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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e55415, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2203775

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o plano de contingência para infecção humana pelo Covid-19 e apresentar um modelo conceitual de gestão de risco para o Covid-19. Método: estudo de avaliação executiva, com análise seguindo os passos: Descrição da política; diagnóstico do problema; desenho da política; implementação; governança; resultados e impactos; que permitiu estabelecer o panorama geral acerca do Plano de Contingência Nacional para Infecção Humana pelo novo Coronavírus. Resultados: foram utilizados os passos metodológicos para apontar pontos positivos e fragilidades do plano de contingência e a construção de um modelo conceitual sobre a gestão de risco para o COVID-19. Conclusão: o cenário nacional enriquecido de condições socioambientais desfavoráveis, expõe o quão é vulnerável a nossa população e o sistema de saúde. Além disso, o estudo apontou para déficits de pessoal, materiais e preparação prévia para situações de risco como fatores a serem tratados dentro do processo de mitigação dos riscos.


Objective: to examine the contingency plan for human infection by Covid-19 and present a conceptual model of risk management for Covid-19. Method: in this executive evaluation study, the analysis followed the steps: policy description; problem diagnosis; policy design; implementation; governance; results and impacts; to establish an overall panorama of the National Human Infection Contingency Plan for the new Coronavirus. Results: the methodological steps were used to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the contingency plan, and to construct a conceptual model of risk management for COVID-19. Conclusion: the scenario in Brazil, enhanced by unfavorable socio-environmental conditions, exposed how vulnerable its population and the health system are. The study also indicated that deficits in personnel, material and prior preparation for risk situations were factors to be addressed in the risk mitigation process.


Objetivo: examinar el plan de contingencia para la infección humana por Covid-19 y presentar un modelo conceptual de gestión de riesgos para Covid-19. Método: en este estudio de evaluación ejecutiva, el análisis siguió los pasos: descripción de la política; diagnóstico de problemas; diseño de políticas; implementación; gobernancia; resultados e impactos; Establecer un panorama general del Plan Nacional de Contingencia de Infección Humana por el nuevo Coronavirus. Resultados: los pasos metodológicos se utilizaron para resaltar las fortalezas y debilidades del plan de contingencia y para construir un modelo conceptual de gestión de riesgos para COVID-19. Conclusión: el escenario en Brasil, potenciado por condiciones socioambientales desfavorables, expuso la vulnerabilidad de su población y el sistema de salud. El estudio también indicó que los déficits en personal, material y preparación previa para situaciones de riesgo fueron factores a ser abordados en el proceso de mitigación de riesgos.


Subject(s)
Risk Management/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Contingency Plans , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Public Health Administration , Brazil
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e24795, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 presented great challenges for not only those in the field of health care but also those undergoing medical training. The burden on health care services worldwide has limited the educational opportunities available for medical students due to social distancing requirements. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we describe a strategy that combines telehealth and medical training to mitigate the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A toll-free telescreening service, Telecoronavirus, began operations in March 2020. This service was operated remotely by supervised medical students and was offered across all 417 municipalities (14.8 million inhabitants) in the Brazilian state of Bahia. Students recorded clinical and sociodemographic data by using a web-based application that was simultaneously accessed by medical volunteers for supervision purposes, as well as by state health authorities who conducted epidemiological surveillance and health management efforts. In parallel, students received up-to-date scientific information about COVID-19 via short educational videos prepared by professors. A continuously updated triage algorithm was conceived to provide consistent service. RESULTS: The program operated for approximately 4 months, engaging 1396 medical students and 133 physicians. In total, 111,965 individuals residing in 343 municipalities used this service. Almost 70,000 individuals were advised to stay at home, and they received guidance to avoid disease transmission, potentially contributing to localized reductions in the spread of COVID-19. Additionally, the program promoted citizenship education for medical students, who were engaged in a real-life opportunity to fight the pandemic within their own communities. The objectives of the education, organization, and assistance domains of the Telecoronavirus program were successfully achieved according to the results of a web-based post-project survey that assessed physicians' and students' perceptions. CONCLUSIONS: In a prolonged pandemic scenario, a combination of remote tools and medical supervision via telehealth services may constitute a useful strategy for maintaining social distancing measures while preserving some practical aspects of medical education. A low-cost tool such as the Telecoronavirus program could be especially valuable in resource-limited health care scenarios, in addition to offering support for epidemiological surveillance actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Students, Medical/psychology , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Learning , Organizational Case Studies , Social Participation
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 918896, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198845

