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2.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(9): 753-761, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which any upper respiratory virus, including SARS-CoV-2, impairs chemosensory function are not known. COVID-19 is frequently associated with olfactory dysfunction after viral infection, which provides a research opportunity to evaluate the natural course of this neurological finding. Clinical trials and prospective and histological studies of new-onset post-viral olfactory dysfunction have been limited by small sample sizes and a paucity of advanced neuroimaging data and neuropathological samples. Although data from neuropathological specimens are now available, neuroimaging of the olfactory system during the acute phase of infection is still rare due to infection control concerns and critical illness and represents a substantial gap in knowledge. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: The active replication of SARS-CoV-2 within the brain parenchyma (ie, in neurons and glia) has not been proven. Nevertheless, post-viral olfactory dysfunction can be viewed as a focal neurological deficit in patients with COVID-19. Evidence is also sparse for a direct causal relation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and abnormal brain findings at autopsy, and for trans-synaptic spread of the virus from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb. Taken together, clinical, radiological, histological, ultrastructural, and molecular data implicate inflammation, with or without infection, in either the olfactory epithelium, the olfactory bulb, or both. This inflammation leads to persistent olfactory deficits in a subset of people who have recovered from COVID-19. Neuroimaging has revealed localised inflammation in intracranial olfactory structures. To date, histopathological, ultrastructural, and molecular evidence does not suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is an obligate neuropathogen. WHERE NEXT?: The prevalence of CNS and olfactory bulb pathosis in patients with COVID-19 is not known. We postulate that, in people who have recovered from COVID-19, a chronic, recrudescent, or permanent olfactory deficit could be prognostic for an increased likelihood of neurological sequelae or neurodegenerative disorders in the long term. An inflammatory stimulus from the nasal olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulbs and connected brain regions might accelerate pathological processes and symptomatic progression of neurodegenerative disease. Persistent olfactory impairment with or without perceptual distortions (ie, parosmias or phantosmias) after SARS-CoV-2 infection could, therefore, serve as a marker to identify people with an increased long-term risk of neurological disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfactory Mucosa/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/physiopathology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , Prospective Studies , Smell/physiology
3.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1114-E1119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The detailed extent of neuroinvasion or deleterious brain changes resulting from COVID-19 and their time courses remain to be determined in relation to "long-haul" COVID-19 symptoms. Our objective is to determine whether there are alterations in functional brain imaging measures among people with COVID-19 after hospital discharge or self-isolation. METHODS: This paper describes a protocol for NeuroCOVID-19, a longitudinal observational study of adults aged 20-75 years at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Ontario, that began in April 2020. We aim to recruit 240 adults, 60 per group: people who contracted COVID-19 and were admitted to hospital (group 1), people who contracted COVID-19 and self-isolated (group 2), people who experienced influenza-like symptoms at acute presentation but tested negative for COVID-19 and self-isolated (group 3, control) and healthy people (group 4, control). Participants are excluded based on premorbid neurologic or severe psychiatric illness, unstable cardiovascular disease, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contraindications. Initial and 3-month follow-up assessments include multiparametric brain MRI and electroencephalography. Sensation and cognition are assessed alongside neuropsychiatric assessments and symptom self-reports. We will test the data from the initial and follow-up assessments for group differences based on 3 outcome measures: MRI cerebral blood flow, MRI resting state fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and electroencephalography spectral power. INTERPRETATION: If neurophysiologic alterations are detected in the COVID-19 groups in our NeuroCOVID-19 study, this information could inform future research regarding interventions for long-haul COVID-19. The study results will be disseminated to scientists, clinicians and COVID-19 survivors, as well as the public and private sectors to provide context on how brain measures relate to lingering symptoms.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Patient Discharge , Adult , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electroencephalography/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario , Patient Isolation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233981, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456053

