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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1885-1898, 2021 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243734

ABSTRACT

This article explores the use of spatial artificial intelligence to estimate the resources needed to implement Brazil's COVID-19 immu nization campaign. Using secondary data, we conducted a cross-sectional ecological study adop ting a time-series design. The unit of analysis was Brazil's primary care centers (PCCs). A four-step analysis was performed to estimate the popula tion in PCC catchment areas using artificial in telligence algorithms and satellite imagery. We also assessed internet access in each PCC and con ducted a space-time cluster analysis of trends in cases of SARS linked to COVID-19 at municipal level. Around 18% of Brazil's elderly population live more than 4 kilometer from a vaccination point. A total of 4,790 municipalities showed an upward trend in SARS cases. The number of PCCs located more than 5 kilometer from cell towers was largest in the North and Northeast regions. Innovative stra tegies are needed to address the challenges posed by the implementation of the country's National COVID-19 Vaccination Plan. The use of spatial artificial intelligence-based methodologies can help improve the country's COVID-19 response.


O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o uso da inteligência artificial espacial no contexto da imunização contra COVID-19 para a seleção adequada dos recursos necessários. Trata-se de estudo ecológico de caráter transversal baseado em uma abordagem espaço-temporal utilizando dados secundários, em Unidades Básicas de Saúde do Brasil. Foram adotados quatro passos analíticos para atribuir um volume de população por unidade básica, aplicando algoritmos de inteligência artificial a imagens de satélite. Em paralelo, as condições de acesso à internet móvel e o mapeamento de tendências espaço-temporais de casos graves de COVID-19 foram utilizados para caracterizar cada município do país. Cerca de 18% da população idosa brasileira está a mais de 4 quilômetros de distância de uma sala de vacina. No total, 4.790 municípios apresentaram tendência de agudização de casos de Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave. As regiões Norte e Nordeste apresentaram o maior número de Unidades Básicas de Saúde com mais de 5 quilômetros de distância de antenas de celular. O Plano nacional de vacinação requer o uso de estratégias inovadoras para contornar os desafios do país. O uso de metodologias baseadas em inteligência artificial espacial pode contribuir para melhoria do planejamento das ações de resposta à COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Artificial Intelligence , Brazil , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intelligence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1873-1884, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242970

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to analyse federal government interventions in crisis management and the consequences for health professionals. This is a documentary-type qualitative research. Brazilian Federal regulations referring to work and health education produced during the pandemic emergency of COVID-19, published from January 28 to June 2, 2020, were identified. Of the total of 845 documents, 62 were selected in accordance with the inclusion criteria and were then submitted to Thematic Content Analysis. The results and discussions were grouped into four categories:workforce management, workforce protection, workforce training and academic-workforce relationship. Absence of a federal coordinating actions and policies for desinformation were identified. This lacking mechanisms for coordination contributed decisively to the tragic epidemiological situation still underway, especially in terms of the exposure of health workers to the risk of contamination, revealed in the extremely high rates of professionals infected or killed by COVID-19 in Brazil and the failure to control the pandemic in the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(12): 6117-6128, 2021 Dec.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242134

ABSTRACT

This article aimed to verify the prevalence and factors associated with dissatisfaction with teaching work among teachers from the state public basic education network in the state of Minas Gerais during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a websurvey, carried out with these teachers between August and September 2020 via digital form. The dependent variable was job satisfaction during the pandemic, with satisfied people being the reference category. Multinomial Logistic Regression was used. 15,641 teachers from 795 municipalities participated in the study. Regarding work satisfaction, 21.6% were satisfied, 44.7% were indifferent and 33.7% were unsatisfied. The chances of being unsatisfied were higher among those without a spouse (OR=1.23), longer teaching time (OR=1.19), difficulty with remote activities (OR=37.60), without possession of a computer (OR=1.40), smokers (OR=1.27), using alcoholic beverages (OR=1.54), sedentary (OR=1.22) and absent leisure activities (OR=1.49). The changes caused in the educational system in the face of the pandemic impacted the teacher's routine, contributing to the dissatisfaction with the work of this professional.