ABSTRACT

Background: Effective and safe vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are critical to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and will remain the most important tool in limiting the spread of the virus long after the pandemic is over. Methods: We bring pioneering contributions on the maintenance of the immune response over a year on a real-life basis study in 1,587 individuals (18-90 yrs, median 39 yrs; 1,208 female/379 male) who underwent vaccination with two doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 booster after 6-months of primary protocol. Findings: Elevated levels of anti-spike IgG antibodies were detected after CoronaVac vaccination, which significantly decreased after 80 days and remained stable until the introduction of the booster dose. Heterologous booster restored antibody titers up to-1·7-fold, changing overall seropositivity to 96%. Titers of neutralising antibodies to the Omicron variant were lower in all timepoints than those against Delta variant. Individuals presenting neutralising antibodies against Omicron also presented the highest titers against Delta and anti-Spike IgG. Cellular immune response measurement pointed out a mixed immune profile with a robust release of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors on the first month after CoronaVac vaccination followed by a gradual reduction over time and no increase after the booster dose. A stronger interaction between those mediators was noted over time. Prior exposure to the virus leaded to a more robust cellular immune response and a rise in antibody levels 60 days post CoronaVac than in individuals with no previous COVID-19. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated among individuals. Interpretation: Our data approach the effectiveness of CoronaVac association with BNT162b2 from the clinical and biological perspectives, aspects that have important implications for informing decisions about vaccine boosters. Funding: Fiocruz, Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Brazil , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 932563, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198700

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic spread rapidly in a heterogeneous way, mainly due to the different socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics of different regional populations and different evaluation periods. We performed a cross-sectional study including 1,337 individuals (first wave = 736/second wave = 601) after the first two waves of COVID-19 in the city of Belém, the capital of the state of Pará. The detection of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test followed by statistical analysis using the RStudio program. Our results showed an increase in the seroprevalence (first wave= 39.1%/second wave= 50.1%) of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibodies in the population of Belém from the first to the second pandemic wave. Advanced age, primary or secondary education level, lack of social isolation, and a low frequency of protective mask use were considered risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave compared to the second wave. This study is one of the firsts to provide important information about the dynamics of virus circulation and the groups vulnerable to exposure in the two major periods. Our data emphasize the socioeconomic characteristics of the affected population and that nonpharmacological prevention measures are crucial for combating the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12273, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197474

ABSTRACT

The association between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory diseases is well known. This study aimed to identify the association between this exposure and hospitalizations for COVID-19 in São José dos Campos, SP, a medium-sized city, between April 2020 and April 2021. Hospitalization data, concerning code B34.2, was supplied by DATASUS, and data concerning pollutants and climate variables were supplied by CETESB. Cases were quantified by sex, age, length of hospital stay in days, and type of discharge, whether hospital discharge or death. The negative binomial regression model was chosen. Estimates were produced for the relative risk (RR) of significant exposure to pollutants (P≤0.05) with a 10 µg/m3 increase of pollutant, as well as for excess hospitalizations. There were 1873 hospitalizations, with a daily average of 4.7 (±3.8), ranging from zero to 21: 716 deaths (38.2%) were recorded, 1065 admissions were men, and women were less susceptible (OR=0.82). The average age of women was higher than that of men; in cases of death, men were older than women; discharged patients were younger. All the above variables were significant. The risk of ozone exposure was higher and more significant in Lag 2, and the risk of nitrogen dioxide exposure was high in Lag 3, which was the period of the highest increase in hospitalizations, at 11.3%. The findings of this study, the first conducted in Brazil, corroborate the results of studies conducted in other centers.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Hospitalization , Particulate Matter
6.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 8: e2100371, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196622

