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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e24795, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 presented great challenges for not only those in the field of health care but also those undergoing medical training. The burden on health care services worldwide has limited the educational opportunities available for medical students due to social distancing requirements. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we describe a strategy that combines telehealth and medical training to mitigate the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A toll-free telescreening service, Telecoronavirus, began operations in March 2020. This service was operated remotely by supervised medical students and was offered across all 417 municipalities (14.8 million inhabitants) in the Brazilian state of Bahia. Students recorded clinical and sociodemographic data by using a web-based application that was simultaneously accessed by medical volunteers for supervision purposes, as well as by state health authorities who conducted epidemiological surveillance and health management efforts. In parallel, students received up-to-date scientific information about COVID-19 via short educational videos prepared by professors. A continuously updated triage algorithm was conceived to provide consistent service. RESULTS: The program operated for approximately 4 months, engaging 1396 medical students and 133 physicians. In total, 111,965 individuals residing in 343 municipalities used this service. Almost 70,000 individuals were advised to stay at home, and they received guidance to avoid disease transmission, potentially contributing to localized reductions in the spread of COVID-19. Additionally, the program promoted citizenship education for medical students, who were engaged in a real-life opportunity to fight the pandemic within their own communities. The objectives of the education, organization, and assistance domains of the Telecoronavirus program were successfully achieved according to the results of a web-based post-project survey that assessed physicians' and students' perceptions. CONCLUSIONS: In a prolonged pandemic scenario, a combination of remote tools and medical supervision via telehealth services may constitute a useful strategy for maintaining social distancing measures while preserving some practical aspects of medical education. A low-cost tool such as the Telecoronavirus program could be especially valuable in resource-limited health care scenarios, in addition to offering support for epidemiological surveillance actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Students, Medical/psychology , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Learning , Organizational Case Studies , Social Participation
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 932563, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198700

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic spread rapidly in a heterogeneous way, mainly due to the different socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics of different regional populations and different evaluation periods. We performed a cross-sectional study including 1,337 individuals (first wave = 736/second wave = 601) after the first two waves of COVID-19 in the city of Belém, the capital of the state of Pará. The detection of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test followed by statistical analysis using the RStudio program. Our results showed an increase in the seroprevalence (first wave= 39.1%/second wave= 50.1%) of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibodies in the population of Belém from the first to the second pandemic wave. Advanced age, primary or secondary education level, lack of social isolation, and a low frequency of protective mask use were considered risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave compared to the second wave. This study is one of the firsts to provide important information about the dynamics of virus circulation and the groups vulnerable to exposure in the two major periods. Our data emphasize the socioeconomic characteristics of the affected population and that nonpharmacological prevention measures are crucial for combating the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12273, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197474

ABSTRACT

The association between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory diseases is well known. This study aimed to identify the association between this exposure and hospitalizations for COVID-19 in São José dos Campos, SP, a medium-sized city, between April 2020 and April 2021. Hospitalization data, concerning code B34.2, was supplied by DATASUS, and data concerning pollutants and climate variables were supplied by CETESB. Cases were quantified by sex, age, length of hospital stay in days, and type of discharge, whether hospital discharge or death. The negative binomial regression model was chosen. Estimates were produced for the relative risk (RR) of significant exposure to pollutants (P≤0.05) with a 10 µg/m3 increase of pollutant, as well as for excess hospitalizations. There were 1873 hospitalizations, with a daily average of 4.7 (±3.8), ranging from zero to 21: 716 deaths (38.2%) were recorded, 1065 admissions were men, and women were less susceptible (OR=0.82). The average age of women was higher than that of men; in cases of death, men were older than women; discharged patients were younger. All the above variables were significant. The risk of ozone exposure was higher and more significant in Lag 2, and the risk of nitrogen dioxide exposure was high in Lag 3, which was the period of the highest increase in hospitalizations, at 11.3%. The findings of this study, the first conducted in Brazil, corroborate the results of studies conducted in other centers.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Brazil/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Hospitalization , Particulate Matter
4.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 8: e2100371, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196622