O objetivo deste artigo foi verificar a prevalência e fatores associados à insatisfação com o trabalho docente entre professores(as) da rede pública estadual de educação básica do estado de Minas Gerais durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Inquérito epidemiológico do tipo websurveys, realizado com esses(as) professores(as) entre agosto e setembro de 2020 via formulário digital. A variável dependente foi a satisfação com o trabalho durante a pandemia, sendo os(as) satisfeitos(as) a categoria de referência. Foi utilizada a Regressão Logística Multinomial. Participaram do estudo 15.641 professores(as) de 795 municípios. Em relação a satisfação com o trabalho, 21,6% estavam satisfeitos(as), 44,7% indiferentes e 33,7% insatisfeitos(as). As chances de estarem insatisfeitos(as) foram maiores entre aqueles(as) sem cônjuge (OR=1,23), maior tempo de docência (OR=1,19), dificuldade com atividades remotas (OR=37,60), sem posse de computador (OR=1,40), tabagistas (OR=1,27), em uso de bebida alcoólica (OR=1,54), sedentários(as) (OR=1,22) e atividade de lazer ausente (OR=1,49). As mudanças causadas no sistema educacional diante da pandemia impactaram a rotina do(a) professor(a), contribuindo para a insatisfação com o trabalho deste(a) profissional.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Job Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1863-1872, 2021 May.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240286

ABSTRACT

This study sought to assess the adherence to preventive measures among the elderly more prone to severe forms of COVID-19, and the association and interaction with social support. It is a cross-sectional study conducted with a sample of 3,477 participants of the telephone survey of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-COVID-19 initiative), who reported going out of the home in the past week. The adherence was based on the frequency of leaving the house, the need to venture outside the home, use of masks, and sanitization of hands. Statistical analysis was based on the Poisson model with robust variance. Predisposing factors for severe forms of COVID-19 included age ≥65 years, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Social support included living arrangements and social distancing during the pandemic. Approximately 46% of the participants showed higher adherence, which was positively associated with the number of predisposing factors for severe forms of COVID-19. Social support was not associated with adherence, nor was this association modified after adjustments. The conclusion drawn is that higher adherence is concentrated among the elderly with greater predisposition to severe forms of COVID-19, irrespective of social support, albeit preventive measures should be adopted by all.


Objetivou-se verificar a adesão às medidas de prevenção em idosos com maior predisposição a formas graves de COVID-19 e sua associação e interação com o apoio social. Trata-se de um estudo transversal realizado em amostra de 3.477 participantes do inquérito telefônico do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde dos Idosos Brasileiros (iniciativa ELSI-COVID-19), que informaram ter saído de casa na semana anterior à realização do inquérito. A adesão foi aferida pela frequência com que saiu de casa, necessidade de sair de casa, uso de máscara e higienização das mãos. As análises basearam-se no modelo Poisson com variância robusta. Idade ≥ 65 anos, hipertensão, diabetes e obesidade foram considerados fatores predisponentes para formas graves de COVID-19. O apoio social incluiu o arranjo domiciliar e a conexão social na pandemia. Aproximadamente 46% apresentaram melhor adesão, que foi associada positivamente ao número de fatores predisponentes para formas graves. O apoio social não foi associado à adesão e não modificou essa associação, após ajustamentos. Conclui-se que a adesão às medidas de prevenção, que deveria ser estendida a todos, está concentrada nos idosos com maior predisposição a formas graves de COVID-19, independentemente do apoio social.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1853-1862, 2021 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238966

ABSTRACT

This essay reflects on sexual practices and prevention in the contexts of the AIDS and COVID-19 pandemics. It analyses data collected between July and October 2020 through participant observation, as part of an ethnographic research project on HIV vulnerability and prevention among men who have sex with men in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, state of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil. The results point to the relevance of physical appearance and the affective bond between partners in engendering emotions that mediate coping with the risk of infection during both pandemics. It indicates the need to incorporate those communicational dimensions into informational materials to make them more effective.


