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Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1873-1884, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242970


The objective of this research was to analyse federal government interventions in crisis management and the consequences for health professionals. This is a documentary-type qualitative research. Brazilian Federal regulations referring to work and health education produced during the pandemic emergency of COVID-19, published from January 28 to June 2, 2020, were identified. Of the total of 845 documents, 62 were selected in accordance with the inclusion criteria and were then submitted to Thematic Content Analysis. The results and discussions were grouped into four categories:workforce management, workforce protection, workforce training and academic-workforce relationship. Absence of a federal coordinating actions and policies for desinformation were identified. This lacking mechanisms for coordination contributed decisively to the tragic epidemiological situation still underway, especially in terms of the exposure of health workers to the risk of contamination, revealed in the extremely high rates of professionals infected or killed by COVID-19 in Brazil and the failure to control the pandemic in the population.

COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(12): 6117-6128, 2021 Dec.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242134


This article aimed to verify the prevalence and factors associated with dissatisfaction with teaching work among teachers from the state public basic education network in the state of Minas Gerais during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a websurvey, carried out with these teachers between August and September 2020 via digital form. The dependent variable was job satisfaction during the pandemic, with satisfied people being the reference category. Multinomial Logistic Regression was used. 15,641 teachers from 795 municipalities participated in the study. Regarding work satisfaction, 21.6% were satisfied, 44.7% were indifferent and 33.7% were unsatisfied. The chances of being unsatisfied were higher among those without a spouse (OR=1.23), longer teaching time (OR=1.19), difficulty with remote activities (OR=37.60), without possession of a computer (OR=1.40), smokers (OR=1.27), using alcoholic beverages (OR=1.54), sedentary (OR=1.22) and absent leisure activities (OR=1.49). The changes caused in the educational system in the face of the pandemic impacted the teacher's routine, contributing to the dissatisfaction with the work of this professional.

O objetivo deste artigo foi verificar a prevalência e fatores associados à insatisfação com o trabalho docente entre professores(as) da rede pública estadual de educação básica do estado de Minas Gerais durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Inquérito epidemiológico do tipo websurveys, realizado com esses(as) professores(as) entre agosto e setembro de 2020 via formulário digital. A variável dependente foi a satisfação com o trabalho durante a pandemia, sendo os(as) satisfeitos(as) a categoria de referência. Foi utilizada a Regressão Logística Multinomial. Participaram do estudo 15.641 professores(as) de 795 municípios. Em relação a satisfação com o trabalho, 21,6% estavam satisfeitos(as), 44,7% indiferentes e 33,7% insatisfeitos(as). As chances de estarem insatisfeitos(as) foram maiores entre aqueles(as) sem cônjuge (OR=1,23), maior tempo de docência (OR=1,19), dificuldade com atividades remotas (OR=37,60), sem posse de computador (OR=1,40), tabagistas (OR=1,27), em uso de bebida alcoólica (OR=1,54), sedentários(as) (OR=1,22) e atividade de lazer ausente (OR=1,49). As mudanças causadas no sistema educacional diante da pandemia impactaram a rotina do(a) professor(a), contribuindo para a insatisfação com o trabalho deste(a) profissional.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Job Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1853-1862, 2021 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238966


This essay reflects on sexual practices and prevention in the contexts of the AIDS and COVID-19 pandemics. It analyses data collected between July and October 2020 through participant observation, as part of an ethnographic research project on HIV vulnerability and prevention among men who have sex with men in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, state of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil. The results point to the relevance of physical appearance and the affective bond between partners in engendering emotions that mediate coping with the risk of infection during both pandemics. It indicates the need to incorporate those communicational dimensions into informational materials to make them more effective.