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 caused a disruption in cancer management around the world, resulting in an estimated excess burden secondary to screening disruption and excess lag time for treatment initiation. METHODS: We gathered information from primary reimbursement data sets of the public health system of São Paulo, Brazil, from April 2020 to November 2021, and compared these data with those of the pre-COVID-19 period. We used an interrupted time series model to estimate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the rate of key procedures of breast and cervical cancer health care chain. RESULTS: We estimated that 1,149,727, 2,693, and 713,616 pap smears, conizations, and mammograms, respectively, were missed or delayed during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with those in the years immediately before the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions. Specifically, we observed an acute decrease of procedures after the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions, with a trend to recovery in the long term. Regarding the systemic treatment analysis, we observed a 25% reduction in the rate of initiation of adjuvant systemic treatment for early breast cancer (stage I/II). However, we did not find a clear effect on the other settings of systemic treatment for breast cancer. We estimated an excess of 156 patients starting palliative care for cervical cancer after the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduced the performance rate of pap smears, conizations, and mammograms. The initiation of adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer was most susceptible to COVID-19's health system disruption. Furthermore, the downward trend of treatment of advanced cervical cancer was interrupted. Therefore, public health policies are urgently needed to decrease the incidence of advanced cervical and breast cancers caused by delayed diagnosis and treatment initiation.The COVID-19 control policies resulted in reduction of cancer patients' delivery of care. This study evaluated the pandemic's influence in key procedures of breast and cervical cancer chain of care in São Paulo, Brazil. We observed a substantial reduction in the number of mammograms, pap smears, and conizations performed since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, stage I and II breast cancer adjuvant treatment presented a reduced realization rate, whereas palliative treatment delivered for advanced cervical cancer increased. Our results support the need for public health policies focused on mitigating the long-term effects of COVID-19 in cancer-related mortality.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Brazil/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy
5.
Glob Public Health ; 17(11): 3216-3223, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187598

ABSTRACT

This article approaches the emergence of social subjects - associativism - and the formation of horizontal circuits of solidarity, both of which were decisive processes for saving lives in favelas and suburbs in Rio de Janeiro during the Covid-19 pandemic.The impact of the pandemic has been enormous collective trauma that accentuated the collapse of health surveillance systems and generated a catastrophe and humanitarian crisis in the city. Solidarity and local collective cooperation processes had decisive effects as a new protagonism, generating synergy with health actions and social programmes. They contributed decisively to actions that made forms of immunological protection, food security, and access to basic care possible in adverse contexts with weak policies and severe limitations for social isolation.Highlighting the importance of collective health surveillance and assistance actions from local associations, this paper discusses public health actions in the favela territories that demonstrate how communities, universities, public officials, and public health networks can develop policies and projects to confront Covid-19 in the favelas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Government Programs
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 56: 88, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155809

ABSTRACT

We have previously reported the impact of covid-19 pandemic on breast cancer screening, in Brazil: among women aged 50-69 years, mammography attendance decreased by 42% in public healthcare (SUS), comparing 2019 and 2020. In this short communication, we wish to present: a) an update of the number of mammograms performed, in 2021; b) an exploratory analysis of the characteristics of the screened population between 2019 and 2021. A total of 1.675.307 mammograms were performed in 2021, nearly 15% lower than pre-pandemic levels. Almost a third, 29.5% of them, had intervals greater than three years. In accordance with our previous study, the number of patients with palpable lumps on physical exam increased. The consequences of postponing breast cancer screening during the pandemic are still uncertain. Unfortunately, as of December 2021, screening attendance has not resumed. On the contrary, our results show an increase in the fraction of women with mammography delayed beyond three years.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Early Detection of Cancer , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology
7.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(6): e00271921, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154412

ABSTRACT

By March 3, 2022, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 399 million infections and claimed the lives of more than five million people worldwide. To reduce infection rates, a series of prevention measures indicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) were adopted by countries, including the use of masks. This study aims to describe mask use in Brazil via data analysis from the EPICOVID19-BR, a population-based study conducted in 133 cities in the country in four phases between March and August 2020. The proportion of individuals who reported wearing a mask when they left their homes was 97.9% (95%CI: 97.8-98.0). The interviewer did not see interviewees' mask in 50% (95%CI: 49.9-51.1) of the cases at the time of the interview. However, between phase one and four of the survey, we observed a 4.4% decrease in the proportion of interviewees who failed to wear masks at the time of the interview. Mask non-visualization was more prominent in women, participants aged 10-19 and 20-29 years of indigenous, black, and brown skin color, and those with elementary and high school education and in the Central-West Region. The use of cloth masks showed a 91.4% predominance (95%CI: 91.2-1.5) with a 4.9% increase between phases 1 and 4. The results of the study bring important information to reinforce COVID-19 control policies in Brazil. The high percentage of people who failed to wear masks at the time of the interview suggests that it is still important to reinforce prevention and self-care, rather than relating mask wear to a mandatory measure.


