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1.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 9017157, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842433

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with the mathematical modeling and numerical simulations related to the coronavirus dynamics. A description is developed based on the framework of the susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed model. Initially, a model verification is carried out calibrating system parameters with data from China, Italy, Iran, and Brazil. Results show the model capability to predict infectious evolution. Afterward, numerical simulations are performed in order to analyze different scenarios of COVID-19 in Brazil. Results show the importance of the governmental and individual actions to control the number and the period of the critical situations related to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , Brazil/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Public Health Informatics , Reproducibility of Results
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200091, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 and the decisions made by the municipal government of Florianópolis (Brazil) regarding social distancing. METHODS: We analyzed new cases of COVID-19 identified in Florianópolis residents between February 1 and July 14, 2020, using a nowcasting approach. Decrees related to COVID-19 published in the Official Gazette of the Municipality between February 1 and July 14, 2020 were also analyzed. Based on the actions proposed in the decrees, whether they loosened social distancing measures, or increased or maintained existing restrictions, was analyzed, thus creating a Social Distancing Index. Time-dependent reproduction numbers (Rt) for a period of 14 days prior to each decree were calculated. A matrix was constructed associating the classification of each decree and the Rt values, analyzing the consonance or dissonance between the potential dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 and the actions of the decrees. RESULTS: A total of 5,374 cases of COVID-19 and 26 decrees were analyzed. Nine decrees increased social distancing measures, nine maintained them, and eight loosened them. Of the 26 actions, 9 were consonant and 17 dissonant with the tendency indicated by the Rt. Dissonance was observed in all of the decrees that maintained the distance measures or loosened them. The fastest expansion in the number of new cases and the greatest amount of dissonant decrees was found in the last two months analyzed. CONCLUSION: There was an important divergence between municipal measures of social distancing with epidemiological indicators at the time of each political decision.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decision Making , Local Government , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Social Distance
3.
J Healthc Eng ; 2020: 8857553, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841226

ABSTRACT

Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a powerful nonparametric engineering tool for estimating technical efficiency and production capacity of service units. Assuming an equally proportional change in the output/input ratio, we can estimate how many additional medical resource health service units would be required if the number of hospitalizations was expected to increase during an epidemic outbreak. This assessment proposes a two-step methodology for hospital beds vacancy and reallocation during the COVID-19 pandemic. The framework determines the production capacity of hospitals through data envelopment analysis and incorporates the complexity of needs in two categories for the reallocation of beds throughout the medical specialties. As a result, we have a set of inefficient healthcare units presenting less complex bed slacks to be reduced, that is, to be allocated for patients presenting with more severe conditions. The first results in this work, in collaboration with state and municipal administrations in Brazil, report 3772 beds feasible to be evacuated by 64% of the analyzed health units, of which more than 82% are moderate complexity evacuations. The proposed assessment and methodology can provide a direction for governments and policymakers to develop strategies based on a robust quantitative production capacity measure.


Subject(s)
Beds/supply & distribution , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospitals , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Beds/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Biomedical Engineering , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Efficiency, Organizational/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Needs Assessment , Resource Allocation , Statistics, Nonparametric
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200091, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 and the decisions made by the municipal government of Florianópolis (Brazil) regarding social distancing. METHODS: We analyzed new cases of COVID-19 identified in Florianópolis residents between February 1 and July 14, 2020, using a nowcasting approach. Decrees related to COVID-19 published in the Official Gazette of the Municipality between February 1 and July 14, 2020 were also analyzed. Based on the actions proposed in the decrees, whether they loosened social distancing measures, or increased or maintained existing restrictions, was analyzed, thus creating a Social Distancing Index. Time-dependent reproduction numbers (Rt) for a period of 14 days prior to each decree were calculated. A matrix was constructed associating the classification of each decree and the Rt values, analyzing the consonance or dissonance between the potential dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 and the actions of the decrees. RESULTS: A total of 5,374 cases of COVID-19 and 26 decrees were analyzed. Nine decrees increased social distancing measures, nine maintained them, and eight loosened them. Of the 26 actions, 9 were consonant and 17 dissonant with the tendency indicated by the Rt. Dissonance was observed in all of the decrees that maintained the distance measures or loosened them. The fastest expansion in the number of new cases and the greatest amount of dissonant decrees was found in the last two months analyzed. CONCLUSION: There was an important divergence between municipal measures of social distancing with epidemiological indicators at the time of each political decision.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Decision Making , Local Government , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Social Distance
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200095, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess, through space-time analyses, whether the income inequality of the Federative Units (FUs) in Brazil can be associated with the risk of infection and death by COVID-19. METHODS: This was an ecological study, based on secondary data on incidence and mortality rates for COVID-19. Data were analyzed at the state level, having the Gini coefficient as the main independent variable. Records of twelve days were used, spaced one week each, between April 21th and June 7th, 2020. The weekly variation in the rates was calculated through Prais-Winsten regression, aiming at measuring the evolution of the pandemic in each FU. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess correlation between the rates and their weekly evolution and the independent variables. Lastly, a spatial dependence diagnosis was conducted, and a Spatial Regression lag model was used when applicable. RESULTS: Incidence and mortality rates of COVID-19 increased in all Brazilian FUs, being more pronounced among those with greater economic inequality. Association between Gini coefficient and COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates remained even when demographic and spatial aspects were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Income inequality can play an important role in the impact of COVID-19 on the Brazilian territory, through absolute and contextual effects. Structural policies to reduce inequality are essential to face this and future health crises in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Assessment , Socioeconomic Factors
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(9): e00184820, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835998