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 caused a disruption in cancer management around the world, resulting in an estimated excess burden secondary to screening disruption and excess lag time for treatment initiation. METHODS: We gathered information from primary reimbursement data sets of the public health system of São Paulo, Brazil, from April 2020 to November 2021, and compared these data with those of the pre-COVID-19 period. We used an interrupted time series model to estimate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the rate of key procedures of breast and cervical cancer health care chain. RESULTS: We estimated that 1,149,727, 2,693, and 713,616 pap smears, conizations, and mammograms, respectively, were missed or delayed during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with those in the years immediately before the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions. Specifically, we observed an acute decrease of procedures after the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions, with a trend to recovery in the long term. Regarding the systemic treatment analysis, we observed a 25% reduction in the rate of initiation of adjuvant systemic treatment for early breast cancer (stage I/II). However, we did not find a clear effect on the other settings of systemic treatment for breast cancer. We estimated an excess of 156 patients starting palliative care for cervical cancer after the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduced the performance rate of pap smears, conizations, and mammograms. The initiation of adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer was most susceptible to COVID-19's health system disruption. Furthermore, the downward trend of treatment of advanced cervical cancer was interrupted. Therefore, public health policies are urgently needed to decrease the incidence of advanced cervical and breast cancers caused by delayed diagnosis and treatment initiation.The COVID-19 control policies resulted in reduction of cancer patients' delivery of care. This study evaluated the pandemic's influence in key procedures of breast and cervical cancer chain of care in São Paulo, Brazil. We observed a substantial reduction in the number of mammograms, pap smears, and conizations performed since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, stage I and II breast cancer adjuvant treatment presented a reduced realization rate, whereas palliative treatment delivered for advanced cervical cancer increased. Our results support the need for public health policies focused on mitigating the long-term effects of COVID-19 in cancer-related mortality.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Brazil/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy
7.
Glob Public Health ; 17(11): 3216-3223, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187598

ABSTRACT

This article approaches the emergence of social subjects - associativism - and the formation of horizontal circuits of solidarity, both of which were decisive processes for saving lives in favelas and suburbs in Rio de Janeiro during the Covid-19 pandemic.The impact of the pandemic has been enormous collective trauma that accentuated the collapse of health surveillance systems and generated a catastrophe and humanitarian crisis in the city. Solidarity and local collective cooperation processes had decisive effects as a new protagonism, generating synergy with health actions and social programmes. They contributed decisively to actions that made forms of immunological protection, food security, and access to basic care possible in adverse contexts with weak policies and severe limitations for social isolation.Highlighting the importance of collective health surveillance and assistance actions from local associations, this paper discusses public health actions in the favela territories that demonstrate how communities, universities, public officials, and public health networks can develop policies and projects to confront Covid-19 in the favelas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Government Programs
9.
10.
Rev Saude Publica ; 56: 88, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155809

ABSTRACT

We have previously reported the impact of covid-19 pandemic on breast cancer screening, in Brazil: among women aged 50-69 years, mammography attendance decreased by 42% in public healthcare (SUS), comparing 2019 and 2020. In this short communication, we wish to present: a) an update of the number of mammograms performed, in 2021; b) an exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the screened population between 2019 and 2021. A total of 1.675.307 mammograms were performed in 2021, nearly 15% lower than pre-pandemic levels. Almost a third, 29.5% of them, had intervals greater than three years. In accordance with our previous study, the number of patients with palpable lumps on physical exam increased. The consequences of postponing breast cancer screening during the pandemic are still uncertain. Unfortunately, as of December 2021, screening attendance has not resumed. On the contrary, our results show an increase in the fraction of women with mammography delayed beyond three years.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Early Detection of Cancer , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology
11.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(6): e00271921, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154412

ABSTRACT

By March 3, 2022, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 399 million infections and claimed the lives of more than five million people worldwide. To reduce infection rates, a series of prevention measures indicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) were adopted by countries, including the use of masks. This study aims to describe mask use in Brazil via data analysis from the EPICOVID19-BR, a population-based study conducted in 133 cities in the country in four phases between March and August 2020. The proportion of individuals who reported wearing a mask when they left their homes was 97.9% (95%CI: 97.8-98.0). The interviewer did not see interviewees' mask in 50% (95%CI: 49.9-51.1) of the cases at the time of the interview. However, between phase one and four of the survey, we observed a 4.4% decrease in the proportion of interviewees who failed to wear masks at the time of the interview. Mask non-visualization was more prominent in women, participants aged 10-19 and 20-29 years of indigenous, black, and brown skin color, and those with elementary and high school education and in the Central-West Region. The use of cloth masks showed a 91.4% predominance (95%CI: 91.2-1.5) with a 4.9% increase between phases 1 and 4. The results of the study bring important information to reinforce COVID-19 control policies in Brazil. The high percentage of people who failed to wear masks at the time of the interview suggests that it is still important to reinforce prevention and self-care, rather than relating mask wear to a mandatory measure.


