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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 209, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study explored the user experiences of paediatric postgraduate trainees in Malaysia and Thailand in using a 2 h and 15 min online module for breastfeeding developed for Southeast Asia, which was adapted from existing European online modules for European and German Continuing Medical Education (CME) credits. METHODS: A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) was conducted with paediatric postgraduate trainees who used an online English-language breastfeeding module in two Thai universities (May 2020, done online) and two Malaysian universities (Sept- Nov 2019, in-person). FGDs explored module usability and utility. Sessions were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The process of coding was done collaboratively by Thai and Malaysian researchers. RESULTS: Twenty Six resident trainees participated (Thai, n = 13; Malaysian, n = 13). Ages ranged from 29-34 years old, with 21 females. Nineteen participants had never used online learning modules prior to this. Participants took between 1 to 5 sessions to complete the breastfeeding module. Four themes emerged from their experience. 1) The online learning module was more engaging and detailed than previous lectures, courses and/or books, but lacked hands-on training. 2) Using an online platform facilitated learning as eased navigation and resource searching, however, problems were encountered navigating the module on some devices. 3) Learners preferred less words and more graphics, as this helped them capture key messages. 4) Regionally tailored content elicited a mixed reaction from participants. CONCLUSIONS: Users found that the adapted module compared favourably with previous learning experiences. However, online learning modules lack hands-on training, and implementation should ideally incorporate a mix of both. Consideration of device diversity and preferences for how content was adapted for local settings are needed for tailoring.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Malaysia , Qualitative Research , Thailand
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 801797, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793017

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited data are available regarding the balance of risks and benefits from human milk and/or breastfeeding during and following maternal infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objective: To investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in milk and on the breast after maternal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis; and characterize concentrations of milk immunoglobulin (Ig) A specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein receptor binding domain (RBD) during the 2 months after onset of symptoms or positive diagnostic test. Methods: Using a longitudinal study design, we collected milk and breast skin swabs one to seven times from 64 lactating women with COVID-19 over a 2-month period, beginning as early as the week of diagnosis. Milk and breast swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and milk was tested for anti-RBD IgA. Results: SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in any milk sample or on 71% of breast swabs. Twenty-seven out of 29 (93%) breast swabs collected after breast washing tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 on the breast was associated with maternal coughing and other household COVID-19. Most (75%; 95% CI, 70-79%; n=316) milk samples contained anti-RBD IgA, and concentrations increased (P=.02) during the first two weeks following onset of COVID-19 symptoms or positive test. Milk-borne anti-RBD IgA persisted for at least two months in 77% of women. Conclusion: Milk produced by women with COVID-19 does not contain SARS-CoV-2 and is likely a lasting source of passive immunity via anti-RBD IgA. These results support recommendations encouraging lactating women to continue breastfeeding during and after COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Milk, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Lactation , Longitudinal Studies , Milk, Human/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics
3.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 28, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide. The safety of breastfeeding of SARS-CoV-2-positive women has not yet reached a consensus among the scientific community, healthcare providers, experts in lactation care, health organizations and governments. This study was conducted to summarize the latest evidence about the safety of breastfeeding among suspected/confirmed infected mothers and to summarize the recommendations on breastfeeding during COVID-19 from different organizations. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review of publications about the safety of breastfeeding among SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers was conducted. Scientific databases were searched up to 26 May 2021. The evidence was summarized into five perspectives according to a framework proposed by van de Perre et al. with certain modifications. Moreover, websites of different health organizations were visited to gather the recommendations for breastfeeding. RESULTS: The current evidence demonstrated that the majority of infants breastfed by infected mothers were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Breast milk samples from suspected/infected mothers mainly demonstrated negative results in SARS-CoV-2 viral tests. There was insufficient evidence proving the infectivity of breast milk from infected mothers. Recent studies found other transmission modalities (e.g., milk containers, skin) associated with breastfeeding. Specific antibodies in the breast milk of infected mothers were also found, implying protective effects for their breastfed children. According to van de Perre's criteria, the breast milk of infected mothers was unlikely to transmit SARS-CoV-2. Owing to the low quality of the current evidence, studies with a more robust design are needed to strengthen the conclusion regarding the safety of breastfeeding. Further studies to follow up the health status of infants who were directly breastfed by their suspected/infected mothers, to collect breast milk samples at multiple time points for viral tests and to examine specific antibodies in breast milk samples are warranted. Current recommendations on breastfeeding during COVID-19 from different organizations are controversial, while direct breastfeeding with contact precautions is generally suggested as the first choice for infected mothers. CONCLUSIONS: This review determined the safety of breastfeeding and identified the focus for further research during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recommendations on breastfeeding are suggested to be updated in a timely manner according to the latest evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Breast Feeding/methods , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 732061, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775864