ABSTRACT

The inter-cities mobility network is of great importance in understanding outbreaks, especially in Brazil, a continental-dimension country. We adopt the data from the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the terrestrial flow of people between cities from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database in two scales: cities from Brazil, without the North region, and from the São Paulo State. Grounded on the complex networks approach, and considering that the mobility network serves as a proxy for the SARS-CoV-2 spreading, the nodes and edges represent cities and flows, respectively. Network centrality measures such as strength and degree are ranked and compared to the list of cities, ordered according to the day that they confirmed the first case of COVID-19. The strength measure captures the cities with a higher vulnerability of receiving new cases. Besides, it follows the interiorization process of SARS-CoV-2 in the São Paulo State when the network flows are above specific thresholds. Some countryside cities such as Feira de Santana (Bahia State), Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo State), and Caruaru (Pernambuco State) have strength comparable to states' capitals. Our analysis offers additional tools for understanding and decision support to inter-cities mobility interventions regarding the SARS-CoV-2 and other epidemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Travel , Betacoronavirus , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Pandemics
7.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202536, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823926

ABSTRACT

The current world Covid-19 pandemic has been the most discussed topic in the media and scientific journals. Fear, uncertainty, and lack of knowledge about the disease may be the significant factors that justify such reality. It has been known that the disease presents with a rapidly spreading, it is significantly more severe among the elderly, and it has a substantial global socioeconomic impact. Besides the challenges associated with the unknown, there are other factors, such as the deluge of information. In this regard, the high number of scientific publications, encompassing in vitro, case studies, observational and randomized clinical studies, and even systematic reviews add up to the uncertainty. Such a situation is even worse when considering that most healthcare professionals lack adequate knowledge to critically appraise the scientific method, something that has been previously addressed by some authors. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that expert societies supported by data provided by the World Health Organization and the National Health Department take the lead in spreading trustworthy and reliable information. The Brazilian College of Surgeons suggests in this document various initiatives that may help surgeons, healthcare providers, and patients who will have to face a surgical event under the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Surgeons , Surgical Procedures, Operative/standards , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e198, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811649

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyse the survival of patients admitted to Brazilian hospitals due to the COVID-19 and estimate prognostic factors. This is a retrospective, multicentre cohort study, based on data from 46 285 hospitalisations for COVID-19 in Brazil. Survival functions were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier's method. The log-rank test compared the survival functions for each variable and from that, hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, and the proportional hazard model was used in Cox multiple regression. The smallest survival curves were the ones for patients at the age of 68 years or more, black/mixed race, illiterate, living in the countryside, dyspnoea, respiratory distress, influenza-like outbreak, O2 saturation <95%, X-ray change, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), invasive ventilatory support, previous heart disease, pneumopathy, diabetes, Down's syndrome, neurological disease and kidney disease. Better survival was observed in the influenza-like outbreak and in an asthmatic patient. The multiple model for increased risk of death when they were admitted to the ICU HR 1.28, diabetes HR 1.17, neurological disease HR 1.34, kidney disease HR 1.11, heart disease HR 1.14, black or mixed race of HR 1.50, asthma HR 0.71 and pneumopathy HR 1.12. This reinforces the importance of socio-demographic and clinical factors as a prognosis for death.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020413, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810137