ABSTRACT

We aimed to examine aneurysm hemodynamics with intra-saccular pressure measurement, and compare the effects of coiling, stenting and stent-assisted coiling in proximal segments of intracranial circulation. A cohort of 45 patients underwent elective endovascular coil embolization (with or without stent) for intracranial aneurysm at our department. Arterial pressure transducer was used for all measurements. It was attached to proximal end of the microcatheter. Measurements were taken in the parent artery before and after embolization, at the aneurysm dome before embolization, after stent implantation, and after embolization. Stent-assisted coiling was performed with 4 different stents: LVIS and LVIS Jr (Microvention, Tustin, CA, USA), Leo (Balt, Montmorency, France), Barrel VRD (Medtronic/ Covidien, Irvine, CA, USA). Presence of the stent showed significant reverse correlation with intra-aneurysmal pressure-both systolic and diastolic-after its implantation (r = -0.70 and r = -0.75, respectively), which was further supported by correlations with stent cell size-r = 0.72 and r = 0.71, respectively (P<0.05). Stent implantation resulted in significant decrease in diastolic intra-aneurysmal pressure (p = 0.046). Systolic or mean intra-aneurysmal pressure did not differ significantly. Embolization did not significantly change the intra-aneurysmal pressure in matched pairs, regardless of the use of stent (p>0.05). In conclusion, low-profile braided stents show a potential to divert blood flow, there was significant decrease in diastolic pressure after stent placement. Flow-diverting properties were related to stent porosity. Coiling does not significantly change the intra-aneurysmal pressure, regardless of packing density.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Intracranial Aneurysm/physiopathology , Stents , Aged , Arterial Pressure , Blood Circulation , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Brain/blood supply , Brain/physiopathology , Embolization, Therapeutic , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Eur J Med Genet ; 64(10): 104268, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401450

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic variants in phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class B (PIGB) gene have been first described as the cause of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 80 (EIEE-80) in 2019. This disorder, an inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency, is associated with a complex neurologic phenotype, including developmental delay, early-onset epilepsy and peripheral neuropathy. We report on a 5 year-old girl born from consanguineous parents, manifesting severe global developmental delay with absent speech, mixed peripheral polyneuropathy, hypotonia, bilateral equino-varo-supinated-cavus foot, early-onset scoliosis, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and a single episode of febrile status epilepticus. Hypomyelination was documented on brain MRI. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) disclosed the likely pathogenic biallelic PIGB NM_004855.4: c.463G > C, p.(Asp155His) missense variant. In our patient, while other characteristic clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory findings (as described in the first research paper) were present, seizures were not a major clinical issue, thus contributing to our knowledge on this ultra-rare disorder.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiopathology , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Epilepsy/genetics , Mannosyltransferases/genetics , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Child , Developmental Disabilities/diagnosis , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Mannosyltransferases/deficiency , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Whole Exome Sequencing
6.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389305

ABSTRACT

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system contributing substantially to health and disease. There is increasing evidence that inflammatory microglia may induce or accelerate brain aging, by interfering with physiological repair and remodeling processes. Many viral infections affect the brain and interfere with microglia functions, including human immune deficiency virus, flaviviruses, SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and human herpes viruses. Especially chronic viral infections causing low-grade neuroinflammation may contribute to brain aging. This review elucidates the potential role of various neurotropic viruses in microglia-driven neurocognitive deficiencies and possibly accelerated brain aging.


Subject(s)
Aging , Brain/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Microglia/virology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , Brain/immunology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Microglia/immunology , Microglia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
8.
Epilepsy Res ; 176: 106741, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356224