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Breastfeeding support rooms are low-cost interventions that may prolong breastfeeding and improve work performance. Thus, we sought to understand the experiences and perceptions of working women who use breastfeeding support rooms and the potential contribution to sustainable development goals. Methods: Descriptive and exploratory research was conducted through convenience sampling of women working in companies with breastfeeding support rooms in the state of Paraná, Brazil. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied through interviews and online self-completion. Results: Fifty-three women between 28 and 41 years old participated in the study. In addition, 88.7% had graduated from college, and 96% were married. From the women's experiences and perceptions, we identified that breastfeeding support rooms contribute to prolonged breastfeeding, improve physical and emotional well-being, allow women to exercise their professional activities comfortably, contribute to women's professional appreciation for the excellent relationship between employees and employers. Conclusion: In this novel study, we demonstrate how, from a female point of view, breastfeeding support rooms can contribute to 8 of the 17 sustainable development goals and should therefore be encouraged and promoted.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Sustainable Development , Adult , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Workplace
5.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(2): 181-191, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA-based vaccines present in breast milk and transfer of the immune responses to breastfeeding infants. METHODS: We enrolled 30 lactating women who received mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines from January through April 2021 in this cohort study. Women provided serial milk samples, including milk expressed before vaccination, across 2-3 weeks after the first dose, and across 3 weeks after the second dose. Women provided their blood, spotted on cards (dried blood spots), 19 days after the first dose and 21 days after the second dose. Stool samples from the breastfed infants were collected 21 days after mothers' second vaccination. Prepandemic samples of milk, dried blood spots, and infant stool were used as controls. Milk, dried blood spots, and infant stool were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG. Milk samples were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies against the spike and four variants of concern: D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Gamma (P.1). Levels of 10 cytokines were measured in milk samples. RESULTS: Milk from COVID-19-immunized women neutralized the spike and four variants of concern, primarily driven by anti-RBD IgG. The immune response in milk also included significant elevation of interferon-γ. The immune response to maternal vaccination was reflected in breastfed infants: anti-RBD IgG and anti-RBD IgA were detected in 33% and 30% of infant stool samples, respectively. Levels of anti-RBD antibodies in infant stool correlated with maternal vaccine side effects. Median antibody levels against RBD were below the positive cutoffs in prepandemic milk and infant stool samples. CONCLUSION: Humoral and cellular immune responses to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination are present in most women's breast milk. The milk anti-RBD antibodies can neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike and variants of concern. Anti-RBD antibodies are transferred to breastfed infants, with the potential to confer passive immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Vaccination
6.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(4): 492-502, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766305