A pandemia de COVID-19 já causou mais de 399 milhões de infecções e custou a vida de mais de cinco milhões de pessoas no mundo, até 3 de março de 2022. Para reduzir a taxa de infecção, uma série de medidas de prevenção indicadas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) foram adotadas pelos países, entre elas, o uso de máscara. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a utilização de máscara na população brasileira, através da análise de dados do EPICOVID19-BR, um estudo de base populacional realizado em 133 cidades do país, em quatro fases entre março e agosto de 2020. A proporção de indivíduos que preferiram usar máscara quando saíam de casa foi de 97,9% (IC95%: 97,8-98,0). O entrevistador não visualizou a máscara do entrevistado em 50% (IC95%: 49,9-51,1) dos casos no momento da entrevista, no entanto, entre a fase uma e quatro da pesquisa, observou-se uma diminuição de 4,4 pontos percentuais na proporção de entrevistados que não usaram máscara no momento da entrevista. A não visualização da máscara foi mais observada em mulheres, participantes com idade entre 10-19 e 20-29 anos, de cor de pele indígena, preta, e parda, entre as pessoas com Ensinos Fundamental e Médio e na Região Centro-oeste. O uso de máscara de tecido foi predominante 91,4% (IC95%: 91,2-91,5) com um aumento de 4,9 pontos percentuais entre as fases 1 e 4. Os resultados do estudo trazem informações importantes para reforçar as políticas de controle de COVID-19 no Brasil. O alto percentual de pessoas sem máscara na hora da entrevista sugere que ainda é importante reforçar o aspecto preventivo e de autocuidado, não fazendo do uso da máscara algo apenas ligado à obrigatoriedade.


La pandemia del COVID-19 ha provocado más de 399 millones de infecciones y se ha cobrado la vida de más de cinco millones de personas en todo el mundo hasta el 3 de Marzo de 2022. Para reducir la tasa de contagios, los países adoptaron una serie de medidas de prevención indicadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), entre ellas el uso de mascarillas. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el uso de mascarillas en la población brasileña, utilizando el análisis de datos de EPICOVID19-BR, un estudio de base poblacional realizado en 133 ciudades del país, en cuatro fases entre marzo y agosto de 2020. La proporción de personas que informaron usar mascarillas al salir de casa fue del 97,9% (IC95%: 97,8-98,0). El entrevistador no vio la mascarilla del entrevistado en el 50% (IC95%: 49,9-51,1) de los casos al momento de la entrevista, sin embargo entre las fases uno y cuatro de la investigación se observó una disminución de 4,4 puntos porcentuales en la proporción de los encuestados que no llevaban mascarilla durante la entrevista. Se observó una mayor visualización de falta de uso de mascarillas en las mujeres, en participantes con edades entre 10-19 y 20-29 años, de color de piel indígena, negra y parda, entre personas con educación primaria y secundaria y en la Región Centro-oeste. Hubo un mayor predominio de uso de mascarillas de tela en el 91,4% (IC95%: 91,2-91,5) con un aumento de 4,9 puntos porcentuales entre las fases 1 y 4. Los resultados muestran la importancia de fortalecer las políticas de prevención del COVID-19 en Brasil. El alto porcentaje de personas sin mascarilla al momento de la entrevista sugiere que es importante reforzar la prevención y el autocuidado en general no solo relacionado a la obligatoriedad en el uso de mascarillas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN281521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154411