Este ensaio reflete sobre práticas sexuais e prevenção nos contextos das pandemias de AIDS e da COVID-19. Analisa dados coletados entre julho e outubro de 2020, por meio de observação participante, no âmbito de uma pesquisa etnográfica sobre vulnerabilidade e prevenção ao HIV entre homens que fazem sexo com homens da Região Metropolitana do Recife. Os resultados apontam para a relevância da aparência corporal e da vinculação afetiva entre os parceiros no engendramento de emoções que medeiam a lida com risco de infecção em ambas as pandemias. Sinaliza para a necessidade de incorporar essas dimensões comunicacionais em materiais informativos, de modo a torná-los mais eficazes.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Sexuality
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(7): 2833-2842, 2021 Jul.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234736


The present study investigates the association between the self-reported diagnosis of noncommunicable disease (NCD) and the adherence to social distancing and the use of health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a cross-sectional study with Brazilian adults who participated in the ConVid- Behavior Survey, conducted online between April 24 and May 24, 2020(n = 45.161). This studyconsidered the following NCDs: diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disease, heart disease, and cancer, and evaluated the use of health services and the adherence to social distancing, as well as estimated the prevalences and adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR); 33,9% (95% CI: 32,5-35,3) referred to one or more NCD. Individuals with NCDsshowed a greater adherence to intense social distancing (aPR: 1,07;95% CI: 1,03-1,11), sought out health services more often (aPR:1,24; 95% CI:1,11-1,38), and found greater difficultyin scheduling doctor's appointments (aPR:1.52; 95% CI 1,35-1,71), receiving healthcare treatment (APR:1,50;95% CI:1,22-1,84) and medication (APR:2,17;95% CI:1,77-2,67), and performing examinations (APR:1,78;95% CI:1,50-2,10) and scheduled interventions (APR:1,65;95% CI:1,16-2,34). The presence of NCDs was associated with social distancing, seeking out health care, and difficulty in using health services.

Este estudo investiga a associação entre diagnóstico autorreferido de Doença Crônica Não Transmissível (DCNT) e adesão ao distanciamento social e utilização dos serviços de saúde durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Estudo transversal com adultos brasileiros que participaram da ConVid Pesquisa de Comportamentos, realizada de 24 de abril a 24 de maio de 2020, via web (n = 45.161). Considerou as DCNT: diabetes, hipertensão, doença respiratória, doença do coração e câncer. Avaliou a utilização de serviços de saúde e a adesão ao distanciamento social. Estimou as prevalências e razões de prevalências ajustadas (RPa). 33,9% (IC95%: 32,5-35,3) referiu uma ou mais DCNT. Indivíduos com DCNT tiveram maior adesão ao distanciamento social intenso (RPa:1,07; IC95%:1,03-1,11), procuraram mais o serviço de saúde (RPa:1,24; IC95%:1,11-1,38) e tiveram mais dificuldades para marcar consulta (RPa:1,52; IC95%:1,35-1,71), conseguir atendimento de saúde (RPa:1,50; IC95%:1,22-1,84) e medicamentos (RPa:2,17; IC95%:1,77-2,67), realizar exames (RPa:1,78; IC95%:1,50-2,10) e intervenções programadas (RPa:1,65; IC95%:1,16-2,34). A presença de DCNT associou-se à maior adesão ao distanciamento social, procura por atendimento de saúde e dificuldade na utilização dos serviços de saúde.

COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Services , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(12): 6017-6026, 2021 Dec.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232302


Considering the public health emergency of international importance caused by COVID-19, artisanal fishing workers, engaging in a dialogue with Brazilian leaders and scholars, created an Observatory on the impacts of this pandemic on fishing communities in March 2020. The purpose of this article is to analyze the experience of popular surveillance of fishermen and fisherwomen's health through daily reports produced at the Observatory. It is a monitoring process that allowed broadening the recognition of the diversity of vulnerable populations' ways of life that intertwine health, environment and work. The study used a qualitative, horizontal and emancipatory methodology and sought approaches to the practice of the ecology of knowledges, with the following results: shared construction of information and knowledges based on heterogeneous social experiences; practice of collective ombudsman with the appreciation of knowledges built in social struggles); joint assessment of public health inequities, territorial conflicts, and environmental, structural, and institutional racism; guidance of social leaders and fundraising through public notices. Thus, the dynamics and horizontality of learning based on solidarity and social emancipation from inter-knowledge are revealed.