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, wearing face masks was recommended, including patients with epilepsy doing the hyperventilation (HV) test during electroencephalogram (EEG) examination somewhere. However, evidence was still limited about the effect of HV with face mask on cortical excitability of patients with epilepsy. The motivation of this work is to make use of the graph theory of EEG to characterize the cortical excitability of patients with epilepsy when they did HV under the condition wearing a surgical face mask. METHODS: We recruited 19 patients with epilepsy and 17 normal controls. All of participants completed two HV experiments, including HV with face mask (HV+) and HV without a mask (HV). The interval was 30 min and the sequence was random. Each experiment consisted of three segments: resting EEG, EEG of HV, and EEG of post-HV. EEG were recorded successively during each experiment. Participants were asked to evaluate the discomfort degree using a questionnaire when every HV is completed. RESULTS: All of the participants felt more uncomfortable after HV + . Moreover, not only HV decreased small-worldness index in patients with epilepsy, but also HV + significantly increased the clustering coefficient in patients with epilepsy. Importantly, the three-way of Mask*HV*Epilepsy showed interaction in the clustering coefficient in the delta band, as well as in the path length and the small-worldness index in the theta band. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that patients with epilepsy showed the increased excitability of brain network during HV + . We should pay more attention to the adverse effect on brain network excitability caused by HV + in patients with epilepsy. In the clinical practice under the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important that the wearing face mask remain cautious for the individuals with epilepsy when they carried out HV behavior such as exercise (e.g., running, etc.).


Subject(s)
Epilepsy/complications , Hyperventilation/etiology , Masks/adverse effects , Nerve Net/physiopathology , Adult , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hyperventilation/physiopathology , Male
9.
Brain Pathol ; 31(6): e13013, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354468

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the new coronavirus responsible for the pandemic disease in the last year, is able to affect the central nervous system (CNS). Compared with its well-known pulmonary tropism and respiratory complications, little has been studied about SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism and pathogenesis of its neurological manifestations, but also about postmortem histopathological findings in the CNS of patients who died from COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). We present a systematic review, carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review standards, of the neuropathological features of COVID-19. We found 21 scientific papers, the majority of which refer to postmortem examinations; the total amount of cases is 197. Hypoxic changes are the most frequently reported alteration of brain tissue, followed by ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions and reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis. These findings do not seem to be specific to SARS-CoV-2 infection, they are more likely because of systemic inflammation and coagulopathy caused by COVID-19. More studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis and to detect other possible alterations of neural tissue. Brain examination of patients dead from COVID-19 should be included in a protocol of standardized criteria to perform autopsies on these subjects.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/physiology , Central Nervous System/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Pandemics
10.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 117: 102006, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330944

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, Covid-19 is considered a serious health problem worldwide. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel human coronavirus that has sparked a global pandemic of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). It is well known that the Corona Virus attacks mainly the respiratory system. Meanwhile, it has been established that coronavirus infection can extend beyond the respiratory system and unfortunately, can also affect our nervous system. Multiple neurological symptoms and signs had been documented during and post covid conditions. This virus gets access to the central nervous system (CNS) via the bloodstream leading to infect the endothelial lining cells. Also, it was reported that the virus can enter the peripheral nervous system via retrograde neuronal routes. The virus could be internalized in nerve synapses through endocytosis, transported retrogradely, and spread trans-synoptically to other brain regions. This minireview highlights the possible routes by which SARS-CoV-2 can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and its pathophysiology and manifestation.


Subject(s)
Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System/physiopathology , Central Nervous System/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Nature ; 595(7868): 565-571, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275939