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals and families, causing adverse psychological effects, especially in young adults, women, and parents. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of current major depressive episode (CMDE) in mothers of preschoolers (up to five years old) and its associated stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic in a municipality in the Southern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with mothers. All mothers were interviewed by telephone call during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. Plus) to assess the presence of CMDE. Statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test and a multivariate logistic regression. We evaluated 666 mothers. The prevalence of CMDE was 12.3%. Mothers with financial losses had 2.1 (95%CI: 1.3-3.4) more odds of presenting CMDE than those financially stable. We observed that financial losses were determinant for the higher prevalence of depression in mothers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult
9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN166721, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154409

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the impact of the efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic on the prices of food sold by a food supply center located in the sixth largest city in Brazil. We examined the percentage change in the prices of 20 types of foods, adjusted by market conditions, using municipal contingency plan stages to compare opening and closing of non-essential services, including bars and restaurants (stage 1: first phase of essential services-only; stage 2: flexibilization; and stage 3: second phase of essential services-only with a "pre-pandemic" period [stage 0]). Log-prices were lower in all contingency stages for leafy greens (variation: 42% to 56%) and vegetables (variation: 28% to 40%). Log-prices of eggs and fruit were 20% and 16% lower during stages 1 and 3, respectively. Strategies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic lowered the prices of eggs, fruit, leafy greens, and vegetables regardless of the market conditions. Accordingly, the supply and demand for fresh and minimally processed foods were affected by the economic crisis and difficulties to access and/or buy perishable foods more often. The impacts of efforts to defeat the pandemic must ensure the human right to adequate food, considering that low prices do not necessarily indicate food security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics , Vegetables
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e30406, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on how SARS-CoV-2 enters and spreads in a population are essential for guiding public policies. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in small Brazilian towns during the early phase of the epidemic and to identify core groups that can serve as the initial source of infection as well as factors associated with a higher risk of COVID-19. METHODS: Two population-based seroprevalence studies, one household survey, and a case-control study were conducted in two small towns in southeastern Brazil between May and June 2020. In the population-based studies, 400 people were evaluated in each town; there were 40 homes in the household survey, and 95 cases and 393 controls in the case-control study. SARS-CoV-2 serology testing was performed on participants, and a questionnaire was applied. Prevalence, household secondary infection rate, and factors associated with infection were assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Logistics worker was defined as an individual with an occupation focused on the transportation of people or goods and whose job involves traveling outside the town of residence at least once a week. RESULTS: Higher seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the town with a greater proportion of logistics workers. The secondary household infection rate was 49.1% (55/112), and it was observed that in most households (28/40, 70%) the index case was a logistics worker. The case-control study revealed that being a logistics worker (OR 18.0, 95% CI 8.4-38.7) or living with one (OR 6.9, 95% CI 3.3-14.5) increases the risk of infection. In addition, having close contact with a confirmed case (OR 13.4, 95% CI 6.6-27.3) and living with more than four people (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-7.1) were also risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows a strong association between logistics workers and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlights the key role of these workers in the viral spread in small towns. These findings indicate the need to focus on this population to determine COVID-19 prevention and control strategies, including vaccination and sentinel genomic surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cities/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
11.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 85(6): 614-619, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144889

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the frequency of the most common ophthalmological, neurological, and systemic findings in symptomatic patients seen at a COVID-19 screening service at Hospital das Clínicas - Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. METHODS: A total of 104 patients under clinical suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent medical evaluation through an ophthalmological and systemic symptoms survey. All participants selected for the study underwent COVID-19 RT-PCR testing. RESULTS: The mean age was 38.8 years, with 44.23% between 31 and 40 years old, 68.27% female, and 31.73% male. The most common symptoms in patients with a positive RT-PCR test were cough (69.23%), fever (42.3%), hyposmia (38.46%), myalgia (38.46%), and ageusia (30.77%). In the positive group, 34.61% presented with ophthalmological symptoms: burning (19.23%), eye pain (11.54%), foreign body sensation (7.7%), hyperemia (7.7%), and tearing (3.84%). CONCLUSIONS: Systemic clinical features were characteristic of upper respiratory infection, but neurological findings of hyposmia and anosmia proved to be important markers for suspicion of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ophthalmic symptoms in patients with COVID-19 were similar to those observed in other viral conditions and may precede systemic conditions. A high rate of self-medication was observed for general symptoms compared with ophthalmological conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anosmia , Tertiary Care Centers , Brazil/epidemiology
12.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143625