Diante da emergência em saúde pública de importância internacional provocada pela COVID-19, trabalhadores da pesca artesanal, em diálogo com lideranças e acadêmicos brasileiros criaram, em março de 2020, um Observatório sobre os impactos dessa pandemia em comunidades pesqueiras. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a experiência de vigilância popular da saúde de pescadores e pescadoras através de boletins diários produzidos no Observatório. Trata-se de um processo de monitoramento que possibilitou ampliar o reconhecimento da diversidade de modos de vida das populações vulneráveis que entrelaça saúde, ambiente e trabalho. O estudo utilizou metodologia qualitativa, horizontal e emancipatória e buscou aproximações à prática da ecologia dos saberes, tendo como resultados: construção compartilhada de informações e conhecimentos com base em experiências sociais heterogêneas; prática da ouvidoria coletiva com a valorização de saberes construídos nas lutas sociais; avaliação conjunta de iniquidades em saúde pública, conflitos territoriais e racismo ambiental, estrutural e institucional; orientação das lideranças sociais e captação de recursos através de editais públicos. Revela-se, assim, dinamicidade e horizontalidade de aprendizados com base na solidariedade e emancipação social a partir do interconhecimento.

COVID-19 , Health Inequities , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hunting , Knowledge , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Racism
Front Public Health ; 11: 1095162, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239385


The historical and social vulnerability of quilombola communities in Brazil can make them especially fragile in the face of COVID-19, considering that several individuals have precarious health systems and inadequate access to water. This work aimed to characterize the frequency of SARS-COV-2 infections and the presence of IgM and IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in quilombola populations and their relationship with the presence of risk factors or preexisting chronic diseases in the quilombola communities. We analyzed the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, serological status, comorbidities, and symptoms of 1,994 individuals (478 males and 1,536 females) from 18 Brazilian municipalities in the State of Sergipe of quilombola communities, which were evaluated at different epidemiological weeks, starting at the 32nd (August 6th) and ending at the 40th (October 3rd) epidemiological week. More than 70% of studied families live in rural areas and they have an extreme poverty social status. Although we found a higher number of SARS-COV-2 infections in quilombola communities than in the local population, their SARS-CoV-2 reactivity and IgM and IgG positivity varied across the communities investigated. Arterial hypertension was the most risk factor, being found in 27.8% of the individuals (9.5% in stage 1, 10.8% in stage 2, and 7.5% in stage 3). The most common COVID-19 symptoms and comorbidities were headache, runny nose, flu, and dyslipidemia. However, most individuals were asymptomatic (79.9%). Our data indicate that mass testing must be incorporated into public policy to improve the health care system available to quilombola populations during a future pandemic or epidemic.

COVID-19 , Female , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
Sao Paulo Med J ; 141(6): e2022424, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239187


BACKGROUND: The social distancing measures during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in mental suffering among adolescents, leading to risky consumption of psychoactive substances such as tobacco. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with tobacco use among adolescents during the COVID-19 social distancing period in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study used data from ConVid Adolescentes survey in Brazil. METHODS: Tobacco use was assessed before and during social distancing. The explanatory variables investigated were sex, age, race/skin color, type of school, maternal education, region of residence, adherence to social restriction measures, number of close friends, sleep quality during the pandemic, mood, passive smoking, use of alcoholic beverages during the pandemic, sedentary behavior, and physical activity. A logistic regression model was used for the data analysis. RESULTS: Tobacco use by adolescents did not change during the pandemic (from 2.58% to 2.41%). There was a higher chance of tobacco use among adolescents aged between 16 and 17 years, self-reported black ones, residing in the South and Southeast regions, reported feeling sad and loneliness, had sleeping problems that worsened, were using alcoholic beverages during the pandemic, and were passive smokers at home. Adolescents whose mothers had completed high school or higher, had strict social restrictions, and increased their physical activity during the pandemic had a lower chance of tobacco use. CONCLUSION: Tobacco uses during the COVID-19 pandemic was higher in vulnerable groups, such as black adolescents and those with mental suffering.

COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , Smoking/epidemiology
J Bras Pneumol ; 49(3): e20230056, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235727


OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has been associated with a significant burden to those who survive the acute phase. We aimed to describe the quality of life and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 90 days after hospital discharge of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to a private hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between April of 2020 and April of 2021 were interviewed by telephone at 30 and 90 days after discharge to assess the quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD. RESULTS: A total of 2,138 patients were included. The mean age was 58.6 ± 15.8 years, and the median length of hospital stay was 9.0 (5.0-15.8) days. Between the two time points, depression increased from 3.1% to 7.2% (p < 0.001), anxiety increased from 3.2% to 6.2% (p < 0.001), and PTSD increased from 2.3% to 5.0% (p < 0.001). At least one physical symptom related to COVID-19 diagnosis persisted in 32% of patients at day 90. CONCLUSIONS: Persistence of physical symptoms was high even at 90 days after discharge. Although the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD was low, these symptoms persisted for three months, with a significant increase between the time points. This finding indicates the need to identify at-risk patients so that they can be given an appropriate referral at discharge.

COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/epidemiology
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 78: 100231, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235680


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) rates and antimicrobial consumption in Intensive Care Units (ICU) in São Paulo city during the COVID-19 pandemic and compare them with the pre-pandemic period. METHODS: This cohort included all hospitals that reported HAI rates (Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection ‒ CLABSI and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia ‒ VAP), the proportion of microorganisms that caused CLABSI, the proportion of resistant microorganisms, and antimicrobial consumption from January 2017 ‒ December 2020. Hospitals were stratified by the number of beds, Central Venous Catheter (CVC) utilization rate, Mechanical-Ventilation (MV) utilization rate, and type of funding. Statistical analyses were based on time-series plots and regression models. RESULTS: 220 ICUs were included. The authors observed an abrupt increase in CLABSI rates after the pandemic onset. High CLABSI rates during the pandemic were associated with hospital size, funding (public and non-profit private), and low CVC use (≤ 50%). An increase in VAP rates was associated with public hospitals, and high MV use (> 35%). The susceptibility profile of microorganisms did not differ from that of the pre-pandemic period. polymyxin, glycopeptides, and antifungal use increased, especially in COVID-19 ICUs. CONCLUSIONS: HAI increased during COVID-19. The microorganisms' susceptibility profile did not change with the pandemic, but the authors observed a disproportionate increase in large-spectrum antimicrobial drug use.

COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/complications , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Delivery of Health Care
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 199(11): 1195-1201, 2023 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235616


COVID-2019 has resulted in an emerging respiratory infection that has spread as a pandemic since January 2020. Nuclear Medicine Services and its workers experienced a dramatic change in their clinical routine. They were required to adjust protocols for this new health condition. Regarding radioiodine therapy (RIT), initial orientations were to postpone treatments. In Brazil, National Nuclear Energy Commission prepared guidelines. It authorized RIT to employ activities over 1850 MBq in an outpatient setting on an exceptional basis. This study reports the RIT experience of a Brazilian hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic, intending to evaluate the applicability of outpatient treatment employing over 1850 MBq of I-131 on a large scale. During referred period, 106 patients at our service had an indication for RIT, of which 58 agreed to participate in the research and provided informed consent. Majority of patients did not meet the minimum requirements for outpatient treatment using doses > 1850 MBq.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/radiotherapy , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hospitals
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 78: 100233, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235535


OBJECTIVES: To summarize the data on SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveys conducted in Brazil before the introduction of vaccines METHODS: The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Brazil. The present review followed the PRISMA guidelines. The authors searched Medline, Embase, and LILACS databases for serologic surveys conducted in the Brazilian population, in the period from 01/10/2019 to 07/11/2021, without language restrictions. The authors included studies that presented data concerning SARS-CoV-2 antibodies seroprevalence in Brazil and had a sample size ≥50 individuals. Considering the expected heterogeneity between studies, all analyses were performed using the random effects model, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic RESULTS: Of 586 publications identified in the initial searches, 54 were included in the review and meta-analysis, which contained the results of 135 surveys, with 336,620 participants. The estimated seroprevalence was 11.0%, ranging from 1.0% to 83.0%, with a substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 99.55%). In subgroup analyses, the authors observed that the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 13.0% in blood donors, 9.0% in the population-based surveys, 13% in schoolchildren, and 11.0% in healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalence increases over time. Large differences were observed among the regions of the country. It was higher in the Northern region, decreasing towards the South. The present results may contribute to the analysis of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Brazilian population before vaccination, one of the factors that may be influencing the clinical presentation of COVID-19 cases related to the new variants, as well as the effectiveness of the vaccination program.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Antibodies, Viral
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286589, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234796