ABSTRACT

Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily targets the respiratory system, patients with and survivors of COVID-19 can suffer neurological symptoms1-3. However, an unbiased understanding of the cellular and molecular processes that are affected in the brains of patients with COVID-19 is missing. Here we profile 65,309 single-nucleus transcriptomes from 30 frontal cortex and choroid plexus samples across 14 control individuals (including 1 patient with terminal influenza) and 8 patients with COVID-19. Although our systematic analysis yields no molecular traces of SARS-CoV-2 in the brain, we observe broad cellular perturbations indicating that barrier cells of the choroid plexus sense and relay peripheral inflammation into the brain and show that peripheral T cells infiltrate the parenchyma. We discover microglia and astrocyte subpopulations associated with COVID-19 that share features with pathological cell states that have previously been reported in human neurodegenerative disease4-6. Synaptic signalling of upper-layer excitatory neurons-which are evolutionarily expanded in humans7 and linked to cognitive function8-is preferentially affected in COVID-19. Across cell types, perturbations associated with COVID-19 overlap with those found in chronic brain disorders and reside in genetic variants associated with cognition, schizophrenia and depression. Our findings and public dataset provide a molecular framework to understand current observations of COVID-19-related neurological disease, and any such disease that may emerge at a later date.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/pathology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Choroid Plexus/pathology , Microglia/pathology , Neurons/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain/metabolism , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cell Nucleus/genetics , Choroid Plexus/metabolism , Choroid Plexus/physiopathology , Choroid Plexus/virology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Virus Replication
13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(3): 883-898, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259331

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment following SARS-CoV-2 infection is being increasingly recognized as an acute and possibly also long-term sequela of the disease. Direct viral entry as well as systemic mechanisms such as cytokine storm are thought to contribute to neuroinflammation in these patients. Biomarkers of COVID-19-induced cognitive impairment are currently lacking, but there is some limited evidence that SARS-CoV-2 could preferentially target the frontal lobes, as suggested by behavioral and dysexecutive symptoms, fronto-temporal hypoperfusion on MRI, EEG slowing in frontal regions, and frontal hypometabolism on 18F-FDG-PET. Possible confounders include cognitive impairment due to hypoxia and mechanical ventilation and post-traumatic stress disorder. Conversely, patients already suffering from dementia, as well as their caregivers, have been greatly impacted by the disruption of their care caused by COVID-19. Patients with dementia have experienced worsening of cognitive, behavioral, and psychological symptoms, and the rate of COVID-19-related deaths is disproportionately high among cognitively impaired people. Multiple factors, such as difficulties in remembering and executing safeguarding procedures, age, comorbidities, residing in care homes, and poorer access to hospital standard of care play a role in the increased morbidity and mortality. Non-pharmacological interventions and new technologies have shown a potential for the management of patients with dementia, and for the support of their caregivers.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Brain , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Biomarkers/analysis , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/metabolism , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/immunology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Comorbidity , Humans , Neuroimaging/methods , Neuroimmunomodulation/immunology , Patient Care , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1396-1402, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196517

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a major pandemic threat worldwide. According to the existing clinical data, this virus not only causes respiratory diseases and affects the lungs but also induces histopathological or functional changes in various organs like the testis and also the male genital tract. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), also ACE 2 and TMPRSS2 play an important role in the cellular entry for SARS-CoV-2. Because the male genital system presents high ACE 2 expression, the importance of this pathway increases in COVID-19 cases. As the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the male genital system in direct or indirect ways and showed a negative impact on male reproduction, this paper focuses on the possible mechanisms underlying the damage caused by COVID-19 to the testis and also other components of the male genital tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Fertility , Infertility, Male/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Epididymis/pathology , Genitalia, Male/pathology , Genitalia, Male/virology , Humans , Infertility, Male/physiopathology , Infertility, Male/virology , Male , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Testis/pathology
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1296-1303, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196490

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has emerged to be highly pathogenic in nature. Although lungs are considered as the primary infected organs by SARS-CoV-2, some of the other organs, including the brain, have also been found to be affected. Here, we have discussed how SARS-CoV-2 might infect the brain. The infection of the respiratory center in the brainstem could be hypothesized to be responsible for the respiratory failure in many COVID-19 patients. The virus might gain entry through the olfactory bulb and invade various parts of the brain, including the brainstem. Alternatively, the entry might also occur from peripheral circulation into the central nervous system by compromising the blood-brain barrier. Finally, yet another possible entry route could be its dispersal from the lungs into the vagus nerve via the pulmonary stretch receptors, eventually reaching the brainstem. Therefore, screening neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients, especially toward the breakdown of the respiratory center in the brainstem, might help us better understand this disease.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Neural Pathways/virology , Respiratory Center/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Brain/pathology , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Neural Pathways/physiopathology , Neurons/virology , Respiratory Center/pathology , Respiratory Center/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency , Viral Tropism
16.
Biofactors ; 47(2): 232-241, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178977

