiota-brain axis in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Dysbiosis , Humans , Inflammation , Mood Disorders , Nervous System Diseases
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14448, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310814

ABSTRACT

Faces hold a substantial value for effective social interactions and sharing. Covering faces with masks, due to COVID-19 regulations, may lead to difficulties in using social signals, in particular, in individuals with neurodevelopmental conditions. Daily-life social participation of individuals who were born preterm is of immense importance for their quality of life. Here we examined face tuning in individuals (aged 12.79 ± 1.89 years) who were born preterm and exhibited signs of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a dominant form of brain injury in preterm birth survivors. For assessing the face sensitivity in this population, we implemented a recently developed experimental tool, a set of Face-n-Food images bordering on the style of Giuseppe Arcimboldo. The key benefit of these images is that single components do not trigger face processing. Although a coarse face schema is thought to be hardwired in the brain, former preterms exhibit substantial shortages in the face tuning not only compared with typically developing controls but also with individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. The lack of correlations between the face sensitivity and other cognitive abilities indicates that these deficits are domain-specific. This underscores impact of preterm birth sequelae for social functioning at large. Comparison of the findings with data in individuals with other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions provides novel insights into the origins of deficient face processing.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , Facial Recognition , Pattern Recognition, Visual , Premature Birth , Social Cognition , Adolescent , Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Child , Cognition , Cognitive Neuroscience , Facial Expression , Female , Humans , Leukomalacia, Periventricular , Pregnancy , Quality of Life , Recognition, Psychology/physiology , Sex Factors , Social Behavior , Visual Perception/physiology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295522

ABSTRACT

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) can influence emotional predictions, constructed by the brain (generation stage) to prearrange action (implementation stage), and update internal models according to incoming stimuli (updating stage). However, neurocomputational mechanisms by which IU affects emotional predictions are unclear. This high-density EEG study investigated if IU predicted event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain sources activity developing along the stages of emotional predictions, as a function of contextual uncertainty. Thirty-six undergraduates underwent a S1-S2 paradigm, with emotional faces and pictures as S1s and S2s, respectively. Contextual uncertainty was manipulated across three blocks, each with 100%, 75%, or 50% S1-S2 emotional congruency. ERPs, brain sources and their relationship with IU scores were analyzed for each stage. IU did not affect prediction generation. During prediction implementation, higher IU predicted larger Contingent Negative Variation in the 75% block, and lower left anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area activations. During prediction updating, as IU increased P2 to positive S2s decreased, along with P2 and Late Positive Potential in the 75% block, and right orbito-frontal cortex activity to emotional S2s. IU was therefore associated with altered uncertainty assessment and heightened attention deployment during implementation, and to uncertainty avoidance, reduced attention to safety cues and disrupted access to emotion regulation strategies during prediction updating.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Emotions/physiology , Fear/physiology , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Behavior/physiology , Brain/pathology , Brain/physiology , Brain Mapping , Contingent Negative Variation/physiology , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Face/physiology , Fear/psychology , Female , Forecasting , Frontal Lobe/pathology , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Humans , Male , Uncertainty , Young Adult
9.
Ann Neurol ; 90(3): 336-349, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293136

ABSTRACT

At present, resilience refers to a highly heterogeneous concept with ill-defined determinants, mechanisms, and outcomes. This call for action argues for the need to define resilience as a person-centered multidimensional metric, informed by a dynamic lifespan perspective and combining observational and interventional experimental studies to identify specific neural markers and correlated behavioral measures. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlights the urgent need of such an effort with the ultimate goal of defining a new vital sign, an individual index of resilience, as a life-long metric with the capacity to predict an individual's risk for disability in the face of a stressor, insult, injury, or disease. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:336-349.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Healthy Aging/physiology , Healthy Aging/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Humans
10.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(6): 135-148, 2021 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281062