The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic posed various challenges to the healthcare system and disease management. This study aimed to describe changes in the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in a city in southern Brazil. This prospective study was carried out in two tertiary care private hospitals in Curitiba. A total of 1151 patients hospitalized between March 2020 and March 2021 were included. We identified three epidemiological critical periods of the pandemic and compared patients' characteristics and the frequencies of oral intubation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. Continuous variables were analyzed by variance analysis model (ANOVA) or the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and categorical variables by the chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Models for univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were adjusted to identify the factors associated with mortality. All p-values were two-tailed and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The average age of the patients was 58 years and 60.9% (n = 701) were males. The most prevalent comorbidities were systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes and obesity. There were no significant variations in the demographic characteristics and previous comorbidities of the patients for the different periods of analysis. Mortality was positively associated with the age ≥65 years and the presence of one or more cardiometabolic comorbidities (p<0.001). March 2021 was the most important critical period of the pandemic since there were higher frequencies of patients admitted later in the course of the disease, with desaturation and more symptoms at hospital admission (p<0.001). There was also an increase in the duration of hospital stay (p<0.001) and the frequencies of all critical outcomes for this period: oral intubation (p<0.001), ICU admission (p = 0.606) and mortality (p = 0.001). Our key findings revealed that, although there were no statistically significant differences between the subgroups of hospitalized patients over time in terms of demographic characteristics and comorbidities, the course of COVID-19 was significantly more severe for patients admitted to the hospital at the end of the first year of the pandemic in Brazil.

COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Brazil/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0274927, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234698


The COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil affected mental health among healthcare workers. To objective of this study was to evaluate the mental health of healthcare workers in in the central-west region of the Brazil, estimating the prevalence of mental health disorders, and investigating associated factors, perceptions of safety, and self-perceptions about mental health in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire was divided into two parts that included general information and perceptions about the work process and identified symptoms using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. A total of 1,522 healthcare workers participated in the survey. Overall prevalence of symptoms was calculated for depression (58.7%), anxiety (59.7%), and stress (61.7%). Physicians had 3.75 times greater risk of depression (1.59-8.85, 95% CI). Independent variables associated with depression symptoms were not feeling safe with the way services were organized (1.12:1.03-1.21, 95% CI) and self-perception of poor mental health (8.06: 4.03-16.10% CI). Working in management was protective, and married professionals had 12% lower risk of exhibiting symptoms of depression (0.79-0.99, 95% CI). Participants with self-perception of poor mental health had 4.63 greater risk for symptoms of anxiety (2.58-8.31, 95% CI). Protective factors were not having sought support for mental health (0.90: 0.82-0.99, 95% CI), having a graduate degree (0.71: 0.54-0.94, 95% CI), and not having been diagnosed with COVID-19 (0.90: 0.83-0.98, 95% CI). Perception of poor mental health was associated with 6.95-fold greater chance of developing stress symptoms. Protective factors from stress were having a degree in dentistry (0.81: 0.68-0.97, 95% CI), residing in Mato Grosso do Sul (0.91: 0.85-0.98, 95% CI), and not having sought mental health support services (0.88: 0.82-0.95, 95% CI). The prevalence of mental health disorders is high among healthcare workers, and is associated with professional category, organization of services provided, and self-perception of poor mental health, reinforcing the need for preventative measures.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Brazil/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Internet
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0272752, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234337