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The human infection usually manifests as a febrile and incapacitating arthritogenic illness, self-limiting and non-lethal. However, since 2013, CHIKV spreading through the tropics and to the Americas was accompanied by an increasing number of cases of atypical disease presentation, namely severe neuropathies and neonatal infection due to intrapartum vertical transmission. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these conditions have not been fully elucidated. However, arbovirus intrahost genetic diversity is thought to be linked to viral pathogenesis. To determine whether particular viral variants could be somehow associated, we analyzed the intrahost genetic diversity of CHIKV in three infected patients with neurological manifestations and three mothers infected during the intrapartum period, as well as their babies following vertical transmission. No statistically supported differences were observed for the genetic variability (nucleotide substitutions/gene length) along the genome between the groups. However, the newborn and cerebrospinal fluid samples (corresponding to virus passed through the placenta and/or the blood-brain barrier (BBB)) presented a different composition of their intrahost mutant ensembles compared to maternal or patient serum samples, even when concurrent. This finding could be consistent with the unidirectional virus transmission through these barriers, and the effect of selective bottlenecks during the transmission event. In addition, a higher proportion of defective variants (insertions/deletions and stop codons) was detected in the CSF and maternal samples and those were mainly distributed within the viral non-structural genes. Since defective viral genomes in RNA viruses are known to contribute to the outcome of acute viral infections and influence disease severity, their role in these atypical cases should be further investigated. Finally, with the in silico approach adopted, we detected no relevant non-conservative mutational pattern that could provide any hint of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these atypical cases. The present analysis represents a unique contribution to our understanding of the transmission events in these cases and generates hypotheses regarding underlying mechanisms, that can be explored further.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Communicable Diseases , Animals , Brazil/epidemiology , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Codon, Terminator , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Nucleotides
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 3): e20211361, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140909

ABSTRACT

Since the first reported case of COVID-19 in Brazil, the public and private educational system started to close. Up to November 2020, scientific discussions about the return of schooling activities have been rarely performed by the national scientific community and police-makers. The great delay of school returning in Brazil contrasts with successful international strategies of school reopening worldwide and seems counterintuitive with the reopening of non-essential activities. Here, important issues to be considered before and during school reopening are reviewed and discussed. COVID-19 testing is essential to avoid disease spreading, but high cost of individual RT-qPCRs impairs an extensive testing strategy for school returning. To reduce costs and increase the speed of diagnosis, we tested the efficiency of a pooled-sample PCR strategy in a cohort of the educational staff in the city of Macaé/RJ, finding five asymptomatic individuals (0,66%) among the 754 people tested. Thus, a polled-sample PCR testing strategy of the educational staff might prevent infection spreading in schools at a reasonable cost. We discuss how our test strategy could be coupled with internationally recognized safety rules to allow for a safe school return and how countries from different world regions are dealing with educational activities during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , Brazil/epidemiology , Schools
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278213, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the epidemiology and risk factors surrounding COVID-19 contributes to developing better health strategies to combat the disease. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish a survival analysis and identify the risk factors for patients with COVID-19 in an upper middle-income city in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 280 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The eCOVID platform provided data to monitor COVID-19 cases and help the communication between professionals. RESULTS: Age ≥ 65 years was associated with decreased survival (54.8%), and females had a lower survival rate than males (p = 0.01). Regarding risk factors, urea concentration (p<0.001), hospital length of stay (p = 0.002), oxygen concentration (p = 0.005), and age (p = 0.02) were associated with death. CONCLUSION: Age, hospital length of stay, high blood urea concentration, and low oxygen concentration were associated with death by COVID-19 in the studied population. These findings corroborate with studies conducted in research centers worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Male , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Oxygen
15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic paralyzed the world and exposed the fragility of health systems in the face of mass illness. Health professionals became protagonists, fulfilling their mission at the risk of physical and mental illness. The study aimed to evaluate absenteeism indirectly related to SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large population of health care professionals. METHODS: An observational longitudinal repeated measures study was performed, including workers linked to 40 public university hospitals in Brazil. All causes of absenteeism were analyzed, focusing on those not directly attributed to COVID-19. Results for the same population were compared over two equivalent time intervals: prepandemic and during the pandemic. FINDINGS: A total of 32,691 workers were included in the study, with health professionals comprising 82.5% of the sample. Comparison of the periods before and during the pandemic showed a 26.6% reduction in work absence for all causes, except for COVID-19 and mental health-related absence. Concerning work absence related to mental health, the odds ratio was 39.0% higher during the pandemic. At the onset of the pandemic, there was an increase in absenteeism (all causes), followed by a progressive reduction until the end of the observation period. INTERPRETATION: Work absence related to mental illness among health care professionals increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the need for health care managers to prioritize and implement support strategies to minimize absenteeism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Adv Rheumatol ; 62(1): 45, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139794