ABSTRACT

The human body is colonized from the birth by a large number of microorganisms. This will constitute a real "functional microbial organ" that is fundamental for homeostasis and therefore for health in humans. Those microorganisms. The microbial populations that colonize humans creating a specific ecosystem they have been collectively referred to as "human microbiota" or "human normal microflora". The microbiota play an important pathophysiological role in the various locations of the human body. This article focuses on one of the most important, that is the enteric microbiota. The composition (quantitative and qualitative) of microbes is analyzed in relation to age and environment during the course of human life. It also highlights eubiosis and dysbiosis as key terms for its role in health and disease. Finally, it analyzes its bi-directional relationship with the microbiota of the lungs, skin and that of the brain, and consequently for the whole central and peripheral nervous system for the maintenance of health in the human body.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Health Status , Homeostasis/physiology , Bacteria/classification , Brain/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiology , Humans , Lung/physiology , Population Dynamics
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17987, 2020 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242031

ABSTRACT

Prolonged periods of social isolation and spatial confinement do not only represent an issue that needs to be faced by a few astronauts during space missions, but can affect all of us as recently shown during pandemic situations. The fundamental question, how the brain adapts to periods of sensory deprivation and re-adapts to normality, has only received little attention. Here, we use eyes closed and eyes open resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings to investigate how neural activity is altered during 120 days of isolation in a spatially confined, space-analogue environment. After disentangling oscillatory patterns from 1/f activity, we show that isolation leads to a reduction in broadband power and a flattening of the 1/f spectral slope. Beyond that, we observed a reduction in alpha peak frequency during isolation, but did not find strong evidence for isolation-induced changes that are of oscillatory nature. Critically, all effects reversed upon release from isolation. These findings suggest that isolation and concomitant sensory deprivation lead to an enhanced cortical deactivation which might be explained by a reduction in the mean neuronal population firing rate.


Subject(s)
Alpha Particles , Astronauts/statistics & numerical data , Brain/physiology , Social Isolation , Task Performance and Analysis , Visual Perception , Adult , Arousal/physiology , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Male , Space Simulation , Wakefulness/physiology
12.
Nat Methods ; 17(10): 961-964, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242021
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 641754, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167387

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Brain health is neglected in public health, receiving attention after something goes wrong. Neuroplasticity research illustrates that preventive steps strengthen the brain's component systems; however, this information is not widely known. Actionable steps are needed to scale proven population-level interventions. Objectives: This pilot tested two main objectives: (1) the feasibility/ease of use of an online platform to measure brain health, deliver training, and offer virtual coaching to healthy adults and (2) to develop a data driven index of brain health. Methods: 180 participants, ages 18-87, enrolled in this 12-week pilot. Participants took a BrainHealth Index™ (BHI), a composite of assessments encompassing cognition, well-being, daily-life and social, pre-post training. Participants engaged in online training with three coaching sessions. We assessed changes in BHI, effects of training utilization and demographics, contributions of sub-domain measures to the BHI and development of a factor analytic structure of latent BrainHealth constructs. Results: The results indicated that 75% of participants showed at least a 5-point gain on their BHI which did not depend on age, education, or gender. The contribution to these gains were from all sub-domains, including stress, anxiety and resilience, even though training focused largely on cognition. Some individuals improved due to increased resilience and decreased anxiety, whereas others improved due to increased innovation and social engagement. Larger gains depended on module utilization, especially strategy training. An exploratory factor analytic solution to the correlation matrix of online assessments identified three latent constructs. Discussion/Conclusion: This pilot study demonstrated the efficacy of an online platform to assess changes on a composite BrainHealth Index and efficacy in delivering training modules and coaching. We found that adults, college age to late life, were motivated to learn about their brain and engage in virtual-training with coaching to improve their brain health. This effort intends to scale up to thousands, thus the pilot data, tested by an impending imaging pilot, will be utilized in ongoing machine learning (ML) algorithms to develop a precision brain health model. This pilot is a first step in scaling evidence-based brain health protocols to reach individuals and positively affect public health globally.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , Mental Health , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cognition , Humans , Internet , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Young Adult
14.
Brain ; 143(10): 2863, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893107
15.
Neurobiol Dis ; 153: 105319, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1108562