We estimated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mortality in Brazil for 2020 and 2021 years. We used mortality data (2015-2021) from the Brazilian Health Ministry for forecasting baseline deaths under non-pandemic conditions and to estimate all-cause excess deaths at the country level and stratified by sex, age, ethnicity and region of residence, from March 2020 to December 2021. We also considered the estimation of excess deaths due to specific causes. The estimated all-cause excess deaths were 187 842 (95% PI: 164 122; 211 562, P-Score = 16.1%) for weeks 10-53, 2020, and 441 048 (95% PI: 411 740; 470 356, P-Score = 31.9%) for weeks 1-52, 2021. P-Score values ranged from 1.4% (RS, South) to 38.1% (AM, North) in 2020 and from 21.2% (AL and BA, Northeast) to 66.1% (RO, North) in 2021. Differences among men (18.4%) and women (13.4%) appeared in 2020 only, and the P-Score values were about 30% for both sexes in 2021. Except for youngsters (< 20 years old), all adult age groups were badly hit, especially those from 40 to 79 years old. In 2020, the Indigenous, Black and East Asian descendants had the highest P-Score (26.2 to 28.6%). In 2021, Black (34.7%) and East Asian descendants (42.5%) suffered the greatest impact. The pandemic impact had enormous regional heterogeneity and substantial differences according to socio-demographic factors, mainly during the first wave, showing that some population strata benefited from the social distancing measures when they could adhere to them. In the second wave, the burden was very high for all but extremely high for some, highlighting that our society must tackle the health inequalities experienced by groups of different socio-demographic statuses.

COVID-19 , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Inequities , Ethnicity
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 24(1): 466, 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233788


BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, people with low back pain (LBP) might have avoided seeking care for their pain. We aimed to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected LBP care seeking behavior among adults. METHODS: Data from four assessments of the PAMPA cohort were analyzed. Participants who reported experiencing LBP during wave one both before and during social restrictions (n = 1,753 and n = 1,712, respectively), wave two (n = 2,009), and wave three (n = 2,482) were included. We asked participants about sociodemographic, behavioral, and health factors and outcomes related to LBP. Poisson regression analyses were conducted, and data are presented as prevalence ratios (PR) and respective 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: Overall, care seeking behavior decreased by half in the first months of restrictions, from 51.5% to 25.2%. Although there was an increase in care seeking behavior observed in the other two assessments (nearly 10 and 16 months after restrictions), it was insufficient to reach pre-pandemic levels. In the first months of restrictions, a similar scenario was observed for specific care, such as general practitioner and exercise professional care, with proportions of pre-pandemic levels reached after 10 and 16 months. Women were more likely to seek care for LBP 10 and 16 months after restrictions (PR 1.30 95%CI 1.11; 1.52, PR 1.22 95%CI 1.06; 1.39, respectively). Also, those participants who worked, were physically active, and reported pain-related disability and high pain levels were more likely to seek care at all time points assessed. CONCLUSION: Overall, care-seeking behavior for LBP significantly decreased in the first months of restrictions and increased in the following months; however, this behavior remained lower than pre-pandemic levels.

COVID-19 , Low Back Pain , Adult , Humans , Female , Low Back Pain/diagnosis , Low Back Pain/epidemiology , Low Back Pain/therapy , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 542, 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244270


BACKGROUND: Evidence on inequalities in the health services use is important for public policy formulation, even more so in a pandemic context. The aim of this study was to evaluate socioeconomic inequities in the specialized health use services according to health insurance and income, following COVID-19 in individuals residing in Southern Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional telephone survey with individuals aged 18 years or older diagnosed with symptomatic COVID-19 using the RT-PCR test between December 2020 and March 2021. Questions were asked about attendance at a health care facility following COVID-19, the facilities used, health insurance and income. Inequalities were assessed by the following measures: Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Concentration Index (CIX). Adjusted analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment using the Stata 16.1 statistical package. RESULTS: 2,919 people (76.4% of those eligible) were interviewed. Of these, 24.7% (95%CI 23.2; 36.3) used at least one specialized health service and 20.3% (95%CI 18.9; 21.8) had at least one consultation with specialist doctors after diagnosis of COVID-19. Individuals with health insurance were more likely to use specialized services. The probability of using specialized services was up to three times higher among the richest compared to the poorest. CONCLUSIONS: There are socioeconomic inequalities in the specialized services use by individuals following COVID-19 in the far south of Brazil. It is necessary to reduce the difficulty in accessing and using specialized services and to extrapolate the logic that purchasing power transposes health needs. The strengthening of the public health system is essential to guarantee the population's right to health.

COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(6): 1743-1749, 2023 Jun.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243912


COVID-19 has had a powerful impact on society with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The use of an epidemiological indicator that estimates the burden of a disease by aggregating early mortality and non-fatal cases in a single measure has the potential to assist in the planning of more appropriate actions at different levels of health care. The scope of this article is to estimate the burden of disease due to COVID-19 in Florianópolis/SC from April 2020 through March 2021. An ecological study was carried out with data from notification and deaths by COVID-19 in the period of 12 months. The burden indicator called Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) was used, obtained by adding the Years of Life Lost (YLL) to the Years of healthy life lost due to disability (YLD). A total of 78,907 confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Of these, 763 died during the period under study. Overall, 4,496.9 DALYs were estimated, namely a rate of 883.8 DALYs per 100,000 inhabitants. In males, there were 2,693.1 DALYs, a rate of 1,098.0 DALYs per 100,000 males. In women, there were 1,803.8 DALYs, a rate of 684.4 DALYs per100,000 women. The age group most affected in both sexes was 60 to 69 years. The burden of COVID-19 was high in the city studied. The highest rates were in females and in the 60-69 age group.

A COVID-19 gerou impacto na sociedade com elevados índices de morbidade e mortalidade. A utilização de indicador epidemiológico que estime a carga de doença, agregando em uma medida a mortalidade precoce e os casos não fatais, tem potencial de auxiliar no planejamento de ações adequadas em diferentes níveis de atenção à saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a carga de doença por COVID-19 em Florianópolis/SC de abril de 2020 a março de 2021. Foi realizado um estudo ecológico com dados de notificação e óbitos por COVID-19 no período de 12 meses. Utilizou-se o indicador de carga denominado Anos de Vida Perdidos Ajustados por Incapacidade (DALY), obtido pela soma dos Anos de Vida Perdidos (YLL) com os Anos Vividos com Incapacidade (YLD). Foram incluídos 78.907 casos de COVID-19 confirmados. Desses, 763 evoluíram a óbito no período estudado. No total, foram estimados 4.496,6 DALYs, taxa de 883,8 DALYs/100.000 habitantes. No sexo masculino, foram 2.693,1 DALYs, taxa de 1.098,0 DALYs/100.000 homens. Em mulheres, foram 1.803,8 DALYs, taxa de 684,4 DALYs/100.000 mulheres. A faixa etária mais acometida em ambos os sexos foi de 60 a 69 anos. Foi alta a carga de COVID-19 na cidade estudada. As maiores taxas foram encontradas no sexo feminino e na faixa-etária de 60-69 anos.

COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Morbidity , Health Status , Cost of Illness , Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(1): 223-230, 2023 Jan.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243803


The scope of this study was to evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 on breast cancer screening in Brazil. Data were collected from the Ambulatory Information System relating to "bilateral screening mammography" from January/2015 to December/2021. Analyses were performed by region and for Brazil. The average of exams in each month of the year was calculated based on 2015-2019 data, which was compared, monthly, with the number of exams in 2020 and 2021, obtaining the gross and percentage difference between these values. The same analysis was performed for the total number of exams in 2020 and 2021, individually, and for the two years combined. In 2020 there were reductions in the number of exams, which ranged from 25% (North) to 48% (Northeast), resulting in 1.749 million fewer exams than expected in the country (a drop of 44%). In 2021, the Midwest region presented a number of exams 11% higher than expected, while the other regions presented drops between 17% (North) and 27% (Southeast/South), resulting in 927 thousand exams fewer than expected in Brazil (reduction of 23%). In the joint analysis (2020/2021), reductions varied by region from 11% (Midwest) to 35% (Southeast/South), culminating in 2.676 million exams fewer than expected in Brazil (reduction of 33%).