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers in the lactation period can breastfeed their infants; and whether suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers can breastfeed their infants by taking some precautions. The study also aimed to present the measures that can be taken in line with the evidence. The studies conducted after November 2019 and including infants of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers were reviewed between 2019 and 2020. A literature review was conducted in five electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus) to reach original quantitative studies in English. The present authors retrieved 46 of the 1,229 studies included after screening. Three studies were cross-sectional studies, 30 were case studies, and 13 were cohorts. In most of the sources examined, it was concluded that most of the breastfed infants had negative findings for SARS-Cov-2 infection in PCR. In line with the limited data available, it was concluded that most of the breastfed infants had negative findings for SARS-Cov-2 infection in PCR; and breastfeeding mothers should initiate breastfeeding by taking protective measures. Key Words: Breastfeeding, COVID-19, Suspected COVID-19 infected mothers, Confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human , Mothers , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 22, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, billions of people were asked by their state and local governments not to go to work and not leave the house unless they had to. The goal of this qualitative study was to collect the lived experiences of a small group of parents and lactation professionals in the United States about what it was like to feed babies human milk under these conditions of quarantine. METHODS: This project is a social constructionist analysis of lactation narratives of 24 parents feeding their children human milk and 13 lactation professionals. They were interviewed remotely in 2020-21 via videoconferencing about their experiences and perspectives on the pandemic's effect on lactation. Additionally, photographs of 16 of the parents are provided to visualize their practices and how they chose to represent them. RESULTS: Four interrelated themes were identified in participants' narratives about how they experienced and made sense of human milk feeding during the pandemic: the loneliness of lactation during the pandemic, the construction of human milk as a resource to cope with the crisis, the (in)visibility of lactation amidst heightened multitasking, and the sense of connection created by human milk feeding at a time of unprecedented solitude. CONCLUSIONS: While the pandemic may have had both positive and negative effects on lactation, it exposed continuing inequities in infant feeding, generating new forms of (in)visibility for lactating labor. Going forward, one lesson for policy and lawmakers may be that to adequately support lactation, they should take cues from the families who had positive experiences during the crisis. This would call for systemically overhauling of US laws and policies by guaranteeing: universal basic income, paid parental leave for at least six months, paid lactation leaves and breaks, affordable housing, universal health care, subsidized childcare programs, and equal access to high-quality, non-discriminatory, and culturally appropriate medical care-including lactation counseling-, among other initiatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Lactation , Milk, Human , Quarantine , United States
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 225, 2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745478

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exclusive breastmilk feeding during the delivery hospitalization, a Joint Commission indicator of perinatal care quality, is associated with longer-term breastfeeding success. Marked racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding exclusivity and duration existed prior to COVID-19. The pandemic, accompanied by uncertainty regarding intrapartum and postpartum safety practices, may have influenced disparities in infant feeding practices. Our objective was to examine whether the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City was associated with a change in racial and ethnic disparities in exclusive breastmilk feeding during the delivery stay. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of electronic medical records from 14,964 births in two New York City hospitals. We conducted a difference-in-differences (DID) analysis to compare Black-white, Latina-white, and Asian-white disparities in exclusive breastmilk feeding in a pandemic cohort (April 1-July 31, 2020, n=3122 deliveries) to disparities in a pre-pandemic cohort (January 1, 2019-February 28, 2020, n=11,842). We defined exclusive breastmilk feeding as receipt of only breastmilk during delivery hospitalization, regardless of route of administration. We ascertained severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection status from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests from nasopharyngeal swab at admission. For each DID model (e.g. Black-white disparity), we used covariate-adjusted log binomial regression models to estimate racial and ethnic risk differences, pandemic versus pre-pandemic cohort risk differences, and an interaction term representing the DID estimator. RESULTS: Exclusive breastmilk feeding increased from pre-pandemic to pandemic among white (40.8% to 46.6%, p<0.001) and Asian (27.9% to 35.8%, p=0.004) women, but not Black (22.6% to 25.3%, p=0.275) or Latina (20.1% to 21.4%, p=0.515) women overall. There was an increase in the Latina-white exclusive breastmilk feeding disparity associated with the pandemic (DID estimator=6.3 fewer cases per 100 births (95% CI=-10.8, -1.9)). We found decreased breastmilk feeding specifically among SARS-CoV-2 positive Latina women (20.1% pre-pandemic vs. 9.1% pandemic p=0.013), and no change in Black-white or Asian-white disparities. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a pandemic-related increase in the Latina-white disparity in exclusive breastmilk feeding, urging hospital policies and programs to increase equity in breastmilk feeding and perinatal care quality during and beyond this health emergency.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/ethnology , COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization , Adult , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Milk, Human , New York City , Perinatal Care , Quality Indicators, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742442