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 leads to severe respiratory problems, but also to long-COVID syndrome associated primarily with cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. Long-COVID syndrome symptoms, especially brain fog, are similar to those experienced by patients undertaking or following chemotherapy for cancer (chemofog or chemobrain), as well in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). The pathogenesis of brain fog in these illnesses is presently unknown but may involve neuroinflammation via mast cells stimulated by pathogenic and stress stimuli to release mediators that activate microglia and lead to inflammation in the hypothalamus. These processes could be mitigated by phytosomal formulation (in olive pomace oil) of the natural flavonoid luteolin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Fatigue/drug therapy , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Brain/drug effects , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Fatigue/complications , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fatigue/virology , Humans , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Stroke ; 52(5): 1895-1904, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166638

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID)-19 pandemic has already affected millions worldwide, with a current mortality rate of 2.2%. While it is well-established that severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections, a number of neurological sequelae have now been reported in a large proportion of cases. Additionally, the disease causes arterial and venous thromboses including pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and a significant number of cerebrovascular complications. The increasing incidence of large vessel ischemic strokes as well as intracranial hemorrhages, frequently in younger individuals, and associated with increased morbidity and mortality, has raised questions as to why the brain is a major target of the disease. COVID-19 is characterized by hypercoagulability with alterations in hemostatic markers including high D-dimer levels, which are a prognosticator of poor outcome. Together with findings of fibrin-rich microthrombi, widespread extracellular fibrin deposition in affected various organs and hypercytokinemia, this suggests that COVID-19 is more than a pulmonary viral infection. Evidently, COVID-19 is a thrombo-inflammatory disease. Endothelial cells that constitute the lining of blood vessels are the primary targets of a thrombo-inflammatory response, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 also directly infects endothelial cells through the ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor. Being highly heterogeneous in their structure and function, differences in the endothelial cells may govern the susceptibility of organs to COVID-19. Here, we have explored how the unique characteristics of the cerebral endothelium may be the underlying reason for the increased rates of cerebrovascular pathology associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Blood Coagulation , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Fibrin/chemistry , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/chemistry , Hemostasis , Humans , Hypoxia , Incidence , Inflammation , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Pandemics , Prognosis
19.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(4): 968-979, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155205

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many neurological manifestations are associated with COVID-19, including a distinct form of encephalopathy related to cytokine storm, the acute systemic inflammatory syndrome present in a subgroup of COVID-19 patients. Cytokine storm is also associated with immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), a complication of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, a highly effective treatment for refractory hematological malignancies. We investigated whether COVID-19-related encephalopathy, ICANS, and other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, share clinical and investigative findings. METHODS: Narrative literature review. RESULTS: Comparisons between COVID-19-related encephalopathy and ICANS revealed several overlapping features. Clinically, these included dysexecutive syndrome, language disturbances, akinetic mutism and delirium. EEG showed a prevalence of frontal abnormalities. Brain MRI was often unrevealing. CSF elevated cytokine levels have been reported. A direct correlation between cytokine storm intensity and severity of neurological manifestations has been shown for both conditions. Clinical recovery occurred spontaneously or following immunotherapies in most of the patients. Similar clinical and investigative features were also reported in other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, sepsis, and febrile infection-associated encephalopathies. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19-related encephalopathy and ICANS are characterized by a predominant electro-clinical frontal lobe dysfunction and share several features with other encephalopathies associated with cytokine storm, which may represent the common denominator of a clinical spectrum of neurological disorders. Therefore, we propose a unifying definition of cytokine storm-associated encephalopathy (CySE), and its diagnostic criteria.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Brain/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/trends
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