Este ensaio reflete sobre práticas sexuais e prevenção nos contextos das pandemias de AIDS e da COVID-19. Analisa dados coletados entre julho e outubro de 2020, por meio de observação participante, no âmbito de uma pesquisa etnográfica sobre vulnerabilidade e prevenção ao HIV entre homens que fazem sexo com homens da Região Metropolitana do Recife. Os resultados apontam para a relevância da aparência corporal e da vinculação afetiva entre os parceiros no engendramento de emoções que medeiam a lida com risco de infecção em ambas as pandemias. Sinaliza para a necessidade de incorporar essas dimensões comunicacionais em materiais informativos, de modo a torná-los mais eficazes.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Sexuality
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(12): 5915-5924, 2021 Dec.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238564

ABSTRACT

This paper is the product of an ongoing research's preliminary results with app drivers and aims to discuss how the game of forces has occurred in the relationships established between companies, workers, regulatory bodies, and society. This exploratory qualitative study employed document analysis, a questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews with drivers linked to associations in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil. The analysis was conducted from a tripolar perspective based on the theoretical-methodological framework of Ergology and social life's micro and macroscopic spaces, encompassing the poles referring to human activity, the market, and politics. The results show a background of norms built on this work about the relationship with companies, passengers, and the drivers themselves, besides issues raised from the COVID-19 pandemic. We can conclude that it is necessary not to counteract technological evolution to achieve workers' rights and health. We should recall that no action aimed at ensuring the reconciliation of health, work, and rights will advance without relying on a fruitful and balanced trend between the three poles mentioned.


Este artigo é fruto de resultados preliminares de uma pesquisa em andamento com motoristas por aplicativo e tem por objetivo discutir sobre como tem se dado o jogo de forças nas relações que se estabelecem entre as empresas, os trabalhadores, os órgãos reguladores e a sociedade. O estudo exploratório, com abordagem qualitativa, utilizou análise documental, questionário e entrevistas semiestruturadas com motoristas ligados a associações do Rio de Janeiro/RJ. Tendo como base o referencial teórico-metodológico da Ergologia, e a partir dos espaços micro e macroscópico da vida social, a análise se deu em uma perspectiva tripolar, abarcando os polos referentes à atividade humana, ao mercado e à política. Os resultados apresentam normas antecedentes que vêm sendo construídas sobre este trabalho na relação com as empresas, com os passageiros e entre os próprios motoristas, além de questões trazidas a partir da pandemia de COVID-19. Conclui-se ser necessário não contrapor a evolução tecnológica à conquista de direitos e da saúde dos trabalhadores, sendo imperativo lembrar que nenhuma ação que vise garantir a conciliação entre saúde, trabalho e direitos conseguirá avançar sem contar com uma dinâmica frutífera, e tendencialmente equilibrada, entre os três polos mencionados.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Brazil , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(7): 2859-2862, 2021 Jul.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238440

ABSTRACT

The process of developing Brazil's COVID-19 immunization plan began belatedly and involved a number of experts, including a technical group responsible for defining priority groups for vaccination. This process was permeated by contradictions between the government and researchers. Finally, on 20 January 2021, the government published an updated version of the plan, which remains limited in scope.