A pandemia de COVID-19 já causou mais de 399 milhões de infecções e custou a vida de mais de cinco milhões de pessoas no mundo, até 3 de março de 2022. Para reduzir a taxa de infecção, uma série de medidas de prevenção indicadas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) foram adotadas pelos países, entre elas, o uso de máscara. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a utilização de máscara na população brasileira, através da análise de dados do EPICOVID19-BR, um estudo de base populacional realizado em 133 cidades do país, em quatro fases entre março e agosto de 2020. A proporção de indivíduos que preferiram usar máscara quando saíam de casa foi de 97,9% (IC95%: 97,8-98,0). O entrevistador não visualizou a máscara do entrevistado em 50% (IC95%: 49,9-51,1) dos casos no momento da entrevista, no entanto, entre a fase uma e quatro da pesquisa, observou-se uma diminuição de 4,4 pontos percentuais na proporção de entrevistados que não usaram máscara no momento da entrevista. A não visualização da máscara foi mais observada em mulheres, participantes com idade entre 10-19 e 20-29 anos, de cor de pele indígena, preta, e parda, entre as pessoas com Ensinos Fundamental e Médio e na Região Centro-oeste. O uso de máscara de tecido foi predominante 91,4% (IC95%: 91,2-91,5) com um aumento de 4,9 pontos percentuais entre as fases 1 e 4. Os resultados do estudo trazem informações importantes para reforçar as políticas de controle de COVID-19 no Brasil. O alto percentual de pessoas sem máscara na hora da entrevista sugere que ainda é importante reforçar o aspecto preventivo e de autocuidado, não fazendo do uso da máscara algo apenas ligado à obrigatoriedade.


La pandemia del COVID-19 ha provocado más de 399 millones de infecciones y se ha cobrado la vida de más de cinco millones de personas en todo el mundo hasta el 3 de Marzo de 2022. Para reducir la tasa de contagios, los países adoptaron una serie de medidas de prevención indicadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), entre ellas el uso de mascarillas. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el uso de mascarillas en la población brasileña, utilizando el análisis de datos de EPICOVID19-BR, un estudio de base poblacional realizado en 133 ciudades del país, en cuatro fases entre marzo y agosto de 2020. La proporción de personas que informaron usar mascarillas al salir de casa fue del 97,9% (IC95%: 97,8-98,0). El entrevistador no vio la mascarilla del entrevistado en el 50% (IC95%: 49,9-51,1) de los casos al momento de la entrevista, sin embargo entre las fases uno y cuatro de la investigación se observó una disminución de 4,4 puntos porcentuales en la proporción de los encuestados que no llevaban mascarilla durante la entrevista. Se observó una mayor visualización de falta de uso de mascarillas en las mujeres, en participantes con edades entre 10-19 y 20-29 años, de color de piel indígena, negra y parda, entre personas con educación primaria y secundaria y en la Región Centro-oeste. Hubo un mayor predominio de uso de mascarillas de tela en el 91,4% (IC95%: 91,2-91,5) con un aumento de 4,9 puntos porcentuales entre las fases 1 y 4. Los resultados muestran la importancia de fortalecer las políticas de prevención del COVID-19 en Brasil. El alto porcentaje de personas sin mascarilla al momento de la entrevista sugiere que es importante reforzar la prevención y el autocuidado en general no solo relacionado a la obligatoriedad en el uso de mascarillas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN281521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154411

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals and families, causing adverse psychological effects, especially in young adults, women, and parents. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of current major depressive episode (CMDE) in mothers of preschoolers (up to five years old) and its associated stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic in a municipality in the Southern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with mothers. All mothers were interviewed by telephone call during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. Plus) to assess the presence of CMDE. Statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression. We evaluated 666 mothers. The prevalence of CMDE was 12.3%. Mothers with financial losses had 2.1 (95%CI: 1.3-3.4) more odds of presenting CMDE than those financially stable. We observed that financial losses were determinant for the higher prevalence of depression in mothers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult
13.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN166721, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154409