Objetivou-se avaliar os impactos da COVID-19 no rastreamento do câncer de mama no Brasil. Coletaram-se dados do Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais referentes a "mamografia bilateral para rastreamento" de janeiro/2015 a dezembro/2021. As análises foram feitas por região e para o Brasil. Calculou-se a média de exames em cada mês do ano com base nos dados de 2015 a 2019, a qual foi comparada, mensalmente, com o quantitativo de exames em 2020 e 2021, obtendo-se a diferença bruta e percentual entre esses valores. A mesma análise foi realizada para o número total de exames em 2020 e 2021, individualmente, e para os dois anos em conjunto. Em 2020 houve quedas no número de exames que variaram de 25% (Norte) a 48% (Nordeste), culminando em 1,749 milhão de exames a menos no país (queda de 44%). Em 2021, a região Centro-Oeste apresentou quantitativo de exames 11% superior ao esperado, enquanto as demais regiões apresentaram quedas entre 17% (Norte) e 27% (Sudeste/Sul), culminando em negativo de 927 mil exames no país (redução de 23%). Na análise conjunta (2020/2021), encontraram-se reduções que variaram de 11% (Centro-Oeste) a 35% (Sudeste/Sul), culminando em negativo de 2,676 milhões de procedimentos no Brasil (queda de 33%).

Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Mammography , Pandemics
Am Heart J ; 262: 119-130, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243384


BACKGROUND: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are highly prevalent in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the proportion of patients with uncontrolled diseases is higher than in high-income countries. Innovative strategies are required to surpass barriers of low sources, distance and quality of health care. Our aim is to assess the uptake and effectiveness of the implementation of an integrated multidimensional strategy in the primary care setting, for the management of people with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in Brazil. METHODS: This scale up implementation study called Control of Hypertension and diAbetes in MINas Gerais (CHArMING) Project has mixed-methods, and comprehends 4 steps: (1) needs assessment, including a standardized structured questionnaire and focus groups with health care practitioners; (2) baseline period, 3 months before the implementation of the intervention; (3) cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 12-months follow-up period; and (4) a qualitative study after the end of follow-up. The cluster RCT will randomize 35 centers to intervention (n = 18) or usual care (n = 17). Patients ≥18 years old, with diagnosis of hypertension and/or DM, of 5 Brazilian cities in a resource-constrained area will be enrolled. The intervention consists of a multifaceted strategy, with a multidisciplinary approach, including telehealth tools (decision support systems, short message service, telediagnosis), continued education with an approach to issues related to the care of people with hypertension and diabetes in primary care, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment and behavioral change. The project has actions focused on professionals and patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study consists of a multidimensional strategy with multidisciplinary approach using digital health to improve the control of hypertension and/or DM in the primary health care setting. We expect to provide the basis for implementing an innovative management program for hypertension and DM in Brazil, aiming to reduce the present and future burden of these diseases in Brazil and other LMICs. CLINICAL TRIAL IDENTIFIER: This study was registered in (NCT05660928).

Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Humans , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Primary Health Care/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1101, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242043


Health counseling is a prevention and health promotion action, especially in the context of a pandemic, for both preventing disease and maintaining health. Inequalities may affect receipt of health counseling. The aim was to provide an overview of the prevalence of receiving counseling and to analyze income inequality in the receipt of health counseling. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional telephone survey study with individuals aged 18 years or older with diagnosis of symptomatic COVID-19 using RT-PCR testing between December 2020 and March 2021. They were asked about receipt of health counseling. Inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Concentration Index (CIX) measures. We used the Chi-square test to assess the distribution of outcomes according to income. Adjusted analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment. RESULTS: A total of 2919 individuals were interviewed. Low prevalence of health counseling by healthcare practitioner was found. Participants with higher incomes were 30% more likely to receive more counseling. CONCLUSIONS: These results serve as a basis for aggregating public health promotion policies, in addition to reinforcing health counseling as a multidisciplinary team mission to promote greater health equity.

COVID-19 , Health Equity , Adult , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status Disparities , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors , Adolescent