O processo de elaboração do Plano de Imunização contra Covid-19 no Brasil se iniciou tardiamente e contou com a participação de especialistas incluindo o grupo técnico responsável pela definição de grupos prioritários para a vacinação. Este processo foi permeado de indefinições entre o Governo Federal e pesquisadores e, finalmente, no dia 20 de janeiro de 2021 foi divulgada a versão atualizada do Plano ainda incipiente no que tange a sua abrangência.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil , Humans , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(11): 5509-5522, 2021 Nov.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237556

ABSTRACT

Given the COVID-19 pandemic and the importance of public social protection policies, health issues, including immunizations, have gained prominence. This paper aims to analyze the dynamics of vaccine registration in Brazil and the vaccines made available through the National Immunization Program (PNI in Portuguese), with emphasis on the 2004-2018 vaccination schedule. This descriptive, exploratory, documentary research analyzed vaccine registration procedureswith the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA, in Portuguese) and the incorporation of vaccine products into the PNI. The study drew on information from the national sanitary registration database, made available by ANVISA; a document analysis of official/normative publications; and data from published literature. The data shows the incorporation of vaccines into the PNI, evidencing that Brazil is a country with industrial potential for vaccine production but that is still focused on the transfer of technologies and in need of public attention and investments for developing new technologies as a way to ensure the sector's independence.


Com a pandemia da COVID-19 e a importância das políticas públicas de proteção social, questões sanitaristas incluindo as imunizações se tornaram destaque. O estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a dinâmica dos registros sanitários de vacinas no país e as vacinas disponibilizadas por meio do Programa Nacional de Imunização (PNI), com destaque para o calendário vacinal no período entre 2004 e 2018. Realizou-se um estudo descritivo, documental e exploratório dos processos de registro sanitário na Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa) e a incorporação dos produtos no PNI. Como base da pesquisa foram utilizados o banco de dados de registro sanitário disponibilizado pela Anvisa, a análise documental de publicações oficiais/normativas e os dados da literatura. Os dados demonstram a incorporação das vacinas no PNI, assim como um país com potencial industrial para a produção das vacinas, no entanto ainda centrado na transferência de tecnologias, necessitando de investimentos e atenção pública no desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias, garantindo a independência do setor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Brazil , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(12): 6105-6116, 2021 Dec.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236335

ABSTRACT

The text presents an updated proposal for a Health Science, Technology and Innovation Policy in Brazil, following the huge political turmoil in the country since 2019 and the COVID-19 pandemic since 2020. The proposal is presented in five sections: Scientific Research; Productive Innovation; Health Technology Assessment and Incorporation; Intellectual Property in Health; New challenges posed by the Pandemic. The authors take part in the Advisory Committee in Science, Technology and Innovation of the Brazilian Association of Collective Health.


O texto contém uma proposta atualizada de política de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação em Saúde no Brasil e a pertinência da atualização decorre do desastre nas atividades nesse terreno verificadas no país desde o início do atual governo federal em 2019, bem como dos desafios colocados pela emergência da pandemia COVID-19 desde 2020. Ele está organizado em cinco seções, a saber: Pesquisa em Saúde; Inovação Produtiva; Avaliação e Incorporação de Tecnologias em Saúde; Propriedade Intelectual em Saúde; Novos desafios colocados pela Pandemia. Os autores fazem parte do Comitê de Assessoramento em Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação da Abrasco.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brazil , Health Policy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1847-1852, 2021 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236334

ABSTRACT

The text presents and discusses the main aspects related to the current dynamics of the vaccine industry in the world and in Brazil, focusing on the demand created by the pandemic of COVID-19. At the global level, it briefly exposes the place currently occupied by Brazil within the scope of the BRICS and sets out and analyzes the options - identities and differences - of industrial policy in Brazil, China and India in the field of vaccines. Next, it analyzes the displacement of the vaccine industry, from a situation of exclusive production of immunizers to a majority control by the large pharmaceutical industry. Further on, it recovers recent fundamental aspects of the vaccine industry in Brazil, with an emphasis on Biomanguinhos / Fiocruz and the Butantan Institute. Finally, it discusses the successes and limitations of the technology transfer mechanism used by the two institutions, as well as the relevance of their historically assumed commitment to public health policies.