ABSTRACT

Visual recognition of facial expression modulates our social interactions. Compelling experimental evidence indicates that face conveys plenty of information that are fundamental for humans to interact. These are encoded at neural level in specific cortical and subcortical brain regions through activity- and experience-dependent synaptic plasticity processes. The current pandemic, due to the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection, is causing relevant social and psychological detrimental effects. The institutional recommendations on physical distancing, namely social distancing and wearing of facemasks are effective in reducing the rate of viral spread. However, by impacting social interaction, facemasks might impair the neural responses to recognition of facial cues that are overall critical to our behaviors. In this survey, we briefly review the current knowledge on the neurobiological substrate of facial recognition and discuss how the lack of salient stimuli might impact the ability to retain and consolidate learning and memory phenomena underlying face recognition. Such an "abnormal" visual experience raises the intriguing possibility of a "reset" mechanism, a renewed ability of adult brain to undergo synaptic plasticity adaptations.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Facial Recognition/physiology , Masks , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Occipital Lobe/physiology , Prefrontal Cortex/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Perception , Temporal Lobe/physiology , Visual Pathways/physiology
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 126, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been linked to increased mortality and morbidity. The Program 4 of the Healthy Aging in Industrial Environment study investigates whether the health and wellbeing benefits of physical activity (PA) can be fully realized in individuals living in highly polluted environments. Herein, we introduce the behavioral, psychological and neuroimaging protocol of the study. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of N = 1500 individuals aged 18-65 years comparing: (1) individuals living in the highly polluted, industrial region surrounding the city of Ostrava (n = 750), and (2) controls from the comparison region with relative low pollution levels in Southern Bohemia (n = 750). Quota sampling is used to obtain samples balanced on age, gender, PA status (60% active runners vs. 40% insufficiently active). Participants are screened and complete baseline assessments through online questionnaires and in-person lab-based assessments of physiological, biomechanical, neuroimaging and cognitive function parameters. Prospective 12-month intensive monitoring of air pollution and behavioral parameters (PA, inactivity, and sleep) follows, with a focus on PA-related injuries and psychological factors through fitness trackers, smartphones, and mobile apps. Subsequently, there will be a 5-year follow-up of the study cohort. DISCUSSION: The design of the study will allow for (1) the assessment of both short-term variation and long-term change in behavioral parameters, (2) evaluation of the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries and psychological factors impacting behavior and injury recovery, and (3) the impact that air pollution status (and change) has on behavior, psychological resilience, and injury recovery. Furthermore, the integration of MRI techniques and cognitive assessment in combination with data on behavioral, biological and environmental variables will provide an opportunity to examine brain structure and cognitive function in relation to health behavior and air pollution, as well as other factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse changes in brain structure and cognitive aging. This study will help inform individuals about personal risk factors and decision-makers about the impact of environmental factors on negative health outcomes and potential underlying biological, behavioral and psychological mechanisms. Challenges and opportunities stemming from the timing of the study that coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Exercise , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/physiology , COVID-19 , Cognition/physiology , Female , Health Behavior , Healthy Aging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Prospective Studies , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Research Design , Resilience, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Genes Brain Behav ; 19(8): e12680, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066676

ABSTRACT

A diversity of bacteria, protozoans and viruses ("endozoites") were recently uncovered within healthy tissues including the human brain. By contrast, it was already recognized a century ago that healthy plants tissues contain abundant endogenous microbes ("endophytes"). Taking endophytes as an informative precedent, we overview the nature, prevalence, and role of endozoites in mammalian tissues, centrally focusing on the brain, concluding that endozoites are ubiquitous in diverse tissues. These passengers often remain subclinical, but they are not silent. We address their routes of entry, mechanisms of persistence, tissue specificity, and potential to cause long-term behavioral changes and/or immunosuppression in mammals, where rabies virus is the exemplar. We extend the discussion to Herpesviridae, Coronaviridae, and Toxoplasma, as well as to diverse bacteria and yeasts, and debate the advantages and disadvantages that endozoite infection might afford to the host and to the ecosystem. We provide a clinical perspective in which endozoites are implicated in neurodegenerative disease, anxiety/depression, and schizophrenia. We conclude that endozoites are instrumental in the delicate balance between health and disease, including age-related brain disease, and that endozoites have played an important role in the evolution of brain function and human behavior.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , Cognition , Microbiota , Animals , Brain/microbiology , Brain/parasitology , Brain/virology , Humans
18.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S107-S113, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065060