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the disease activity before and after COVID-19 and risk factors associated with outcomes, including hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation (MV) and death in patients with spondylarthritis (SpA). METHODS: ReumaCoV Brazil is a multicenter prospective cohort of immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRD) patients with COVID-19 (case group), compared to a control group of IMRD patients without COVID-19. SpA patients enrolled were grouped as axial SpA (axSpA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and enteropathic arthritis, according to usual classification criteria. RESULTS: 353 SpA patients were included, of whom 229 (64.9%) were axSpA, 118 (33.4%) PsA and 6 enteropathic arthritis (1.7%). No significant difference was observed in disease activity before the study inclusion comparing cases and controls, as well no worsening of disease activity after COVID-19. The risk factors associated with hospitalization were age over 60 years (OR = 3.71; 95% CI 1.62-8.47, p = 0.001); one or more comorbidities (OR = 2.28; 95% CI 1.02-5.08, p = 0.001) and leflunomide treatment (OR = 4.46; 95% CI 1.33-24.9, p = 0.008). Not having comorbidities (OR = 0.11; 95% CI 0.02-0.50, p = 0.001) played a protective role for hospitalization. In multivariate analysis, leflunomide treatment (OR = 8.69; CI = 95% 1.41-53.64; p = 0.023) was associated with hospitalization; teleconsultation (OR = 0.14; CI = 95% 0.03-0.71; p = 0.01) and no comorbidities (OR = 0.14; CI = 95% 0.02-0.76; p = 0.02) remained at final model as protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed no association between pre-COVID disease activity or that SARS-CoV-2 infection could trigger disease activity in patients with SpA. Teleconsultation and no comorbidities were associated with a lower hospitalization risk. Leflunomide remained significantly associated with higher risk of hospitalization after multiple adjustments.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic , COVID-19 , Spondylarthritis , Humans , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Arthritis, Psoriatic/complications , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Leflunomide , Brazil/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spondylarthritis/complications , Spondylarthritis/drug therapy
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2196, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the physical behaviours of office workers worldwide, but studies comparing physical behaviours between countries with similar restrictions policies are rare. This study aimed to document and compare the 24-hour time-use compositions of physical behaviours among Brazilian and Swedish office workers on working and non-working days during the pandemic. METHODS: Physical behaviours were monitored over 7 days using thigh-worn accelerometers in 73 Brazilian and 202 Swedish workers. Daily time-use compositions were exhaustively described in terms of sedentary behaviour (SED) in short (< 30 min) and long (≥30 min) bouts, light physical activity (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and time-in-bed. We examined differences between countries using MANOVA on data processed according to compositional data analysis. As Swedish workers had the possibility to do hybrid work, we conducted a set of sensitivity analyses including only data from days when Swedish workers worked from home. RESULTS: During working days, Brazilian office workers spent more time SED in short (294 min) and long (478 min) bouts and less time in LPA (156 min) and MVPA (50 min) than Swedish workers (274, 367, 256 and 85 min, respectively). Time spent in bed was similar in both groups. Similar differences between Brazilians and Swedes were observed on non-working days, while workers were, in general, less sedentary, more active and spent more time-in-bed than during working days. The MANOVA showed that Brazilians and Swedes differed significantly in behaviours during working (p <  0.001, ηp2 = 0.36) and non-working days (p <  0.001, ηp2 = 0.20). Brazilian workers spent significantly more time in SED relative to being active, less time in short relative to long bouts in SED, and more time in LPA relative to MVPA, both during workdays and non-workdays. Sensitivity analyses only on data from days when participants worked from home showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic Brazilian office workers were more sedentary and less active than Swedish workers, both during working and non-working days. Whether this relates to the perception or interpretation of restrictions being different or to differences present even before the pandemic is not clear, and we encourage further research to resolve this important issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sedentary Behavior , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Sleep
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20346, 2022 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133603