O texto apresenta e discute os principais aspectos relacionados à dinâmica atual da indústria de vacinas no mundo e no Brasil, com foco na demanda criada pela pandemia da COVID-19. No plano global, expõe brevemente o lugar ocupado atualmente pelo Brasil no âmbito dos BRICS e expõe e analisa as opções - identidades e diferenças - da política industrial de Brasil, China e Índia no campo das vacinas. A seguir, analisa o deslocamento da indústria de vacinas de uma situação de produção exclusiva de imunizantes para um controle majoritário da grande indústria farmacêutica. Mais adiante, recupera aspectos fundamentais recentes da indústria de vacinas no Brasil, com ênfase em Biomanguinhos/Fiocruz e no Instituto Butantan. Finalmente, discute os sucessos e limitações do mecanismo de transferência de tecnologia utilizado pelas duas instituições, bem como a relevância do compromisso historicamente assumido pelas mesmas com as políticas públicas de saúde.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Brazil , China , Humans , India , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(7): 2833-2842, 2021 Jul.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234736

ABSTRACT

The present study investigates the association between the self-reported diagnosis of noncommunicable disease (NCD) and the adherence to social distancing and the use of health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a cross-sectional study with Brazilian adults who participated in the ConVid- Behavior Survey, conducted online between April 24 and May 24, 2020(n = 45.161). This studyconsidered the following NCDs: diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disease, heart disease, and cancer, and evaluated the use of health services and the adherence to social distancing, as well as estimated the prevalences and adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR); 33,9% (95% CI: 32,5-35,3) referred to one or more NCD. Individuals with NCDsshowed a greater adherence to intense social distancing (aPR: 1,07;95% CI: 1,03-1,11), sought out health services more often (aPR:1,24; 95% CI:1,11-1,38), and found greater difficultyin scheduling doctor's appointments (aPR:1.52; 95% CI 1,35-1,71), receiving healthcare treatment (APR:1,50;95% CI:1,22-1,84) and medication (APR:2,17;95% CI:1,77-2,67), and performing examinations (APR:1,78;95% CI:1,50-2,10) and scheduled interventions (APR:1,65;95% CI:1,16-2,34). The presence of NCDs was associated with social distancing, seeking out health care, and difficulty in using health services.


Este estudo investiga a associação entre diagnóstico autorreferido de Doença Crônica Não Transmissível (DCNT) e adesão ao distanciamento social e utilização dos serviços de saúde durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Estudo transversal com adultos brasileiros que participaram da ConVid Pesquisa de Comportamentos, realizada de 24 de abril a 24 de maio de 2020, via web (n = 45.161). Considerou as DCNT: diabetes, hipertensão, doença respiratória, doença do coração e câncer. Avaliou a utilização de serviços de saúde e a adesão ao distanciamento social. Estimou as prevalências e razões de prevalências ajustadas (RPa). 33,9% (IC95%: 32,5-35,3) referiu uma ou mais DCNT. Indivíduos com DCNT tiveram maior adesão ao distanciamento social intenso (RPa:1,07; IC95%:1,03-1,11), procuraram mais o serviço de saúde (RPa:1,24; IC95%:1,11-1,38) e tiveram mais dificuldades para marcar consulta (RPa:1,52; IC95%:1,35-1,71), conseguir atendimento de saúde (RPa:1,50; IC95%:1,22-1,84) e medicamentos (RPa:2,17; IC95%:1,77-2,67), realizar exames (RPa:1,78; IC95%:1,50-2,10) e intervenções programadas (RPa:1,65; IC95%:1,16-2,34). A presença de DCNT associou-se à maior adesão ao distanciamento social, procura por atendimento de saúde e dificuldade na utilização dos serviços de saúde.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1817-1822, 2021 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232491