ABSTRACT

The objective of this scoping review is to determine to what extent the recommendations on perinatal care protect breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. The review follows the PRISMA ScR Extension guidelines. The research was conducted in Scopus, Medline via Pubmed, and Web of Science databases from 1 March 2020 to 31 May 2021, using 392 combinations of keywords. We searched for reviews and original papers published in English providing recommendations on delivery mode, companion during labor, the possibility of skin-to-skin contact (SSC), breastfeeding, and visitors policy. After screening, 86 out of 8416 publications qualified for data extraction. The majority of them indicated that COVID-19 infection is not a sufficient reason for a cesarean section; however, on a national level, cesarean births in severely ill patients were overrepresented. A significant number of recommendations deprived mothers of the necessary support during their labor and stay in the maternity ward. A shared decision-making model was hardly visible. Only the earliest COVID-19 recommendations suspended direct breastfeeding; in later publications, decisions were related to the mother's health, but other options of natural feeding were rarely discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant Welfare , Perinatal Care , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736920

ABSTRACT

Human milk is the best food for infants. Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of viral and bacterial infections. Breast milk contains the perfect amount of nutrients needed to promote infant growth, except for vitamin D. Vitamin D is crucial for calcium metabolism and bone health, and it also has extra-skeletal actions, involving innate and adaptive immunity. As exclusive breastfeeding is a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency, infants should be supplemented with vitamin D at least during the first year. The promotion of breastfeeding and vitamin D supplementation represents an important objective of public health.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Vitamin D Deficiency , Dietary Supplements , Female , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control
11.
Breastfeed Med ; 17(4): 356-357, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733614
12.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732243

ABSTRACT

(1) Objective: This systematic review summarizes current knowledges about maternal and neonatal outcomes following COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding. (2) Study design: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) were searched up to 27 October 2021. The primary outcome was to estimate how many pregnant and lactating women were reported to be vaccinated and had available maternal and neonatal outcomes. (3) Results: Forty-five studies sourcing data of 74,908 pregnant women and 5098 lactating women who received COVID-19 vaccination were considered as eligible. No major side-effects were reported, especially during the second and third trimester of pregnancy and during breastfeeding. Conversely, available studies revealed that infants received specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after maternal vaccination. (4) Conclusions: Vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 virus should be recommended for pregnant women, after the pros and cons have been adequately explained. In particular, given the still limited evidence and considering that fever during the first months of gestation increases the possibility of congenital anomalies, they should be carefully counseled. The same considerations apply to breastfeeding women, also considering the immune responses that mRNA vaccines can generate in their human milk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lactation , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715318