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the impact of the efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic on the prices of food sold by a food supply center located in the sixth largest city in Brazil. We examined the percentage change in the prices of 20 types of foods, adjusted by market conditions, using municipal contingency plan stages to compare opening and closing of non-essential services, including bars and restaurants (stage 1: first phase of essential services-only; stage 2: flexibilization; and stage 3: second phase of essential services-only with a "pre-pandemic" period [stage 0]). Log-prices were lower in all contingency stages for leafy greens (variation: 42% to 56%) and vegetables (variation: 28% to 40%). Log-prices of eggs and fruit were 20% and 16% lower during stages 1 and 3, respectively. Strategies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic lowered the prices of eggs, fruit, leafy greens, and vegetables regardless of the market conditions. Accordingly, the supply and demand for fresh and minimally processed foods were affected by the economic crisis and difficulties to access and/or buy perishable foods more often. The impacts of efforts to defeat the pandemic must ensure the human right to adequate food, considering that low prices do not necessarily indicate food security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics , Vegetables
14.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e30406, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on how SARS-CoV-2 enters and spreads in a population are essential for guiding public policies. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in small Brazilian towns during the early phase of the epidemic and to identify core groups that can serve as the initial source of infection as well as factors associated with a higher risk of COVID-19. METHODS: Two population-based seroprevalence studies, one household survey, and a case-control study were conducted in two small towns in southeastern Brazil between May and June 2020. In the population-based studies, 400 people were evaluated in each town; there were 40 homes in the household survey, and 95 cases and 393 controls in the case-control study. SARS-CoV-2 serology testing was performed on participants, and a questionnaire was applied. Prevalence, household secondary infection rate, and factors associated with infection were assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Logistics worker was defined as an individual with an occupation focused on the transportation of people or goods and whose job involves traveling outside the town of residence at least once a week. RESULTS: Higher seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the town with a greater proportion of logistics workers. The secondary household infection rate was 49.1% (55/112), and it was observed that in most households (28/40, 70%) the index case was a logistics worker. The case-control study revealed that being a logistics worker (OR 18.0, 95% CI 8.4-38.7) or living with one (OR 6.9, 95% CI 3.3-14.5) increases the risk of infection. In addition, having close contact with a confirmed case (OR 13.4, 95% CI 6.6-27.3) and living with more than four people (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-7.1) were also risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows a strong association between logistics workers and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlights the key role of these workers in the viral spread in small towns. These findings indicate the need to focus on this population to determine COVID-19 prevention and control strategies, including vaccination and sentinel genomic surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cities/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e24756, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly transmissible illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. The disease has affected more than 200 countries, and the measures that have been implemented to combat its spread, as there is still no vaccine or definitive medication, have been based on supportive interventions and drug repositioning. Brazil, the largest country in South America, has had more than 140,000 recorded deaths and is one of the most affected countries. Despite the extensive quantity of scientifically recognized information, there are still conflicting discussions on how best to face the disease and the virus, especially with regard to social distancing, preventive methods, and the use of medications. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the Brazilian population's basic knowledge about COVID-19 to demonstrate how Brazilians are managing to identify scientifically proven information. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used. An original online questionnaire survey was administered from June 16 to August 21, 2020, across all five different geopolitical regions of the country (ie, the North, Northeast, Center-West, Southeast, and South). The questionnaire was comprised of questions about basic aspects of COVID-19, such as the related symptoms, conduct that should be followed when suspected of infection, risk groups, prevention, transmission, and social distancing. The wrong questionnaire response alternatives were taken from the fake news combat website of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Participants (aged ≥18 years) were recruited through social networking platforms, including Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter. The mean distributions, frequencies, and similarities or dissimilarities between the responses for the different variables of the study were evaluated. The significance level for all statistical tests was less than .05. RESULTS: A total of 4180 valid responses representative of all the states and regions of Brazil were recorded. Most respondents had good knowledge about COVID-19, getting an average of 86.59% of the total score with regard to the basic aspects of the disease. The region, education level, age, sex, and social condition had a significant association (P<.001) with knowledge about the disease, which meant that women, the young, those with higher education levels, nonrecipients of social assistance, and more economically and socially developed regions had more correct answers. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, Brazilians with social media access have a good level of basic knowledge about COVID-19 but with differences depending on the analyzed subgroup. Due to the limitation of the platform used in carrying out the study, care should be taken when generalizing the study findings to populations with less education or who are not used to accessing social networking platforms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Health Education/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Social Networking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Rev Saude Publica ; 56: 94, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145225