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with the deaths of individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using secondary data. Logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: As at May 14, 2020, 200 individuals had been discharged and 220 had died. Of the total number of people studied, 57.1% were male, 46.4% were >60 years old, 57.9% were cases notified by a private institution, and 61.7% had >1 comorbidity. In the adjusted analysis, hospital mortality was higher for the 51-60 age group (OR=4.33 - 95%CI 1.50;12.46), the over 60 age group (OR=11.84 - 95%CI 4.31;32.54), cases notified by public institutions (OR=8.23 - 95%CI 4.84;13.99) and cases with a greater number of comorbidities (two [OR=2.74 - 95%CI 1.40;5.34] and three [OR=2.90 - 95%CI 1.07;7.81]). CONCLUSION: Higher mortality was found in older individuals, those with comorbidities and users of public hospitals.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
12.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020407, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810135

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe lifestyle changes with regard to consumption of tobacco and alcohol, food intake and physical activity, in the period of social restriction resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil with data from the ConVid online health behavior survey. The data were collected via an online questionnaire answered by the survey participants. Post-stratification procedures were used to calculate prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 45,161 individuals aged 18 years or more participated. During the period of social restriction participants reported a decrease in practicing physical activity and an increase in time spent using computers or tablets or watching TV, intake of ultra-processed foods, number of cigarettes smoked and alcoholic beverage consumption. Differences were observed according to sex and age group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a worsening of lifestyles and an increase in health risk behaviors.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Life Style , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food Quality , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sedentary Behavior , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology , Snacks , Young Adult
13.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(5): e2020277, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810133

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe COVID-19 hospitalized health worker cases in Brazil. METHODS: This was a descriptive case series study; it included cases that became ill between February 21st and April 15th, 2020 registered on the Influenza Surveillance Information System (SIVEP-Gripe, acronym in Portuguese). RESULTS: Of the 184 cases, 110 (59.8%) were female and median age was 44 years (min-max: 23-85); 89 (48.4%) were nursing professionals and 50 (27.2%) were doctors. Ninety-two (50.0%) presented comorbidity, with heart disease predominating (n=37; 40.2%). Of the 112 professionals with a record of case progression, 85 (75.9%) were cured and 27 (24.1%) died, 18 of whom were male. CONCLUSION: The profile of COVID-19 hospitalized health workers is similar to that of the general population with regard to age and comorbidities, but different in relation to sex. The most affected areas were nursing and medicine.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Sex Distribution , Time Factors , Young Adult
14.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020391, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809790

ABSTRACT

In view of the need to manage and forecast the number of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds for critically ill COVID-19 patients, the Forecast UTI open access application was developed to enable hospital indicator monitoring based on past health data and the temporal dynamics of the Coronavirus epidemic. Forecast UTI also enables short-term forecasts of the number of beds occupied daily by COVID-19 patients and possible care scenarios to be established. This article presents the functions, mode of access and examples of uses of Forecast UTI, a computational tool intended to assist managers of public and private hospitals within the Brazilian National Health System by supporting quick, strategic and efficient decision-making.