ABSTRACT

Return to work is one of the most significant barriers to breastfeeding (BF). Family-friendly policies are critical to ensure that BF and maternal work are not mutually exclusive. This study aims to determine contextual factors and underlying mechanisms influencing the implementation of workplace policies in Mexico. Following a qualitative approach, the study was conducted in the following four cities in Mexico: Mérida, Chihuahua, Guadalajara, and Monterrey. Interviews were conducted in 14 workplaces, and included 49 (potential) beneficiaries, 41 male employees, and 21 managers and human resources personnel. The information collected was analyzed through a deductive thematic analysis and mapped against the Context-Mechanism-Outcome framework of Breastfeeding Interventions at the Workplace. Contextual factors influencing a BF-friendly environment in the workplace were as follows: work-schedule flexibility, provision of lactation services (i.e., BF counseling) other than a lactation room, women's previous experience with BF and family-friendly environments in the workplace. The underlying mechanisms enabling/impeding a BF-friendly environment at the workplace were as follows: awareness of Mexican maternity protection legislation, usage of BF interventions in the workplace, culture, supervisor/co-worker support and BF-friendly physical space. To achieve a BF-friendly environment in the workplace, actions at the level of public policy and workplaces must accompany adherence to Mexican legislation.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Workplace , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico , Mothers/psychology , Pregnancy , Public Policy
15.
Nurs Res ; 71(2): E10-E20, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Movement Control Order (MCO), also known as the partial lockdown, was introduced in Malaysia in March 2020 to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, changing many public sector protocols and regulations. This may have implications for neonatal and maternity care and services, especially among new mothers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the postnatal experiences and feeding practices between mothers who gave birth before MCO (B-MCO) and during MCO (D-MCO). METHOD: One thousand fifty-one mothers with an infant under 18 months in Malaysia completed an online survey between July 2020 and October 2020. The survey advertisement was disseminated online via various social media platforms. RESULTS: More D-MCO mothers faced a significant effect on the ability to pay rent/mortgage, with their spouses facing a higher impact on employment. D-MCO mothers were more likely to have changed their birth plans, perceived insufficient breastfeeding support, and experienced changes in postnatal services since MCO. In contrast, more B-MCO mothers had stopped breastfeeding during the MCO and started complementary feeding earlier than planned. Many mothers reported feeling down and lonely and having trouble sleeping and a poor appetite. D-MCO mothers had more time to focus on their health, whereas B-MCO mothers spent more time outdoors. DISCUSSION: MCO affected mothers' livelihood and postnatal experiences, potentially causing emotional distress. Hence, improved breastfeeding support, particularly at birth, is recommended, as is routine mental health screening during the postnatal checkup. Furthermore, because online contact was readily accessible during the pandemic, the efficacy of online breastfeeding support should be evaluated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 11, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has affected reproductive and perinatal health both through the infection itself and, indirectly, as a consequence of changes in medical care, social policy or social and economic circumstances. The objective of this study is to explore the impact of the pandemic and of the measures adopted on breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted by means in-depth semi-structured interviews, until reaching data saturation. The study was conducted between the months of January to May 2021. Participants were recruited by midwives from the Primary Care Centres of the Andalusian provinces provinces of Seville, Cádiz, Huelva, Granada, and Jaén. The interviews were conducted via phone call and were subsequently transcribed and analysed by means of reflexive inductive thematic analysis, using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 30 interviews were conducted. Five main themes and ten subthemes were developed, namely: Information received (access to the information, figure who provided the information), unequal support from the professionals during the pandemic (support to postpartum hospitalization, support received from Primary Health Care during the postpartum period), social and family support about breastfeeding (support groups, family support), impact of confinement and of social restriction measures (positive influence on breastfeeding, influence on bonding with the newborn), emotional effect of the pandemic (insecurity and fear related to contagion by coronavirus, feelings of loneliness). CONCLUSION: The use of online breastfeeding support groups through applications such as WhatsApp®, Facebook® or Instagram® has provided important breastfeeding information and support sources. The main figure identified that has provided formal breastfeeding support during this period was that of the midwife. In addition, the social restrictions inherent to the pandemic have exerted a positive effect for women in bonding and breastfeeding, as a consequence of the increase in the time spent at their homes and in the family nucleus co-living.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
17.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 104, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-2019 pandemic has placed extensive pressure on health systems and posed a severe public health challenge worldwide. Lockdown measures implemented in many countries have delayed virus spread. However, a considerable number of people have faced unprecedented pressure, especially pregnant and breast-feeding women, because face-to-face professional support has been reduced during the lockdown in many countries. OBJECTIVES: To compare the delivery and infant feeding experiences of women who delivered before (BL) versus during (DL) the Covid-19 pandemic in Beijing, China and to investigate predictors of breastfeeding at 6-months. METHODS: Women aged ≥18 years with an infant ≤18 months of age completed an anonymous survey. Information/links were shared online and via local clinics in Beijing. Logistic regression was performed to assess predictors of breastfeeding during the first 6-months. RESULTS: One thousand eight hundred seven women provided data; BL 1231 (68.1%), DL 576 (31.9%). Significantly more mothers in DL group reported the lockdown had moderate to high impact to their household income (p = 0.013) and the convenience of purchasing daily necessities(p = 0.014). Compared to BL mothers, significantly more mothers in the DL groups thought their birth location and breastfeeding intention had been effected by the COVID-19 (p < 0.001, p = 0.036 respectively). Mostly breastfeeding (MBF, mainly breastfeeding with few non-formula fluids added) at 6 months was predicted by delivery during the lockdown period (OR1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.90), younger maternal age (OR 0.96, 95%CI 0.93, 0.99), getting support from friends or relatives (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.06, 3.59), and discussing health issues in online groups > four times a week (OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.09, 2.53). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures influenced mothers' planned birth location and breastfeeding intention. However, breastfeeding practice was maintained during the pandemic. Our results highlight the importance of feeding support as well as potential beneficial effects of increased mother-infant contact during the lockdown period which is relevant even under normal circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262254, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674005