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mapping available scientific evidence on the organization of primary health care services and professionals during the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a scoping review that followed the Joanna Briggs Institute method. Articles published in Portuguese, Spanish, and English from January 2020 to January 2021 in the CINAHL, Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were included. RESULTS: We selected 24 articles that presented the reorganization of primary health care services and professionals to care suspected or confirmed Covid-19 cases. Coordination measures to tackle this disease in primary health care help to control its infection, especially by the active search for respiratory symptoms, the detection of new cases, and the monitoring of confirmed cases. CONCLUSION: This study presents an overview of how primary health care services and professionals organized themselves to tackle the Covid-19 pandemic, addressing adjustments in infrastructure and care flows, such as establishing specific Covid-19 care units, separating infected and non-infected patients, using telemedicine as an alternative modality of care, and monitoring cases by applications and phone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Brazil , Primary Health Care
17.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 85(6): 614-619, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144889

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the frequency of the most common ophthalmological, neurological, and systemic findings in symptomatic patients seen at a COVID-19 screening service at Hospital das Clínicas - Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. METHODS: A total of 104 patients under clinical suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent medical evaluation through an ophthalmological and systemic symptoms survey. All participants selected for the study underwent COVID-19 RT-PCR testing. RESULTS: The mean age was 38.8 years, with 44.23% between 31 and 40 years old, 68.27% female, and 31.73% male. The most common symptoms in patients with a positive RT-PCR test were cough (69.23%), fever (42.3%), hyposmia (38.46%), myalgia (38.46%), and ageusia (30.77%). In the positive group, 34.61% presented with ophthalmological symptoms: burning (19.23%), eye pain (11.54%), foreign body sensation (7.7%), hyperemia (7.7%), and tearing (3.84%). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic clinical features were characteristic of upper respiratory infection, but neurological findings of hyposmia and anosmia proved to be important markers for suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ophthalmic symptoms in patients with COVID-19 were similar to those observed in other viral conditions and may precede systemic conditions. A high rate of self-medication was observed for general symptoms compared with ophthalmological conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anosmia , Tertiary Care Centers , Brazil/epidemiology
18.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143625

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The human infection usually manifests as a febrile and incapacitating arthritogenic illness, self-limiting and non-lethal. However, since 2013, CHIKV spreading through the tropics and to the Americas was accompanied by an increasing number of cases of atypical disease presentation, namely severe neuropathies and neonatal infection due to intrapartum vertical transmission. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these conditions have not been fully elucidated. However, arbovirus intrahost genetic diversity is thought to be linked to viral pathogenesis. To determine whether particular viral variants could be somehow associated, we analyzed the intrahost genetic diversity of CHIKV in three infected patients with neurological manifestations and three mothers infected during the intrapartum period, as well as their babies following vertical transmission. No statistically supported differences were observed for the genetic variability (nucleotide substitutions/gene length) along the genome between the groups. However, the newborn and cerebrospinal fluid samples (corresponding to virus passed through the placenta and/or the blood-brain barrier (BBB)) presented a different composition of their intrahost mutant ensembles compared to maternal or patient serum samples, even when concurrent. This finding could be consistent with the unidirectional virus transmission through these barriers, and the effect of selective bottlenecks during the transmission event. In addition, a higher proportion of defective variants (insertions/deletions and stop codons) was detected in the CSF and maternal samples and those were mainly distributed within the viral non-structural genes. Since defective viral genomes in RNA viruses are known to contribute to the outcome of acute viral infections and influence disease severity, their role in these atypical cases should be further investigated. Finally, with the in silico approach adopted, we detected no relevant non-conservative mutational pattern that could provide any hint of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these atypical cases. The present analysis represents a unique contribution to our understanding of the transmission events in these cases and generates hypotheses regarding underlying mechanisms, that can be explored further.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Communicable Diseases , Animals , Brazil/epidemiology , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Codon, Terminator , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Nucleotides
19.
Creat Nurs ; 28(4): 213-220, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141072

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses were placed in an unprecedented context in which they engaged with community members, family members, and friends while positioned between dire hospital situations and community disbelief about the seriousness of the pandemic, often along political lines. A secondary analysis of a qualitative study exploring experiences of 39 nurses in the United States and Brazil in engaging with the community and political discourse during the pandemic provided insights into the impact of these interactions on nurses, and implications for how nurses may emerge from this pandemic time stronger and more supported by those in administrative positions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , United States , Humans , Brazil , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fear , Family
20.
J Bras Nefrol ; 44(3): 308-309, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141011
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