Subject(s)
Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Software , Beds/supply & distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Decision Making , Forecasting , Humans , Pandemics , Software Design
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1486, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The state of Ceará (Northeast Brazil) has shown a high incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and most of the cases that were diagnosed during the epidemic originated from the capital Fortaleza. Monitoring the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic is of strategic importance and requires the use of sensitive tools for epidemiological surveillance, including consistent analyses that allow the recognition of areas with a greater propensity for increased severity throughout the cycle of the epidemic. This study aims to classify neighborhoods in the city of Fortaleza according to their propensity for a severe epidemic of COVID-19 in 2020. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study within the geographical area of the 119 neighborhoods located in the city of Fortaleza. To define the main transmission networks (infection chains), we assumed that the spatial diffusion of the COVID-19 epidemic was influenced by population mobility. To measure the propensity for a severe epidemic, we calculated the infectivity burden (ItyB), infection burden (IonB), and population epidemic vulnerability index (PEVI). The propensity score for a severe epidemic in the neighborhoods of the city of Fortaleza was estimated by combining the IonB and PEVI. RESULTS: The neighborhoods with the highest propensity for a severe COVID-19 epidemic were Aldeota, Cais do Porto, Centro, Edson Queiroz, Vicente Pinzon, Jose de Alencar, Presidente Kennedy, Papicu, Vila Velha, Antonio Bezerra, and Cambeba. Importantly, we found that the propensity for a COVID-19 epidemic was high in areas with differing socioeconomic profiles. These areas include a very poor neighborhood situated on the western border of the city (Vila Velha), neighborhoods characterized by a large number of subnormal agglomerates in the Cais do Porto region (Vicente Pinzon), and those located in the oldest central area of the city, where despite the wealth, low-income groups have remained (Aldeota and the adjacent Edson Queiroz). CONCLUSION: Although measures against COVID-19 should be applied to the entire municipality of Fortaleza, the classification of neighborhoods generated through this study can help improve the specificity and efficiency of these measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics
17.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020391, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807949

ABSTRACT

In view of the need to manage and forecast the number of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds for critically ill COVID-19 patients, the Forecast UTI open access application was developed to enable hospital indicator monitoring based on past health data and the temporal dynamics of the Coronavirus epidemic. Forecast UTI also enables short-term forecasts of the number of beds occupied daily by COVID-19 patients and possible care scenarios to be established. This article presents the functions, mode of access and examples of uses of Forecast UTI, a computational tool intended to assist managers of public and private hospitals within the Brazilian National Health System by supporting quick, strategic and efficient decision-making.


Subject(s)
Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Software , Beds/supply & distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Decision Making , Forecasting , Humans , Pandemics , Software Design
18.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020413, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807920

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with the deaths of individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using secondary data. Logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: As at May 14, 2020, 200 individuals had been discharged and 220 had died. Of the total number of people studied, 57.1% were male, 46.4% were >60 years old, 57.9% were cases notified by a private institution, and 61.7% had >1 comorbidity. In the adjusted analysis, hospital mortality was higher for the 51-60 age group (OR=4.33 - 95%CI 1.50;12.46), the over 60 age group (OR=11.84 - 95%CI 4.31;32.54), cases notified by public institutions (OR=8.23 - 95%CI 4.84;13.99) and cases with a greater number of comorbidities (two [OR=2.74 - 95%CI 1.40;5.34] and three [OR=2.90 - 95%CI 1.07;7.81]). CONCLUSION: Higher mortality was found in older individuals, those with comorbidities and users of public hospitals.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
19.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(5): e2020277, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807649

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe COVID-19 hospitalized health worker cases in Brazil. METHODS: This was a descriptive case series study; it included cases that became ill between February 21st and April 15th, 2020 registered on the Influenza Surveillance Information System (SIVEP-Gripe, acronym in Portuguese). RESULTS: Of the 184 cases, 110 (59.8%) were female and median age was 44 years (min-max: 23-85); 89 (48.4%) were nursing professionals and 50 (27.2%) were doctors. Ninety-two (50.0%) presented comorbidity, with heart disease predominating (n=37; 40.2%). Of the 112 professionals with a record of case progression, 85 (75.9%) were cured and 27 (24.1%) died, 18 of whom were male. CONCLUSION: The profile of COVID-19 hospitalized health workers is similar to that of the general population with regard to age and comorbidities, but different in relation to sex. The most affected areas were nursing and medicine.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Sex Distribution , Time Factors , Young Adult
20.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020407, 2020.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807476

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe lifestyle changes with regard to consumption of tobacco and alcohol, food intake and physical activity, in the period of social restriction resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil with data from the ConVid online health behavior survey. The data were collected via an online questionnaire answered by the survey participants. Post-stratification procedures were used to calculate prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 45,161 individuals aged 18 years or more participated. During the period of social restriction participants reported a decrease in practicing physical activity and an increase in time spent using computers or tablets or watching TV, intake of ultra-processed foods, number of cigarettes smoked and alcoholic beverage consumption. Differences were observed according to sex and age group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a worsening of lifestyles and an increase in health risk behaviors.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Life Style , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Female , Food Quality , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sedentary Behavior , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology , Snacks , Young Adult
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