ABSTRACT

Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are generally deemed safe to be used during pregnancy and lactation. However, some products can be harmful to the mother, fetus or breast-fed child, which presents a challenge to health professionals and consumers. This study was aimed at assessing the practice of OTC medication dispensing and counseling services provided to pregnant and lactating by community pharmacists (CPs). A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire-based survey was answered during February-November 2020, by licensed CPs practicing in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The determination of the significant factors associated with the CPs' views and OTC medication dispensing during pregnancy and breastfeeding was carried out using logistic regression. Among 256 respondents, dispensing medicines and referral to a physician were the predominant services provided to pregnant and lactating women. Respondents dispensed medications mostly to treat headache (74.2%), fever (62.5%) in pregnant women, and headache (81.3%) and fever (65.2%) in lactating mothers. Referral to a physician was common in pregnant women in the following cases: varicose veins (72.7%), swelling of the feet and legs (71.9%), and vaginal itching (53.9%). In breastfeeding women, the referrals were commonly for varicose veins (79.7%), swelling of the feet and legs (73.0%) and mastitis (70.3%). Most participants came to an agreement that CPs are capable of counselling and providing pregnant and lactating women the best OTC treatment. Around 35% of the respondents stated that OTC medicines are not safe to be used during pregnancy. One in five respondents stated that OTC medicines are not safe for breastfeeding women. CPs were confident to counsel and provide advice to pregnant and breastfeeding women to address medication and health problems. Proper utilization of CPs can contribute largely to the healthcare system in managing common minor ailments in pregnant and lactating women, reducing the need to visit the physician and enhancing patient safety.


Subject(s)
Pharmacists/psychology , Professional Role , Adult , Breast Feeding , Community Pharmacy Services , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Nonprescription Drugs/administration & dosage , Patient Safety , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Referral and Consultation , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Arab Emirates , Young Adult
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 104, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infection control measures during the Covid-19 pandemic have focused on limiting physical contact and decontamination by observing cleaning and hygiene rituals. Breastfeeding requires close physical contact and observance of hygienic measures like handwashing. Worries around contamination increase during the perinatal period and can be expressed as increase in obsessive compulsive symptoms. These symptoms have shown to impact breastfeeding rates. This study attempts to explore any relationship between the Covid-19 pandemic and perinatal obsessive-compulsive symptomatology and whether the Covid-19 pandemic has any impact on intent to breastfeed. METHODS: A cross sectional survey of perinatal women attending largest maternity centre in Qatar was carried out during the months of October to December 2020. Socio-demographic information, intent to breastfeed and information around obsessive compulsive thoughts around Covid-19 pandemic were collected using validated tools. RESULTS: 15.7% respondents report intent to not breastfeed. 21.4% respondents reported obsessive-compulsive symptoms. 77.3% respondents believed the biggest source of infection was from others while as only 12% of the respondents believed that the source of infection was through breastfeeding and 15.7% believed the vertical transmission as the main source of risk of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were increased and the rates of intent to breastfeed were decreased when compared with pre pandemic rates. The obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intent to not breastfeed were significantly associated with fear of infection to the new-born. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were not significantly correlated with intent to breastfeed and can be seen as adaptive strategies utilized by women to continue breastfeeding in the context of fear of infection.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Intention , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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