ABSTRACT

In this interview, public health physician Antônio Carlile Holanda Lavor with 57-year career and long and broad experience in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) management, especially in primary health care, talks about his management at the head of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation unit in Ceará (Fiocruz-CE), from 2008 to the present moment. Known internationally for institutionalizing the Health Worker Program in Ceará in 1987, he discusses the process of implementing Fiocruz-CE and the role of research in guiding the work of the Family Health Strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Nesta entrevista, Antônio Carlile Holanda Lavor, médico sanitarista, com 57 anos de carreira, longa e ampla experiência na gestão do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), em especial na atenção primária à saúde, fala sobre sua gestão a frente da unidade da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz no Ceará (Fiocruz-CE), a partir de 2008 até o momento atual. Conhecido internacionalmente por haver institucionalizado o Programa Agentes de Saúde no Ceará em 1987, ele discute sobre o processo de implantação da Fiocruz-CE e o papel da pesquisa na orientação do trabalho da Estratégia Saúde da Família durante a pandemia de Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil , Family Health , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(12): 6017-6026, 2021 Dec.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232302

ABSTRACT

Considering the public health emergency of international importance caused by COVID-19, artisanal fishing workers, engaging in a dialogue with Brazilian leaders and scholars, created an Observatory on the impacts of this pandemic on fishing communities in March 2020. The purpose of this article is to analyze the experience of popular surveillance of fishermen and fisherwomen's health through daily reports produced at the Observatory. It is a monitoring process that allowed broadening the recognition of the diversity of vulnerable populations' ways of life that intertwine health, environment and work. The study used a qualitative, horizontal and emancipatory methodology and sought approaches to the practice of the ecology of knowledges, with the following results: shared construction of information and knowledges based on heterogeneous social experiences; practice of collective ombudsman with the appreciation of knowledges built in social struggles); joint assessment of public health inequities, territorial conflicts, and environmental, structural, and institutional racism; guidance of social leaders and fundraising through public notices. Thus, the dynamics and horizontality of learning based on solidarity and social emancipation from inter-knowledge are revealed.


Diante da emergência em saúde pública de importância internacional provocada pela COVID-19, trabalhadores da pesca artesanal, em diálogo com lideranças e acadêmicos brasileiros criaram, em março de 2020, um Observatório sobre os impactos dessa pandemia em comunidades pesqueiras. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a experiência de vigilância popular da saúde de pescadores e pescadoras através de boletins diários produzidos no Observatório. Trata-se de um processo de monitoramento que possibilitou ampliar o reconhecimento da diversidade de modos de vida das populações vulneráveis que entrelaça saúde, ambiente e trabalho. O estudo utilizou metodologia qualitativa, horizontal e emancipatória e buscou aproximações à prática da ecologia dos saberes, tendo como resultados: construção compartilhada de informações e conhecimentos com base em experiências sociais heterogêneas; prática da ouvidoria coletiva com a valorização de saberes construídos nas lutas sociais; avaliação conjunta de iniquidades em saúde pública, conflitos territoriais e racismo ambiental, estrutural e institucional; orientação das lideranças sociais e captação de recursos através de editais públicos. Revela-se, assim, dinamicidade e horizontalidade de aprendizados com base na solidariedade e emancipação social a partir do interconhecimento.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Inequities , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hunting , Knowledge , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Racism
17.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 32(1): e2022432, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) in Primary Health Care professionals between August-October/2021. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study conducted with health professionals in the Northern health macro-region of Minas Gerais state; snowball sampling was used; the dependent variable, CMDs, was evaluated using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20); Poisson regression was used to perform the statistical analysis. RESULTS: a total of 702 health professionals took part in the study; the prevalence of CDMs was 43.2%. It was higher in those with previous [prevalence ratios (PR) = 2.42; 95%CI 1.43;4.08] and current (PR = 1.54; 95%CI 1.25;1.89) symptoms of mental disorders, overwork during the pandemic (PR = 1.42; 95%CI 1.16;1.73), previous symptoms of anxiety (PR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.01;1.61), depression (PR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.06;1.52) and other mental disorders (PR = 1.20; 95%CI 1.01;1.43). CONCLUSION: there was an association between CDMs and presenting previous and current symptoms of mental disorders and work overload during the covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Health Personnel
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(6): 1751-1756, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239648