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases like Covid-19 cause a major threat to global health. When confronted with new pathogens, individuals generate several beliefs about the epidemic phenomenon. Many studies have shown that individual protective behaviors largely depend on these beliefs. Due to the absence of treatment and vaccine against these emerging pathogens, the relation between these beliefs and these behaviors represents a crucial issue for public health policies. In the premises of the Covid-19 pandemic, several preliminary studies have highlighted a delay in the perception of risk by individuals, which potentially holds back the implementing of the necessary precautionary measures: people underestimated the risks associated with the virus, and therefore also the importance of complying with sanitary guidelines. During the peak of the pandemic, the salience of the threat and of the risk of mortality could then have transformed the way people generate their beliefs. This potentially leads to upheavals in the way they understand the world. Here, we propose to explore the evolution of beliefs and behaviors during the Covid-19 crisis, using the theory of predictive coding and the theory of terror management, two influential frameworks in cognitive science and in social psychology.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Culture , Fear/psychology , Health Behavior , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Denial, Psychological , Guideline Adherence , Guidelines as Topic , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Hygiene , Models, Psychological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Protective Devices , Risk Management , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2 , Universal Precautions
19.
Neurol Sci ; 42(4): 1325-1334, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046760

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic was caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The quarantine period during corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) outbreak might affect the quality of life leading thousands of individuals to diminish the daily caloric expenditure and mobility, leading to a sedentary behavior and increase the number of health disorders. Exercising is used as a non-pharmacological treatment in many chronic diseases. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of physical exercise in COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. We also point links between exercise, mental, and cardiovascular health. The infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 affects host cells binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), which is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. If there is not enough oxygen supply the lungs and other tissues, such as the heart or brain, are affected. SARS-CoV-2 enhances ACE2 leading to inflammation and neuronal death with possible development of mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Physical exercise also enhances the ACE2 expression. Conversely, the activation of ACE2/Ang 1-7/Mas axis by physical exercise induces an antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effect. Physical exercise has beneficial effects on mental health enhancing IGF-1, PI3K, BDNF, ERK, and reducing GSK3ß levels. In addition, physical exercise enhances the activity of PGC-1α/ FNDC5/Irisin pathway leading to neuronal survival and the maintenance of a good mental health. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to elevation of ACE2 levels through pathological mechanisms that lead to neurological and cardiovascular complications, while the physiological response of ACE2 to physical exercise improves cardiovascular and mental health.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Cardiovascular System , Exercise , Mental Health , Pandemics , Humans
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027279

ABSTRACT

Depression is associated with an increased risk of aging-related diseases. It is also seemingly a common psychological reaction to pandemic outbreaks with forced quarantines and lockdowns. Thus, depression represents, now more than ever, a major global health burden with therapeutic management challenges. Clinical data highlights that physical exercise is gaining momentum as a non-pharmacological intervention in depressive disorders. Although it may contribute to the reduction of systemic inflammation associated with depression, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial physical exercise effects in emotional behavior remain to be elucidated. Current investigations indicate that a rapid release of extracellular vesicles into the circulation might be the signaling mediators of systemic adaptations to physical exercise. These biological entities are now well-established intercellular communicators, playing a major role in relevant physiological and pathophysiological functions, including brain cell-cell communication. We also reviewed emerging evidence correlating depression with modified circulating extracellular vesicle surfaces and cargo signatures (e.g., microRNAs and proteins), envisioned as potential biomarkers for diagnosis, efficient disease stratification and appropriate therapeutic management. Accordingly, the clinical data summarized in the present review prompted us to hypothesize that physical exercise-related circulating extracellular vesicles contribute to its antidepressant effects, particularly through the modulation of inflammation. This review sheds light on the triad "physical exercise-extracellular vesicles-depression" and suggests new avenues in this novel emerging field.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Depression/therapy , Exercise/physiology , MicroRNAs/blood , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Brain/metabolism , Brain/physiology , Cell Communication/genetics , Depression/blood , Disease Management , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , Humans
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