ABSTRACT

To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the variables of sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety, and depression in healthy Brazilian women. Longitudinal observational study conducted through an online questionnaire with women in 2020 and 2021. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used. The data were analyzed descriptively and the comparison between the data obtained in the first and second evaluation was performed using the McNemar test. A logistic regression was applied to test the association between the variables that showed a significant difference. A total of 235 women responded to the questionnaires. There was a significant increase in fatigue between the two moments (p < 0.05). In the first assessment, depression (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14-4.99), anxiety (OR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.37-5.22) and sleep quality (OR: 4.01; 95% CI: 1.71-9.67) were associated with fatigue. In the second assessment, depression (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.19-7.18) and anxiety (OR: 2.69; 95% CI: 1.27-5.71) were associated with fatigue. There was an impact on biopsychosocial aspects during the COVID-19 pandemic, with worsening of fatigue symptoms within a 6-month interval. In addition, fatigue was associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and worse sleep quality in the first year of the pandemic, remaining associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in the second year of the pandemic in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Female , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Sleep Quality , Depression/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Fatigue/psychology
19.
J Affect Disord ; 310: 422-428, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether resilience modulates the levels of depression, anxiety, stress and the impact of events in physiotherapists who work with COVID-19 patients with those who do not. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2020 up to October 2020. A total of 519 physiotherapists were enrolled and divided according to resilience and whether they worked with COVID-19 patients. Volunteers answered sociodemographic questionnaires, rating their depression, anxiety, and stress on a scale (DASS-21). The impact of event scale revised (IES-R) and 14-item resilience scale (14-RS) were also used. RESULTS: Physiotherapists with low resilience present scores significantly high of depression, anxiety, stress and impact of event compared to the high resilience group (P < .001). Additionally, working with COVID-19 patients also resulted in increased levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and impact of event compared with the NO COVID-19 group (P < .001). These responses were modulated by age, sex, number of absences from work, whether or not personal protective equipment was received, host leadership, and the practice and maintenance of regular physical activity. LIMITATIONS: The responses to the questionnaires were anonymous and self-administered. We cannot assess whether these people had a previous diagnosis of depression, anxiety and stress. CONCLUSIONS: Low resilience and work with COVID-19 patients were associated with high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress and worse psychological impacts of events. Several aspects modulate these responses and can contribute to improving the resilience and mental health of physiotherapists who are responsible for the care of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Therapists , Resilience, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 30(spe): e3759, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: investigate the influence of health literacy on the assessment of COVID-19 threat to health and the intention not to be vaccinated among Brazilian adolescents. METHOD: cross-sectional study with 526 Brazilian adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Socioeconomic aspects, health-disease profile, health literacy, health threat by COVID-19 and intention not to be vaccinated were analyzed by bivariate association and multiple linear regression with Poisson response. RESULTS: higher health literacy score (p=0.010), cardiovascular disease (p=0.006), lower income (p=0.000), and living in the North region (p=0.007) were factors that contributed to feeling more threatened by COVID-19. Health literacy did not influence the intention not to be vaccinated (p=0.091), whose prevalence was lower among adolescents in the Southeast region when compared to those in the North region (p=0.010), among those who attended higher education (p=0,049) and those with higher income (p=0.000). CONCLUSION: health literacy influenced the perception of COVID-19 threat, but not the intention not to be vaccinated. Assessment of COVID-19 threat to health and prevalence of the intention not to be vaccinated were influenced by the region of residence, income, and education, which reinforces the importance of social determinants of health in this context. KEYPOINTS: (1) Average health literacy (HL) score of Brazilian adolescents: 25.3 (p-HLAT-8). (2) Adolescents in the Southeast region felt less threatened by COVID-19. (3) Higher HL score indicated adolescents felt more threatened by COVID-19. (4) Intention not to be vaccinated was observed among adolescents with higher income and education. (5) About 87% of Brazilian adolescents want to be vaccinated against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Adolescent , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
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