ABSTRACT

Brazil has a huge number of cases and deaths due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, few studies have dealt with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among familial contacts in Brazil. Here, we report our findings on transmission in a family-based study in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. The study, conducted from July to November 2020, comprised 974 individuals with 233 index patients and 741 familial contacts. Familial contacts were evaluated using the rapid COVID-19 Ag ECO and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests immediately after the index patient diagnosis. The antigen-based rapid test was validated in 121 individuals using RT-PCR as the gold standard. Additionally, 30 days later, familial contacts were evaluated for IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. We found 333 cases of COVID-19 among familial contacts (44.9%). A positive correlation was observed between the time elapsed from the onset of symptoms until the index patient's COVID-19 testing and the number of family contacts infected by SARS-CoV-2. Early SARS-CoV-2 testing and familial contact evaluation are relevant strategies to contain transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Brazil/epidemiology
19.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1095162, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239385

ABSTRACT

The historical and social vulnerability of quilombola communities in Brazil can make them especially fragile in the face of COVID-19, considering that several individuals have precarious health systems and inadequate access to water. This work aimed to characterize the frequency of SARS-COV-2 infections and the presence of IgM and IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in quilombola populations and their relationship with the presence of risk factors or preexisting chronic diseases in the quilombola communities. We analyzed the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, serological status, comorbidities, and symptoms of 1,994 individuals (478 males and 1,536 females) from 18 Brazilian municipalities in the State of Sergipe of quilombola communities, which were evaluated at different epidemiological weeks, starting at the 32nd (August 6th) and ending at the 40th (October 3rd) epidemiological week. More than 70% of studied families live in rural areas and they have an extreme poverty social status. Although we found a higher number of SARS-COV-2 infections in quilombola communities than in the local population, their SARS-CoV-2 reactivity and IgM and IgG positivity varied across the communities investigated. Arterial hypertension was the most risk factor, being found in 27.8% of the individuals (9.5% in stage 1, 10.8% in stage 2, and 7.5% in stage 3). The most common COVID-19 symptoms and comorbidities were headache, runny nose, flu, and dyslipidemia. However, most individuals were asymptomatic (79.9%). Our data indicate that mass testing must be incorporated into public policy to improve the health care system available to quilombola populations during a future pandemic or epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
20.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 141(6): e2022424, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social distancing measures during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in mental suffering among adolescents, leading to risky consumption of psychoactive substances such as tobacco. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with tobacco use among adolescents during the COVID-19 social distancing period in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study used data from ConVid Adolescentes survey in Brazil. METHODS: Tobacco use was assessed before and during social distancing. The explanatory variables investigated were sex, age, race/skin color, type of school, maternal education, region of residence, adherence to social restriction measures, number of close friends, sleep quality during the pandemic, mood, passive smoking, use of alcoholic beverages during the pandemic, sedentary behavior, and physical activity. A logistic regression model was used for the data analysis. RESULTS: Tobacco use by adolescents did not change during the pandemic (from 2.58% to 2.41%). There was a higher chance of tobacco use among adolescents aged between 16 and 17 years, self-reported black ones, residing in the South and Southeast regions, reported feeling sad and loneliness, had sleeping problems that worsened, were using alcoholic beverages during the pandemic, and were passive smokers at home. Adolescents whose mothers had completed high school or higher, had strict social restrictions, and increased their physical activity during the pandemic had a lower chance of tobacco use. CONCLUSION: Tobacco uses during the COVID-19 pandemic was higher in vulnerable groups, such as black adolescents and those with mental suffering.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , Smoking/epidemiology
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